PROFESSOR MAX MULLER AT BIRMINGHAM. On Monday night Professor Max Mtiller delivered, in the Birmingham Town-hall, the president's inaugural address on the opening of the winter session of the Birmingham and Midland Institute. He began by comparing the measure of social and political freedom which we now enjoyed with that which qbtained twenty years ago, and observed that even in the brightest days of Republicanism and freedom in Athens and Rume there was never a time when the liberty acoorded to the individual was larger than at the present day—at all events, in England. Hip Ger- man and Italian friends, however, while recognizing that full political liberty reigned here, thought there was little intellectual freedom, and that, however it might be in London and a few other large cities, the Universities—the nurseries of thought and learning- were fettered by the mediaeval spirit of monastic institutions and the principles of scholastic philo- sophy, which contrasted ill with the freshness and freedom of Continental Universities. He insisted on the necessity of making education compul- sory and congratulated Birmingham on having been a tyrant in this respect. Yet compulsory education was not without its dangers. It was like a powerful engine that required careful watching lest it should produce monotonous uniformity. He characterized English spelling as a national misfortune. It handicapped the English child to an extent that would be thought in. credible if it were not demonstrated by statistics. He knew the difficulties of spelling reform, but they were not insuperable. Academical education, the Professor urged, should be aa free as possible. He dwelt at some length on the evils which resulted from examinations conducted in a wrong manner. He was a believer in examina- « condemned their being made the end instead i» Vr8^.8' should rather be taught to take delight in the acquisition of knowledge for its own sake. In reference to scholarship prizes, the Professor re- marked that the plea usually advanced for them was that they enabled the children of poor parents to obtain the highest University education, but in practice be generally found that those who secured those prizes were the children of parents who were well able to pay for their education. The end, he thought, would be more effectually obtained by cheapening education so as to bring it within the reach of the poorest.
OPENING OF FIRTH COLLEGE BY PRINCE LEOPOLD. Prince Leopold (who was the guest of Mr. Mark Firth, at Oitkbrook) formally opened Firth College, at Sheffield, on Monday morning, in the presence of a large gathering of those Interested in higher education. The college, which Is really to be a local home of University education, has been erected at a cast of £ 20,COO, and Is the gift of Mr. Mark Firth to the town. In addition to providing the college, he has also given £5,000 towards an endowment fund, and this fund now reaches £15,000. The money has been raised without much difficulty, and so strongly has the University scheme recommended itself that it 18 believed that the endowment fund will soon amount to £26,000. The number of students who have taken tickets for the Unt- versity extension eourses In Sheffield since the founda- tion of the scheme Is about 4,000. Some 650 certificates have been granted to local students, and almost one- half of these have been first- ilass. The college, which is built of Hudderifield stone, very light and clear, is relieved with exceedingly graceful orna- mentallwork, and between the oriel window and the main entrance is a very fine piece of carving representing Science and Art. lhe pile of buildings, of which Firth College is thn chief feature, forms three tides of a quadrangle and cost £ 42,«30. The opening ceremony was held in the lecture-ball of the college, in the presence of the Mayor and Corpora- tion and other local bodies, as well as many friends of educa- tion When Prince Leopold arrived he was received with loud and continued cheering. At the entrance, the officials of the college met the Prince and conducted him to a private room, where he wa* introduced to the council of the college. When his Koyal Highness came upon the platform the audience rose and welcomed him with cordial applause. Mr. Mark Firth, on handing the trust deed to the Prince, waa received with cheers. After an appro- priate speech, in which he explained the objects con- templatod in the erection of the College, Mr, Firth concluded by saying—" I desire personally to thank your Royal Highness for tbe honour of your presence < on this the occasion of its opening, and all the more because of the deep interest your Royal Highness is known to take in the objects to which it is henceforth to be devoted, and I now beg respectfully to place in the hands of your Royal Highness the deed of gift of this building, with the earnest prayer that it may be the means of helping forward to some degree for ages to come the great work of a large and ever-advancing education in this our town of Sheffield." (Cheers.) Prince Leopold, who was very enthusiastically cheered on rising to open the college, BaidMy Lord, Mr. Mayor, Ladies, and (-,entlemen, -It gives me very great pleasure to be present here to-day on the occa- sion of the opening of the Firth College, to greet the accomplishment of another benefaction from the same hand which bestowed on the people of Sheffield the park which the Prince of Wales had the pleasant task of opening four years ago. (Cheers.) We must all welcome this new proof of Mr. Firth's wise munificence with pleasure, but not with surprise. (Hear, hear.) We cannot wonder that when a man has tasted the happiness of great and generous actions he Is eager to enjoy the high delight again, and finds other triumphs and satisfactions insipid as compared with the triumph and satisfaction of conferring on his fellow-townsmen a real and lasting cood (applause); and, probably, the fact of his being a Sheffield man has had no little influence in directing Mr. Firth's mind to the idea of this institution, which will form so important a bridge to connect your primary with your higher education. For there is, perhaps, no large town in England in which more care has been bestowed on elementary education than in Sheffield, and your central schools, the facade of which falls in so well with the buildings of this new college, form one of the best illustrations which England has to show of her boast that in however low a rank of life an Englishman may be born his country affords him the means of rising by education to whatever position his talents and character fit him to fill. (Hear, hear.) I have lately been reading a book about Sheffield, as Sheffield was more than a generation ago, written by a great master of style and language, and giving a startling picture of things as they then were. That book was" Sybil; or, the Two NatioBS," by Benjamin Disraeli. (Applause.) And the two nations of which the title spoke were the nation of the rich and the nation of the poor. The wide gulf that has existed between class and class has, I trust, been in great measure bridged over now throughout aU England (hear, hear), thanks to the statesmen of all parties alike and not least to the illustrious author of the very book. (" Hear, hear," and applause.) I am sure the many who listen to me now could testify to the great and successful efforts that have been made ia Sheffield itself to diffuse that sound education which has always proved to be so powerful an agent in recon- ciling the different classes aud teaching them to understand one another. (Applause.) I trust there will be many a Sheffield child who will take advantage of the benefits here alluded to, who, born in a poor and humble home, will attend your excellent primary schools, will gain one of your primary scholarships, will follow the course of your Firth College, and will proceed thence to take his or her degree with honours at one of the Universities to which Firth College will be affiliated. (Applause.) I say designedly his or her degree," for your new col- lege offers its teaching and its certificates to young men and young women alike. (Applause.) The Uni- versity of London does the same thing, and Oxford and Cambridge have taken important steps in the same direction, and I am told the new Victoria University will not be behindhand in recognizing the claims of women's minds to respect and to cultivation. (Applause.) It is greatly to be hoped that the young men and women of Sheffield will not neglect all these opportunities, and that they will learn to estimate the examinations they will be invited to pass at their true value-that if, as a means of guiding and stimulating their studies and of showing to others how far they are competent to fill this or that position in life. One of the greatest gains which I anticipate for Sheffield from the Firth College is that its affiliation to the Universities of Oxford and Cam- bridge will enable many students to enter well prepared and on easier terms on residence in one or other of these Universities. (Applause). Such residence I cannot but think may be made in itself an education such as no new institution can imitate or equal, and when I say this I am not thinking only of the un- rivalled aids to study of a material kind which Oxford and Cambridge offer in the way of museums, and laboratories, and libraries, but rather of their time- honoured traditions and of the memories which they call up of the beat and ablest spirits of bygone days. (Applause), I remember, too, that in these ancient seats of learning are still to be found men who are examples of unworldliness and medi. tation in the midst of a hurrying age, and who teach us that it is still possible to love truth and wisdom more than fame and fortune. Of two repre- sentatives of our old Universities you have your- selves known much of late. Mr. Raskin (applause), a world-famous man, has given to your town a museum of beautiful things in Walkley-hill, and has written to your townsmen words of counsel, encouragement, and warning which they will do well to ponder. (Hear, hear.) Another is with us here to-day, and all who have the cause of University extension at heart must join with the men of Sheffield in feeling how much the cause owes to Professor Stuart's eloquence and en- thusiasm, his practical judgment, and his zeal. The circumstances of the movement will not permit me to mention more names than these two, nor to enlarge any further on the claims of our old Universities on our love and reverence. So great, however, are those claims that I cannot but feel, and those who have drunk more deeply than I of their teaching must feel it more profoundly still, how stupendous a work the founders of an institu- tion such as this have undertaken, and what patience and courage will be needed to raise it to the level of those great foundations which have been the slow creation of centuries. (Applause.) I may be allowed, perhapi, to point out in the hearing of those now pre- sent that Mr. Firth's generosity, great as it has been, leaves abundant scope for emulation among other wealthy men of Sheffield. Many more gifts will be needed before the spacious buildings can be filled with a permanent staff of teachers able to carry out your scheme of instruction in a worthy way, and to form in your midst a nucleus of intellectual life such as shall exercise a sensible influence in this great city, (Applause.) After saying that there is full room for gifts, need I add how great is the inducement to be a giver! And this privilege of making a marked and visible difference in human well-being and of seeing some great institution rise and flourish at your bidding is one that can, perhaps, be more readily en- joyed by the great magnates of commerce and manu- facture than by any other class. They, with their un- fettered fortunes, must seem enviable in this respect to men who, apparently, perhaps, in possession of large incomes, are hampered by the extensive claims made on them by their landed estates or other heredi- tary duties, who are compelled to restrict the aid they give to causes such as this to small and fitful donations. Those men who, with great wealth at their disposal, elect to spend it in mere sumptuousness and luxury are repaid, indeed, by admiration from certain persons and of a certain kind; but how far richer is the reward of those who, after spending what is needed to main- tain with dignity their place in society, devote the remainder towards furthering the happiness of their fellow-men (Hear, hear.) Far-off generations shall rise up and call such men blessed, and the names they leave behind them shall be ranked with such names as those of Peabody in London, of Owens or of Mason of Manchester, of Firth, at Sheffield. (Loud cheers.) And now, in conclusion, I should like to say a few words about the kind of benefits which I hope the in. stitution of this college and all the movement that is likely to follow will confer on Sheffield. (Applause.) There will naturally be the intellectual benefits which invariably attend the progress of learning, philosophy, and general culture, of the opening out of new realms of thought, and of pleasures which the ignorant cannot know. But another and, as it seems to me, an equally valuable effect of the culture is to make us shrink from and hate all that is vulgar and false, and to prefer pure and simple pleasures—such as are open to all, and can never be exhausted by any—to ostentation, vanity, and self-indulgence. (Cheers.) Such, I venture to think, must have been Mr. Firth's feeling when he presented your town with a park before presenting it with a college. (Cheers.) He must have desired above all things to give the children who are compelled in this busy city to pass many hours each day amid dark and gloomy surroundings an opportunity of learning from nature those lessons which are the rightful in- heritance of childhood, and without which no man can be said to have had his fair chance in the world. (Cheers.) Let it never be said, then, that it is neces- sary in the city for children to forego these innocent pleasures, and least of all let it be said in Sheffield-a city which has done so much to merit the admiration of England (hear, hear), and which receives with such abundant courtesy the guests wtom its greatness attracts. And now I must thank you for the patience with which you have listened to the remarks which I have made, and express my earnest hope that this day's work may be an augury of fresh deeds yet to be done here in Sheffield (applause)—deeds that will bear out the spirit of the Poet Laureate's verses Men, my brothers, men, the workers, ever reap- ing something new, That which they have done but earnest of the deeds that they shall do." (Loud applause.) And among the things that you shall do will be not only such as shall increase your wealth and spread your manufactures, but such as shall imbue you with that culture which descends from generation to generation and that wisdom which should make of us all a people ever more worthy of our great sountry, the mother of mighty nations, (Loud ap- plause.) Mr. S. Roberts, jun., then announced that the sub. icriptions to the endowment fund amounted to co- wards of JBIS.500, oraboatthree.nfthsoftheje25,000 required. Prince Leopold, on behalf of a large number of sub- scribers, presented to Mr. Firth an address, his por- trait in oils by Mr. Ouless, his bust by Mr. Bruce Joy, and a cheque for £1,500. which will be devoted < the founding of Firth Scholarships in connexion with the college. Mr. Firth briefly acknowledged the gift, and the proceedings closed.
Prince Leopold then proceeded to the Cutlers'-hall, where he was presented with addresses by the Cutlers' Company and the town trustees. Tile Prince was afterwards enter- tained at luncheon in the banqueting-hall of the company. The Mayor presided, and there were present about 360 guests, among whom were Lord Wbarncliffe, Mr. Mundella, M.P., Mr. Stanhope. M.P., Mr. Starkey, M.P., and Professors Stuart, Carpenter, Perclval, and Bentley. After the usual loyal toasts the Mayor proposed the health of Prince Leopold, which was received with enthusiastic cheering. Prince Leopold said,—My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, I beg to thank you most heartily for the kind manner in which you have received the toast of my health, proposed in far too flattering terms by the worshipful Mayor of this town. It is impossible for me not to feel how small is the part which I have been called upon to play in the work which has received its consummation to-day, compared with the labours of those who have fostered and watched over its progress from the commencement. But, at the same time, itis an undeniable pleasure to me to have been associated even in a slight degree with this great work of Mr. Firth's (" hear, hear," and cheers), and to have met, all I have done, with so sympathetic and cordial a re- ception. An invitation of a somewhat similar kind was sent to me not long ago by my friend Mr. Albert Grey from Newcastle, and it was with very great re- gret that I was compslled to decline it and thus was unable to aid in inaugurating the series of lectures, also connected with the University extension move- ment. If I could hope that the words which I speak here would reach the ears of the people of Newcastle, I would bid them note what has already been ac- complished here in Sheffield. and take courage from this example in the efforts which they are commencing to put forth ("hear, hear," and cheers); and as soon as they have shown an earnest of their appetite for a fuller and more com- plete education than any of their primary schools can give, I cannot doubt but a second Mark Firth will rise from amid them and will second their efforts in the same munificent manner. (Loud cheers). And this, ladies and gentlemen, leads me to the subject of our next toast—namely, the health of my kind host and your illustrious fellow-townsman. (Cheers). I have already to-day had occasion in another place to make some allusion to Mr. Firth's claims on your good wishes and affectionate sympathy, but I shall, perhaps, best consult his feelings by not venturing in his presence on an elaborate eulogium on his good deeds. I have already visited this morning the alms- houses he has built, and I look forward this afternoon to visiting in his company the park which he has laid out. (Hear, bear). In the for- mer place I saw him surrounded by the aged folk whose declining years are being soothed and made happy by his considerate forethought—("hear, hear," and cheers)—and when I see scattersd throughout the park men, women, and children who by this gift of his are enabled to escape from the close atmosphere of the town and all the temptations of a great city to breathe awhile purer air and to indulge in harmless recreation, I shall more fully realize the deep inward joy which he must experience. (Cheers.) If our good wishes can, in however small a degree, add to this well-earned joy of his, I beg to assure Mr. Firth, both on your part and on my own, that we most cordially and heartily tender them to him. (Cheers.) Ladies and gentle- men, I call upon you to drink to the health of Mr. Mark Firth. (Loud cheers.) Mr. Mark Firth responded, and was received with great enthusiasm. He said.—I feel extremely and truly grateful to his Royal Highness Prince Leopold, who has so kindly proposed my health. I assure you I shall always look back upon this occasion as one of the most pleasing recollections of my life, and this more especially when I consider the willingness and kindness with which his Royal Highness accepted the invitation to open the college. (Applause.) Considering his Royal Highness's en- gagements and many other circumstances, I feel ex- tremely thankful that Prince Leopold has sacrificed the time necessary for coming down among us to per- form the obligation he has to-day fulfilled. I feel more especially grateful on behalf of the town and the people of Sheffield that so distinguished a member of the Royal family, and a Prince so eminent for his love of the arts and sciences, has set apart a portion of his time to visit the town for the purpose of in- augurating the opening of an institution which I hope may be of great benefit to the inhabitants. I am sure. moreover, that the people of Sheffield are similarly gratified because of the fact to which I have referred. (Loud cheers.) Personally, I beg to thank his Royal Highness for his flattering observations with regard to myself. (Loud applause.) Several other toasts followed, and at the conclusion Prince Leopold left the hall and proceeded to Firth. park. On Wednesday Prince Leopold visited Mr. Ruskin's Museum at Walkley. The Professor ac- companied the Prince through the building, explain- ing and commenting upon the various artistic and scientific treasures which it contained.
THE FIGHT WITH THE UTE INDIANS. The following description of the fight between the Ute Indians and a detachment of United States troops, in which Major Thornbnrch was killed, is given by a correspondent ot the New York Times with Captain Payne's force, who writes on October 3, while the troops were still besieged by the Indians The field of battle was admirably chosen for defence by the Indians; and had it not been for Major Thorn- burgh's advance guard, commanded by Lieutenant Cherry, discovering the ambuscade, the entire com- mand would have been annihilated. He saw a small party of Indians disappear over a hill half a mile in front, and at once divided his party to reconnoitre, and only discovered them when he had flanked their por- tion by about 200 yards. Lieutenant Cherry rede back at full speed with one or two men who were with him and notified Major Thornburgh, who had already begun the descent into the deep ravine which was intended to engulf the command. The Indians were dismounted, and lying down along the crest of the high, steep ridge for a hundred yards from the point where the deadly assault would have commenced. The troops were withdrawn a short dis. tance, dismounted, and deployed in line of battle, with orders to await the attack of the Indians, Lieutenant Cherry was here ordered by Thornburgh to take a detachment of fifteen picked men and make i reconnaissance and communicate if possible with the Indians, as it was thought that they only desired to oppose his approach to thejr agency, and would parley or have a big talk if they could be communicated with. Cherry moved out at a gallop with his men from the right flank, and noticed a like move- ment of about twenty Indians from the left of the Indian position. He approached to within a couple of hundred yards of the Indians and took off his hat and waved it, but the response was a shot fired at him, wounding a man of his party and killing his horse. This was the first shot, and was instantly fol- lowed by a volley from the Indians. The work had now begun in real earnest; and seeing the advantage of the position he held, Lieutenant Cherry dismounted his detachment and deployed along the crest of the hills to prevent the Indians flanking his position or to cover the retreat, if it was found necessary to retire upon the wagon train, which was then coming up slowly, guarded by Lieutenant Paddock, Company D, Fifth Cavalry. Orders were sent to park the waggons and cover them with the company guarding them. The two companies in the advance were Captain Payne's Company F, Fifth Cavalry, and Captain Lawson's, Company E, Third Cavalry, which were dismounted and deployed as skirmishers. Captain Payne on the left and Captain LawsoD on the right. From Lieutenant Cherry's posi- tion he could see that the Indians weM trying to cut him eff from the waggons, and at ence sent word to Major Thornburgh, who then with- drew the line slowly, keeping the Indians in check till opposite the point which his men held, when, seeing that the Indians were concentrat- ing to cut off his retreat, Captain Payne, with Com- pany F, 5th Cavalry, was ordered to charge the hill, which he did in gallant style, his horse being shot under him and several of his men wounded. The Indians having been driven from this point, the company was rallied on the waggon train. Major Thornburgh then gave orders to Lieutenant Cherry to hold his position and cover Captain Lawson's retreat, who was ordered to fall back slowly with the horses of his company. Cherry called for volun- teers of twenty men, who responded promptly and fought with desperation. Their names will be given in a late dispatch, as nearly every man was wounded before he reached the camp, Two men were killed. Cherry brought every wounded man In with him. Captain Lawson, the brave old veteran, displayed the greatest coolness and courage during this retreat, sending up ammunition to Cherry's men when, once, they were nearly without it. Major Thornburgh started back to the waggon train after giving his final orders to Captain Payne to charge the hill and to Captain Lawson and Lieutenant Cherry to cover the retreat. He must have been shot dead when barely half way there, as his body was seen by one of Captain Lawson's men, life extinct, lying on his face. Captain Payne, then in command, at once set about having the wounded horses shot, to be < nsed for breastworks, dismantling the waggons of boxes and bundles of bedding, corn, and flour-sacks, which were quickly piled up for fortifications. Picks and shovels were used vigorously for digging intrencb- mento. Meantime, a galling fire was concentrated upon the command from all the surrounding bluffs which commanded the position. Not an Indian could be seen, but the incessant cracks of their Sharps and Winchester rifles dealt fearful destruction among the horses and men. The groans of the dying and the agonising cries of the wounded told what fearful hav.c was being made among the determined and despe- rate command. Every man was bound to Bell his life as dearly as possible. About this time a great danger was approaching at a frightfully rapid pace. The red devils at the beginning of the fight had set fire to the dry grass and to the sage brush to the windward of our position, and it now came sweeping down towards us, the flakes leaping high in the air, and immense volumes of smoke rolling on to ingulf us. It was a eight to make the stoutest heart quake, and the fiends were waiting ready to give us a volley as soon as we were driven from our shelter. Now it reaches the flank, and blankets, blouses, and empty sacks were freely used to extinguish the flames. Some of the waggons were set on fire, which required all the force possible to smother it. No water can be obtained, and the smoke is suffoca- ting; but the fire passes, and we still hold our position. In the meantime a constant volley is poured upon us, Captain Payne being wounded for the second time, and Sergeant Dolan, of Company F, killed instantly. McKinstry and McKee are killed, and many others wounded. Our greatest danger now is past. The men have now mostly covered themselves, but the poor horses and mules are constantly falling about us.
THE EARTHQUAKE IN HUNGARY. The latest news to hand shows that the earthquake which occurred last week extended over a far wider area than had at first been reported. Shocks of greater or less violence were felt not only all over Eastern Hungary, but throughout Transylvania, Servia, Roumania, and even Bessarabia. The phenomenon manifested itself in Belgrade at half- past four in the afternoon of the 10th and lasted eight seconds, the direction of the motion being N.N. E, and S.S.W. In Weisskirchen there were two violent shocks felt on Friday afternoon about a quarter before five o'clock. Further shocks were experienced at half-past seven, and again on Saturday morning at a quarter to five, and all through the night slighter quakings and oscillations of the earth were constantly being repeated. A large number of chimneys were thrown down, and a number of houses were cracked and otherwise damaged at this place, the inmates in some instances being compelled to leave their dwellings on account of their having beoome unsafe. From Temesvar it is reported that a number of shocks, one rapidly succeed. ing the other, were felt, the ground oscillating under foot. Crockery ware began clattering and being thrown down, pianos commenced jangling and windows rattling, while people seated in chairs and on stools were rocked to and fro in an alarming manner. The shocks in Karansebes were so violent as to dash plates and dishes from their shelves to the ground, while to people in the street the ground appeared to rock with an unsteady motion like that of a vessel on a rough sea.
TERRIBLE ACCIDENT BY FIRE IN RUSSIA. The Russian Courier reports a shocking disaster from Volodarock, in the Government of Kieff. A Jewish boy had been ordered at eight o'clock in the evening of the 8th ult. to fetch some kerosine from a barrel that stood in an outhouse. The barrel contained nearly twenty vedro of this dangerous oil. After filling his oil can, the boy attempted to turn the tap of the barrel by the help of a candlestick in which there was a lighted candle. In doing so, however, the light fell from the candlestick into the oil can, in- stantly kindling the kerosine. The boy fled In terror, overturning the can in his flight. The flames rapidly spread, and the people in the house, followed by neighbours, ran up to the scene of the conflagration. Some of the crowd were attempting to get the barrel of kerosine into the open air, when an explosion oc- curred, covering everybody who was near with the burning oil. These unfortunate persons rushed from the outhouse among the crowd which had collected outside, and thus set many of their clothes on fire. Altogether there were thirty-seven persons attacked by the flames, of whom, at the date of this report eighteen had already died, while there was little hope for many of the others.
The Times of Tuesday had an article on the advan- tages now being extended to railway travellers by the adoption of the Pullman cars. We make the follow- ing extracts therefrom:— Thanks to the ready ingenuity of the Americans,it will be possible In a few days to breakfast not too early in York- shire, to read and answer half-a donn letters, to travel luxuriously to the metropolis, enjoying a good hot lunch by the way, have three clear hours for business, and after a hot dinner of several courses on the read be to bed in Yorkshire soon after ten. This supplies the greatest want of railway travelling. For years past we have all been aware that It was possible to live a good many days on the rail in America, and find all the luxuries and some of the super- fluities of modern Ufe snpplled in spacious and comfortable saloons. The British public, however. listened to the old- told tale, at once hopeless and Indifferent. It was felt we had no occasion to travel night and day for a week, and that the circumstances of this country, as well as the con- attention of an Englishman, were not favourable to large in- discriminate medleys. We preferred to travel sadly and alone, or with the fewest possible Intruders on our sweet solitude. The dullest of households would take possession of the compartment, shut the door, fill tbe seats with bags and wraps, and even bribe the guard to declare all the places engaged. In conformity to our national tastes, our nrss- class carriages have been constructed to hold six or and for so small a company as that it Is evident that seats only could be provided. The arrangement was tot«ew hours' ride. On the Continent, where the longer, a good dinner can be purchased at one station, and the basket, plates, napkin, knives, and 8 railway servant at the next. In such a caw' yo p is your table, soup is a difficulty, and wlne «t leMt a fe*t and a risk. Even the old coaoh days were better "P60'- At least they are pleasanter to the hoH .Wlth the horrors of the traveUing ltself. youi bad endured for a long night of thick darkness^ being cramped up with three commercial travellers whlcb the lustiness was relieved now and then with the odour of brandy, and the dreartnees with the soand of the guard's horn as he approached the change Douse, pleasant Indeed It was to find yourself °?ar toe road-side Inn, ever since inseparably associated with_hot coffee, battered toast, eggs, ham, and cold chleken. But those were days of long endurance and brief respite. We did not travel so much then as now, when you cannot eaten society, 0r even your own friends, without Joining the general hunt. Besides this, tbe class that did travel nas now to travel more. They who tra- velled once a montn now travel greater dlstanoes once a a week, while the unfortunates who were pitied for having to make weekly Journeys are now almost dally on the move. All this time the meal has been an increasing incompati- bility- The thousands and tens of thousands who come up to town every day to this hour take either a hurried break. fast at home or one still more uncomfortable, and costing dIU more of their precious time, after their arrival, and before they can enter on the work of the day. Bach Is the problem of which a partial solution Is now offered. The Pullman Palace Car Company, nothing daunted by the sluggishness of our countrymen to avail themselves of a useful novelty, have fitted up can of seem- iQ £ ly American dimensions as weU as plan, In wnich a large party of gentlemen and ladies can move about at their pleasure flom drawing-room to dining-room, and even to smoking- room, order and ecjoy luxurious breakfasts and dinners, and finally emerge feeling and looking as U they were only stepping out of their own hall doors. This Is to associate travelling and refreshment. The one is fitted in to the other. To be often going over the same ground, with much the same company, and in much the same dull, murky atmo- sphere, is inevitably dull, and even deadening. We stagnates In a monotony where neither act nor rest Is possible, and where the thoughts can only go their dull old round. The present arrangement does not appear to contemplate extending the desired relief to short distances, but as it relieved. last Saturday, the not very picturesque journey to Peterborough and back with a breakfast going and a dinner coming back, there seems no reason why a radius of a hundred miles should not have the benefit of it. Fifty years ago it used to be said that the shortest way from one end of Northamptonshire to the other was through London. Little did they who said this expect that it would one day be possible to do this In the ID- side of a day, enjoying a good breakfast and a good dinner tn transitu. But there can be no insurmountable obstacle to the construction of a railway train as sufficient for all the requirements of life as a ship or an ordinary hotel. The permanent way of most of our railways will bear almost any weight, and it is not safety, but economy, that has hitherto limited the length and breadth of our railway carriages. Why may we not have life on the raH ? It need not be necessary to descend from the train to spend a precious hour in wandering about a town looking for an hotel, securing a bed, ordering a meal for tho good of the house, binding yourself to return in time to eat It, and constitute yourself a prisoner on parole duriag the twenty-four hours v0U °an.afl°rd for a city you have all your life wished to see. to'men la ^ere will always be an ample supply of cos- Our Boards of Directors are so deeply committed to out existing arrangements, and so unwilling to embark in certain expenditure with problematic results, that they witt be content to feel their way. it really is not as If we had no long journeys to make in this island, and as if there were few through passengers. Any mode of reaching Scotland, or even the north of England, not to speak of Ireland, that would dispense with the necessity of long stoppages would be sure to Increase the number of passengers. Suppose any one who has been so unfortunate as to pass the prime of life without having seen, except in fancy's eye, the glorious country north of the Tweed. He does not wish to waste his holi- day in any mld-waj town, unknown to poetry and to fame. Be wishes to pronounce the spell and find himself In sight of Arthur's Seat, thence In a day or two penetrate in More than one direction. Why cannot he saU overland at once from the southern metropolis to the northern one as well pro- vided for as in a coasting steamer? It will be economy to pay even dearly for his entertainment on board the train, for no possible irfHtlonof charges can equal the cost of breaking the distance at an hotel. The experiment is no longer a new one. The Americans have tried it with com- plete success, and the only question Is whether there ve any peculiarities in our country or in our habits fatal to It here. To many who are obliged to spend half their time on the rail this Is a great mitigation of their lot. Travel- ling to many constitutions is simply a supenslon of vitality, and a very disagreeable one. Tney cannot use their eyes, or their hearing, or their tongues; they cannot read; they cannot converse they cannot direct their thoughts to any useful purpose they cannot even sleep soundly It would be a great gain to utilize some of this wasted strength and time in a meal, which must be made somewhere, and may as well be made there. No doubt there is much more to be done to make travelling less wearisome and less exhaustive. There Is much, too, that may be done. It will all come In time. One improvement leads to another, and among all the mistakes that have been ever made or can be made none is greater than to sit down in the conviction that we have got to the end of out tether.
MR. GLADSTONE INTERVIEWED. The Paris Correspondent of The Times says:—"Deaf Stanley and Mr. Gladstone attended Father Hyactuthel Church on Sunday. The Qaulois claims to have interviewed Mr. Gladstone prior to his departure from Paris, and It re presents him as having replied to Its questions sitbst"tinul as follows 'The difficulties being encountered by England it Afghanistan were her own work and the responsibility for them could not be thrown on others. When ill office he endeavoured, and he believed with success te establish amicable relations with Russia, and tbongp English policy bad changed hands, he firmly hoped the good sense of the two nations would avoid a conflict which would be very onerous for England. The material difficulties of such a war were enor* mous, and where would Russia's vulnerable point be found! Immense deserts severed Russia from India, where there was really nothing to fear, and the Rus- sians had a difficult task in preserving and strengthen- ing their conquests in Turkestan. As to the Ger* man alliance with Austria, the immediate o^jee* was certainly Russia, whom Prince Bismarck wished to restrain; but its nature must not be exag' gerated, for the Prince was a man who did Dot hesitate to throw aside tools no longer needed an^ would abandon a nation as readily as he had German parties. He saw no reason to fear I German attack on France. In Continental politiel I England, when not Bhut up in a circle of selfish idea*' I leaned towards tbe country attacked; but she was n<>* I inclined to definite alliances, her geographical F giving her a kind of moral impartiality, which ah. I ought to exercise only for the interests of peace I civilization. This was also his own view, which «*! f explained in Parliament on the fall of tbe Palmerston Cabinet. He had always been favnurab" I to an entente cordiale between England and Franclt and warmly desired more intimate relations betwe*? them. They might act together for useful objects; bØ an accord could not exist for culpable enterprise They had made a mistake in Egypt, bat he did know which Cabinet was in fault. Turkey should *> have been allowed to revive the right of dispodtJoØl: for she had not sufficient independence for such a rogative, and the exclusion of other European P°*f^ • from the control and protection of their interests y | not a good principle. As to the Suez Canal, Beaconsfield Cabinet had acted unwisely in brfjp the Viceroy's shares, for, though a great hit, it been the source of other imprudences. Ae route to India, let England preserve her sea; that will suffice to insure our communicaf with our great Eastern dependency,' y "After complimenting France on her progress in P0}!^ education and depreciating tbe attaching of any impor»*7j to the Humber incident (continues the 9 The Times), Mr. Gladstene is represented as sayingtn* the Italian politicians he had met paid no regard Italia Irredenta manoeuvres and had no thought of d>s t lng the repose of Europe. He agreed with his interv^ that public opinion in England was turning round to erals, Lord Darby's movement being a significant symp^J this. Lord Derby, however, had always bew» as Liberal as Conservative, being, Indeed, as regarded > peace, ultra-Liberal and more decided and Lord Granville. The next h« fr, 9/ vinced would be favourable tothe'Liberalsbu. jUff returned to place, the succeeding *&e aoonsfleld would be a verv heavy burden. Asked whe«fjfr would not be necessary for himself to become PremWjVy Gladstone 1s repre»»i £ ed n?» the Hartington and ^/Jranvme *1111)e equal to thet»'^ for me (.aid he, smiling at the recollection of favourite recreations), J at. jet,He manche aprH & d p) and will not resume the burden of office unless Rnnntrvmen.
The Kolnische ZeUung also gre» tlflcatlons of Metz are not yet complete^j^e o -%■« jr fort is to be constructed near the c#inP. which will convert Metz Into an lntrenc ^ese de J five kilometres round. The manning o* ArWV < require a garrison of 82,000 to p0tterf^^J5j' At a meeting of tbe Staffordsh reporw> tnejHjMjf tlon Board, held on Wednesday, _|^bltrator J Hatherton had accepted thepo^u, the earth^o«I as to the 10 per cent. rednaUoj^on would | j but bad suggested that, aatb »|,#|^gi»tanee j j 50,000 erX*, he Alter a was requested allowed, and Lord Hatnersw I j
THE ACCIDENT ON THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD. The details of the shocking catastrophe on the Michigan Central Railroad have been received by the American papers. The accident occurred at about one o'clock on the morning of the 10th, close to Jackson Junction. The Pacific express trsao, bomad west, which left Detroit 40 minutes late, came into collision with a switch engine on the main track, tele- scoping the baggage and express cars and piling the remaining coaches, 11 in number, on the top of each other. The first coach was filled with emigrants, most of whom were killed or seriously injured. Many occupants of the other coaches were also killed or Injured. The scene after the collision was terrible, ana the darkness of the night increased tike terrors of the situation. Among the debris lay a heap 01 bruised, bleeding, and dying human beings, whose moans and -criee of distress filled the air. Mutilated bodies of the -dead could he seen among the ruins of the wrecked coaches. Under the shapeless mass which was once the engine of the express were the bodies of the engi- neer and fireman, which were extricated as soon as possible. Death to them and many other victims must have keen oastantaneous. The engineer and fire. man of the switch engine, seeing their peril in time, leaped from their places and escaped injury. It is -supposed there were about twenty or twenty-five pas- sengers killed, and from twenty to thirty wounded, the majority of them being emigrants and second class passengers. Physicians were at once summoned from Jackson, and a special train carrying physicians left Detroit at five a.m. A force of the employls of the railroad company, together with a large number of the ■citizens of Jackson, immediately Bet to work to extri- cate the bodies from tfce wreck. Up to noon eighteen bodies had been taken from the wreck, ten of which, taken from the emigrant car, had not been identified. Many trying and touching scenes occurred, and many acts of heroism were recorded. William Murchie, of Unverness, Canada, was in the first coach, on the second seat from the front of the car. There were about a dozen women in the coach, and he helped them to get out before he realized the extent of the smash-up. Mrs. R. J. Warren, of Ganges, Allegan County, with her son, who is thirteen years old, was in the second coach. She was on her way home from the State of New York, where she had been visiting for several weeks. They occupied seats on the Bide of the coach that was so badly smashed, the boy lying asleep on the seat in front of his mother. When she heard the crash and saw the side of the car come crushing in towards her, she involuntarily leaned over towards her sleeping boy, and in this position she was held until extricated. Her shoulders and back were con- siderably bruised, but the injuries are not of a serious nature. The saddest case which came under observa- tion was that of Willie Rice, a fair-haired and bright- eyed little boy, four years of age, whose father and mother and sister were all killed. He was found clasped in his dead mother's arm, and so fastened in the wreck that it took three hours to extricate him. His left leg waa broken, and his left arm and his chin badly cut. His family lived in Philadelphia, and were on their way to some point in the West. Mrs. George A. Jones, of Chalado, Pa., was on her way to Nebraska to join her husband. She had with her her family, consisting of five children. Of these a little girl, 18 months old, was killed instantly, and the mother never saw it after the accident. One of the other children sustained a slight contusion on the head. Mr. S. M. Sparklin, of Philadelphia, thought hi) wife and children, aged four and six years, were among the dead, but their bodies had not been found. The track where the accident occurred passes through a somewhat deep cut, and the road was of course, completely blockaded. The morning eastward express was obliged to cross over the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad, and reached Detroit, viA Monroe, many hours late. One of the most miraculous facts in connexion with the accident was that none in the sleeping cars were in the least injured while it seems impossible that such a collision could occur without resulting in general ruin to the entire train. The accident was caused by the switchman having charge of making up the freight train at Jackson Junction, who occupied the main track with a switch engine and caboose, understanding that the Pacific express was considerably behind time. The express, however, had made up nearly all the lost time. The officials of the railroad held ani nquiry on the spot on the evening after the occurrence, and it appeared that the men engaged in making up a freight train at the east end of the yard went to the telegraph office at the junction and got information that the Pacific express was nearly fifty minutes late. The yard master re- ported to the engineer of the switch engine that they bad forty-five minutes of the Pacific's time in which to make UD the freight train, and it was on this work they were engaged when the collision occurred.
PEASANT PROPRIETORS IN IRELAND. The Times publishes the following letter Sir,-You may not be aware that in many districts in Ireland Peasant proprietorship has already had a trial, with what result the following facta will prove :— Thirty years ago the commons of Whiteleas, a large tract of excellent laad, was entirely owned and occu- pied by small fee-Bimple proprietors. How they originally obtained their holdings I cannot inform you but at that time their land was miserably culti- vated, the owners lived in wretched cabins in the greatest possible destitution, a positive disgrace to this flourishing neighbourhood. When the potato famine occurred these poor people were only too glad to accept anything they could get for their land and to emigrate, and the few that now remain are the poorest people in the country. By degrees the small holdings have been amalgamated and the land now sells for £100 an acre. Similar experiments have been tried in other places in Ireland and have invariably pro- duced similar results. — Your obedient servant, WILLIAM KENNEDY.—Giganstown, County Kildare.
THE MASSACRE AT CABUL. The correspondent of the Bamhay Gazette with the Advance gaud of the British army on the Shuturgur- •dan gives BOOle additional information respecting the jnassacr Cabul. He met and personally interro- gated imam Box, the sole survivor of the men who remained meide the Residency until the last. "Eagerly, be says, "did I question the man, It appeared that ne waa a> chuppraesie of Major Cavag- £ iari, and that M aatJ been fortunate enough to get znixed with the assailants at the final rush, without being discovered, To my question, asking how Cavag- »ari met his death, he replied that he was killed about one o'clock in the day by a e.ean cut between the eyes from one of those heavy triangular shaped Kambuli knives which every man carries in Afghaniatan. The knife must have penetrated the brain, and the man declared that after receiving the blow 'the Major Sahib never spoke another word. Hamilton, of the Guides was shot through the right side of the body an hour later. Dr. Kelly perishing in the burning house. The house he described as being a two-storied house with an upper verandah, and a ditch ontaide all round it. He related to us in a horribly graphic manner bow I he raw a wounded Goorkha, the last inrvivor, dragged oc,t mutilated, having his throat cut. On hearing this s'tory our Sikha were furious. The universal remark was, We will go to Cabul, slay these Pathan dogs, and burn the city to the ground, whilst some saga- ciously remarked, 'the Sirkar ought never to have sent an Elchi to Cabul unless an army had gone there first."
FREE TRADE M AMERICA. The Times of Thursday published the following letter on the above IUbject Sir,-In regard to the question of free trade in the United States, will you allow an American to say a word ? You have so completely answered the errors of your Philadelphia correspondent that little is left to be said in further correction, Your correspondent is right in Baying that free trade, as such, is not likely to be adopted soon in that country but he is wrong if he means to be understood that important modifica- tions of the tariff will not at an early date be made. Congress will, in my opinion, very soon reduce the existing rate of duty upon imported merchandise, in compliance with the prevailing I entiment. The Secretary of the Treasury in his annual report of 1878 recommended a reduction, and he is the prin- cipal representative in the Government of the Republican party, which your correspondent intimates will prevent this needed reform. Outside of those who are directly interested as manufacturers the policy of protection has few advocates, but where per- sonal intereat affects the judgment, as in this case, of course, Democrats and Republicans approve that which is advantageous to themselves. I fear that your correspondent is unconsciously influenced by the sentiment of Pennsylvania, where he resides, which is so strongly manufacturing, and, consequently, in avour of protection. Free trade in the United States is understood to mean the abolition of all duties which would throw upon all the domestic industries the sole burden of taxation, This would not be popular. Until the late civil war, all the revenues were raised by duties on importations. Internal taxes are not readily ac- quiesced in and are difficult to collect. Therefore, while, no doubt, our tariff will be continued, it is safe to predict that the rates will be so modified as to re- duce it to that standard which will produce the most revenue. I am aware that one of the two political parties in the United States has sought to obtain the vote of the manufacturers by advocating the continuance of the present tariff, and in the districts where th >se interests prevail this scheme has been successful; but in the agricultural and trading districts, which com- prise four-fifths of the whole population, an opposite policy has been adopted. It is a mistake to assume that protection is a doctrine universally acquiesced in by the Republican party of the United States. The leading Republican newspapers are opposed to it, and the last Republican State Convention of Minnesota advocated a tariff for revenue only. In the Western States, where the balance of political power now exists, protection has little or no support, for the sig- nificant reason that the population is mainly agricul- tural and but little manufacturing. It is estimated that the census now being taken in the United States will show an aggregate population of nearly 50,000,000, of which less than 5,000,000 is employed in manufacturing. It is obvious that 45,000,000 people, so jealous of individual rights as Americans are apt to be, will not consent to be taxed for the benefit of 5,000,000. Further comment upon upon this pregnant fact is unnecessary. You are quite right, therefore, in predicting a reform in our tariff regulations. FERNANDO WOOD, M.C. Cavendish Hotel, Oct. 22.
ARTIFICIAL BREEDING OF FISH. The United States Fishery Commissioners are "going in" for artificial fish-breeding on a very large scale. In this country, operations of the kind have been re- stricted to the propagation of the salmoniote, whose eggs, being of considerable size, are easily manipu. lated, and, with Mr. Frank Buckland as the leader of the movement, some hundreds of thousands of young salmon and trout are annually hatched from the egg, in special incubating apparatus, at the different breeding establishments in England and Scotland. In America, however-in Canada as well as the United States—the eggs so treated and the fry so hatched and turned into the rivers and lakes are reckoned by scores of millions and, not content with stocking various waters with salmon and trout by this means, the authorities are turning their attention with equal success to other fish, both sea and fresh water. In the last three or four years many million shad and whitefish" have been reared in the hatch- ing ponds of the Dominion and States' Governments. By this means the Sacramento, the Mississipi, and other rivers of the Western States, where the shad was formerly unknown, are being stocked with it, and the range of the whitafish has been extended and its numbers increased. Professor Baird, of the United States' Commission of Fisheries is now taking a still larger step in advance of all other countries. He is havirg constructed a steam vessel, specially fitted for hatching the eggs of sea-fish, which will be stationed on the New England coasts, and which will serve at the same time as a fishing vessel, a laboratory, an observatory, and a breeding-house. By means of this vessel the eggs of the fish can be transferred direct from the fish themselves, immediately after capture, to the hatch. ing troughs, where they will be supplied with water from the natural spawning place of the fish, and whence the fry can be transferred directly to the sea when they have reached the proper age and siae. Already between ten and twelve million young cod, hatched in breeding houses on the shore, have been turned into the sea, and the reproduction of herrings from the egg has also been accomplished successfully on shore, to a limited extent. But the breeding ship is constructed to produce from five hundred million to a thousand million fry every season; the eggs, not only of cod, but of mackerel, herrings, and turbot are to be treated artificially, and it is even hoped that oysters may be reared in the same way on board the ship. There, at any rate, the means will exist of keeping the water artificially at the proper tem. perature.—Globe.
THE LATE CONSUL HOPKINS. The Daily Hews says that with the death of Mr. Consul Hopkins, news of which arrived from the West Coast of Africa by the last mail steamer, we cease to have a most worthy and efficient representa- tive at Fernando Po. Mr. Hopkins was Consul for the Bight of Biafra, and for a dozen years or more lived on the coast, bearing almost a charmed life in the midst of jungle fevers and the other terrible ailments to which the white man is subject. By his unaided exertions he fre- quently restored and maintained peace among the dis- puting chiefs of the coaBt, His last duty was a journey to New Calabar, where his presence, we are told, caused the conflict between the native chiefs and their followers to cease, > and a palaver to take place to settle the existing differences.' Mr. Hopkins's influence with the natives was pro- verbial, and the name of King.maker' was not Inaptly given him by traders in the district, for in the election of chiefs his voice was all-powerful. At the time of the Ashantee difficulty, Mr. Hopkins offered to assist Sir Garnet Wolseley with a drilled body of 500 men from Bonny, while both Commander Cameron and Mr. Stanley have to thank him for valu- able assistance during their travels. Mr. Consul Hopkins owed his position, such as it was, entirely to himself, and his heart was so much in his work that he chose to brave the deadly climate year after year rather than relinquish his post. The death of Mr. Consul Hopkins will be a sad loss both to the traders and the natives of the West Coast."
SCIENTIFIC AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. Mr. Buckmaster, in recently addressing a meeting of farmers near Greenock, urged the importance of more attention to the facilities offered by the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council on Education for instruction in the principles of agriculture. He said the better general education of Scotland encouraged him to hope that during the winter there would be, in many towns and villages, classes for teaching those subjects which had now become necessary for successful farm- ing. The Science and Art Department had issued a syllabus to guide the teachers. Qaestions arising out of this syllabus were given at the annual examination held all over the country every May, and pupils who had been instructed by a qualified teacher, and who received not fewer than 2 0 consecutive lessons, were encouraged by prizes, certificates, and other rewards to go forward to these local examinations, which were held wherever a class had been taught. Liberal payments were made to the teacher, and nearly the whole cost was met by grants from the Science and Art Department. The progress of agriculture must, of course, be greatly influenced by the education of farmers. As far as the science of agriculture was con- cerned, the Science and Art Department was pre- pared to teach them all they required to know, and seience with practice was the only true basis upon which the industries of a country could make progress.
DINING EN ROUTE. An experimental journey of the new Pullman dining and smoking cat which it is intended to run between London and Leeds, on and after the 1st of November, was made on the Great Northern Railway last Saturday, from London to Peterborough. The train consisted of a Pullman drawing room car, with smoking apart- ment, and a dining-room car with kitchen. The traveller may walk from one end of the cars to the other, a gangway connecting the two can. The resources of the kitchen were practically tested, a dinner which was excellently cooked being served. Although the train was travelling at the rate of 50 miles an hoar there was no inconvenience of any kind experienced, and the experiment was brought to a successful conclusion with coffee, also made and served in the car. The charge for dinner-which will be equal to that served at a first class restaurant —is not to exceed half a-crown and the admission to the Pull. man car will be charged, as at present, proportionately to the distance travelled.
A HOG-SCRAPING MACHINE. The latest thing in inventions is a hog-scraper. A cor- respondent of the Cincinnati Enquirer thus describes the trial of It My brother-in-law, who is a butcher and pork' packer of this city, tn-day killed seven hogs, weighing from 100 pounds to 350 pounds, to test a hog-scraping machine just patented by Mr. Stephen Collins. I had seen corn taken clean from the cob by machinery, but never before had I ever seen the hair and bristles taken from a hog by machinery. I am not permitted to describe the machine in detail, but I can say that the working of it was simply marvellous. A hog wae killed, placed in the machine, and almost the same instant it came oat slick as a whistle, with the exoeption of a few odd hairs on the legs and head. The seven hogt were passed through the machine in fifty seven seconds, and the entire body of each animal was as clean ae could be desired. This was the initial test of the machine. It is so constructed as to clean any sized hog, and in the test made to-day animals were selected with a view to test its application to different sizes. 1 should think from what I have witnessed of its work' ing that with a few improvements which are contem' plated it will have a capacity of 6,000 hoga in teD hours.
■ & The FOREIGN COAL and IRON TR^^ In the Belgian coal trade large orders offered by Belgian ironmasters, who feel present circumstances, they cannot ensure coal for too long a period in advance. Contract* t years have been offered but have been steadiJX^f by Belgian coal-owners. Seferal BelgianooWprf, J* prietors have attempted an advance of lOd^pt^W^ for industrial coal; the rise haB been K i? regards small quantities, but it has not lished with equal readiness as regards imP liveries. Domestic qualities of coal ba^^d^Jw' strong demand in Belgium, and a rise has lished in these descriptions without muc» ^PyjCl The Belgian iron trade continues to mation. The reports current are rather co eJJj in some respects but still they show tb» tfr J been upon the whole a very marked According both to producers of J forgemasters, the rise is gaining strength j day. Most of the works in the CharleJ0 1 now engaged with orders for sever** f J advance. —g s