Itisttllantøus Jttlelligratt. HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL, A "BERRY" NATURAL QUEBY.—The strawberry was introduced into cultivation in England about the year 1530. Query: Before this period, had any Eng- lish person a strawberry birth mark ? "-FMH. POPULARITY OF PUBLIC CELEBRITIES.—The popu- larity ot public celebrities is tested in Paris by the number of pipes made in their likenesses. Recently Presidential pipes have been the greatest successes, for the Thiers pipe has been most in request, some 57,000 being sold annually; M. Gambetta is second iu favour, and M. Grevy comes third. Next in the list is M. Capoul, the great Parisian tenor, who is run very close by Cetywayo, while two prominent characters in the notorious Assommoir, Gervaise and Mes Bottes, are evidently much liked by dramatic smokers, and Madam Judic is scarcely less of a favourite. FRENCH ALMANACKS.—Almanacks in France are compiled in different forms for the various provinces in order to suit the tastes of divers country people (says the Graphic,) Nearly all the calendars are made in Paris by one particular firm, who fill up the days first by consulting the Roman Catholic Guide, indica- ting the great religious festivals, these varying accord- ing to the different dioceBes. The remaining days are dedicated to the saints most in honour in the particular district for which the almanack is destined, some saints being only known in Paris, and others revered in the provinces but ignored at the capital. AMERICAN DECOBATIONS FOR THE DINNBR TABLE.— We are often at a loss for a simple and inexpensive table decoration in the winter time (says Land and Water). The following clever notion from an American paper is worthy the attention of our London readers: -Sew coarse flannel round a goblet with the stem broken off, place it in a saucer of water, wet the flannel and sprinkle over it as much flax-seed as will adhere to it. The flannel will absorb the water from the saucer, which should often be replenished. In about two weeks the flannel will be concealed in a beautiful verdure which will vie with any table orna- ment. SURVIVORS OF THE PEERAGE OF THE REIGN OF WILLIAM IV.—The following is a complete list of living peers who held seats in the House of Lords previous to her Majesty's accession to the throne, with the years in which they became entitled to ait :—Earl of Wilton, 1820; Earl of Chichester, 1826; Duke of Buccleugh, 1827; Earl of Stradbroke, 1827; Earl of RedeBdale (as Lord Redesdale), 1830; Earl Sydney (as Lord Sydney), 1831; Lord Gardner, 1831; Duke of Abercorn, 1832; Lord De Tabley, 1832; Viscount Falkland (as Lord Hunsdon), 1832; Earl of Sandwiah, 1832; Viscount Torrington, 1833; Earl of Lovelace (aa Lord King), 1833; Duke of Devonshire (aa Earl of Burlington), 1834; Lord Crewe, 1835; and Viscount Portman (as Lord Portman), 1837. MEAL HOURS IN PARIS.-A Paris correspondent of the Bibiiothique Universelle (says Tlte Times) writing Apropos of the new arangement by which theatres may extend their performances till half-past twelve, and of the present dining hour in Paris, half past seven, BUggeBts that it would be a curious subject; of inquiry why in France meal-times become an hour later every twenty or thirty years. The world diner has etymologically the some sense aa dijeuncr, to break jetme, or fast. It was originally the first meal of the day. From seven a.m., it got on to ten a.m. Under Louis XII. this was a common popular rhyme Lever a six Diner à dlx Bouper A six Couchefttdix Fait vlvre t'homme dix tola dix. Then it became the practice to dine at two p.m., (as in some of the provinces still), then at five p. 00" and now it is seven-thirty p.m. At the same time the supper hour has changed in the same direction, becom- ing at length so late as to be dispensed with; and in the morning new meals have appeared, the dijeuner now replacing the old diner, There seems no reason why the movement should not go on, and as the day cannot be prolonged indefinitely, it is probable (the writer thinks) that people will go to theatre before dinner. The fashion of matinies dramatiques is a first symptom of this transformation of habits. When these commence at four or five p.m., instead of two p m., the diner will have quite replaced the old souper, and there will be a return to the usages of the eighteenth century, the names alone being changed. MORTALITY IN THB TROPlcs.-The average annual mortality of Para, Brazil, is about 60 per 1,000; in St. Kitts, West Indies, the annual mortality rises as high some years as 74 per 1,000. Throughout the West Indies the autumu is the most unhealthy season, and dysentery and yellow fever the most fatal epidemics. A correspondent of the Southern Clinic attributes the short lives of Europeans in the West Indies chiefly to exposure to cold and dampness and to alcoholic beverages.—London Medical Record. A POSER.-Master Tom. "Stand ia the corner? What for?"—His Mamma. "Because you are a bad b°y."—Master Tom. "Can't I be a bad boy here ust as well?"—Fun. ASKING A LOAN OF AN EMPEKOB.—The Emperor of Austria has received a petition from a printer's apprentice, in Hungary, in which, after some pre- fatory remarks, he says I have a great liking for farming, which I thoroughly understand, and would like to carry on on my own account. To do this I beg your Majesty to have the kindness to lend me three hundred florins at five to ten per cent. interest, which I will return in fifty florin instalments within six years. That your Majesty should not think that I, a boy sixteen years of age and seriously inclined, do not know how to lay out the money, I write here the list of things necessary. I shall contract for ten acres of land for farming purposes, for ten to fifteen years. Things necessary:—Plough, harrow, seeds, boards, straw, animals, two horses with harness and cart, a cow and fowls, a stable for horses and cow, and, as I shall cultivate my fields myself, a hut. If ever your Majesty should carue to Arad I shall have an oppor- tunity of thanking you, and of proving to you that I am not unworthy of your kindness. Finally, I bind myself to pay the installments punctually, and beg your Majesty to send the money before the yearly fair begins (viz., 7th of next month), so aa to get the horses and things necessary cheaper.—Your most thankful and everlasting grateful servant." COPYRIGHT IN JAPAN.—Authors in Japan are for- tunate beings in the matter of copyright. By applica- tfon they can obtain the exclusive right to sell their writings for thirty years, or, if the work be very im- portant, for forty-five years, each book bearing the name and address of author or publisher, and the date of its registration. If the copyright is violated, the offender is fined, obliged to hand over the product of his piracy, as well as the plates from which the work was printed, while the publication or sale of books put forth anonymously, or under a pseudonym, and with. out note of the place of publication, is punished by imprisonment of from ten days to six months, and confiscation of the work. THE FIRST SNOW.-The AUgemine Zeitung of Augsburg says that the announcement of the first snowfall in Germany (not reckoning the higher Bavarian Alps, which have been covered for some weeks past) came on the 14th inst. from Dresden, and from the two ranges of the Giant Mountains and the Fichtelgebirge, which divide Bohemia from Silesia and Bitvaria respectively, and from the Taunus on the 15th and 16th. Snow fell also lightly in Augsburg and Niirnberg on the latter date. At Grai, in Styria, it began to snow heavily at midnight on the 16th inat., and great mischief was done to the vineyards and woods. In the city park some of the largest trees had been broken down by the weight. WHITE SWALLOWS.—Prague papers state that Herr Hofftnaan of Podebrad, in Bohemia, a well-known naturalist, has presented to the Crown Prince Rudolph a nest-full of swallows, differing from other swallows only in colour, being quite white. The parent birds which reared them, and which he has forwarded to the Prince together with their exceptional offspring, have the usual colour of ordinary swallows. THE SWEDISH NORTH-EAST PASSAGE EXPEDITION. —A telfgram received at Lloyd's, dated Kobe, October 17, states that the Vega (Swedish exploring steamer) arrived at that port on October 14. HIGH HEELED BOOTS.—Treating on the subject of health, a French doctor directs attention to the per- nicious effects of high-beeled diminutive boots (says the Rclw). As early as 1490 the poet Coquillard good- humouredly chaffs the ladies of his time for wearing shoes with twenty-four soles and in 1665 Colletet complained that his female friends would insist on adding six inches to their height through the aid of the shoemaker. It is no longer open to us to smile at the singular customs of the Chinese in this matter. When will ladies have shoes made for their feet, in. stead of attempting to make their feet fit unnaturally- shaped shoes? AMERICAN AND CANADIAN FOOD.—The supply of live stock and frtsh meat at Liverpool last week from the United States and Canada was again much below the average of recent periods, though not quite ao small as the previous weeks as regards live stock. The steamers with live stock were:—The Iberian, with 180 cattle and 217 pigs; the Illinois, with 218 sheep the Lake Champlain, 68 cattle and 24 shaep the Victoria, with 245 cattle theNeatorian, with 150 cattle and 1,190 sheep; and the Espanol, with 114 cattle; making the totals 1,019 cattle, 1,442 sheep, and 217 pig?. The following steamers arrived with fresh meat:—Iberian, 686 qrs. of beef; the City of Brussels, with 1,077 qrs. of beef, 175 carcases of mutton, and 150 pigs; and the Britannic, with 620 qrs. of beef and k50 carcases of mutton being 1,383 qrs. of beef, 425 carcases of mutton, and 150 pigs. A GIANT PALM.—The King of the Belgians haa purchased a large horticultural collection at Enghien, and among the trees is a giant palm, a sabal umbracu. lifera, which is 42it in height, and the crown of which is about 27ft. in diameter, the base of the trunk mea- suring 6ft. This great tree has been safely transported to the King's new winter garden at Laeken, a work of no small difficulty. The weight, which had to be carried, was more than 26§ tons, and the truck upon which the huge tree was laid was drawn from Enghien to Brussels by seventeen horses, twenty-one being used from Brussels to Laeken. This has been, in all pro- bability, the largest tree which has ever been conveyed to such a distance and transplanted. The palm has acquired a European reputation, being known as the largest in these latitudes, and the difficulties of its transport were increased by the necessity for avoiding the bridges over the canals, none of which were strong enough to bear so great a weight with safety. The King is forming in this building a remarkable and valuable collection of exotic trees, and the building is expected to be thrown open during the jubilee fites of the Belgian Independence in 1880, POBTBAIT or LOBD BEACONSFIELD. —A remarkable °f the Earl of Beaconsfield, from sittings granted to the artist, has just been com- pleted by Mr. Weigall (says The Times). The moment chosen is that of the speech In the House of Lords on the subject of the Treaty of Berlin. The Premier stands upright with folded arms in front of the red-covered benches, and has just come to his peroration. The picture has been painted for the Marquis of Exeter, and is to be added to the collection of Burleigh, but is likely to be first engraved. Mr. WeigaU M, we believe, now at work upon a companion picture of Lord Salisbury, which is also intended for Burleigh. SHEEP-DOG TBIALS.—Sheep-dog trials, under the patronage of Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart.. M P., were held last Saturday near Llangollen. In the Local Stakes Mr. James Ewart's (Eglwyseg) "Toss" took the first prize of JS7, penning its eheep in twelve and a half minutes. The second prize of £3 was won by Mr. Rutherford's (Maes Maelor) Don," the dog doing its work in ten minutes, and the third prize was won by Wait," another of Mr. Rutherford's dogs, which suc- ceeded in penning its sheep in fourteen minutes. In the Cambrian Stakes (open to the world) the first prize of JB12 waa won by "Bob," the property of Mr. Rice, Solelfe, Rhagader; the second prize of 25 by "Don," the property of Mr. Rutherford; and the third prize was won by Handy," the property of Mr. Roberts, Pentrevoelas. EMIGRATION OF ENGINEERS.—On Tuesday morning a large number of engineers, who for several months past have been on strike at Bradford, left for Liver- pool, en route for Harrisburg and Middletown, Penn- sylvania, where they have been engaged to fill impor- tant situations by two of the largest engineering firms in America. Their departure was witnessed by a large crowd of persons, and as the train left the station the emigrants were loudly cheered. Arrange- ments have been made to send away another batch towards the end of next week. A QUAINT CEBEMONy.-In London, on Tuesday, in accordance with ancient custom, a quaint legal cere- mony between the Crown and the Corporation was duly observed. It was held for the first time in the new Law Courts. The Secondary, the City Solicitor, and the late Under-Sheriff attended before Sir Frederick Pollock, the Queen's Remembrancer, to render services due from the Corporation to the Crown. Proclamation waa made in these terms Tenants and occupiers of a piece of waste land called the Moors, in the county of Salop, come forth and do your service." The City Solicitor then stepped forward and cut one faggot with a hatchet and another with a bill- book. A further proclamation was then made as follows: Tenants and occupiers of a certain tene- ment called the Forge, in the parish of St. Clement Danes, in the county of Middlesex, come forth and do your service." The City Solicitor then counted six horse-shoes and 61 nails, the Queen's Remembrancer saying, "Good number." With that the ceremony ended. A SIMPLE TREATMENT. — All who suffer from sciatica and neuralgic pains may at any rate try the novel yet extremely simple treatment devised by Dr. Ebrard, of Nimes, who has employed it far many years, for the experiment will coat nothing, may pos- sibly effect a cure, and, at all events, can do no harm. The apparatus to be used consists merely of a flat-iron and vinegar. The iron is heated until it is hot enough to evaporate the vinegar, next cover with some woollen material moistened with vinegar, and then apply at once to the painful spot. The application may be made twice or thrice a day. It is stated that the pain dis- appears in twenty-four hours, and iscovery follows immediately. A TABULAB STATEMENT.—" Tide tables are those which are lashed to the deck of a cabin on board ship. -Fun. TEBBIBLE DISASTEB AT A FAIR. -A special despatch from Adrian, Mich., gives the particulars of an acci- dent which occurred at the County Fair grounds, in that city, on the 2nd inst. About 2,000 people had assembled on a newly-erected grand stand to witness the races, when the centre of the stand gave way with a crash, the front part falling outward and the back part falling into the river, precipitating the mass of people into the ruins. Work was at once begun to ex- tricate the dead and wounded. The Opera-house was opened, and many of the dead and wounded, as fast as they were extricated, were conveyed there. Many of the injured were taken away by friends, so that the actual number cannot be ascertained. The total number of deaths up to the afternoon of the 3rd inst, was 16, and the seriously injured numbered 75, some of whom, the physicians stated, could not survive. AFRICAN EXPLORATION. — M. Paiva de Andrada haa just started for Mozambique, accompanied by a staff of engineers, to survey the banks of the Zambesi, and to ascertain the possibility of exploring, on a large scale, the tract of country of which the Portuguese Go- vernment recently granted him a concession. The matter has been taken up by a company, which pro. poses to establish a colony at Zumbo, about 50 miles from Tete. They have the exclusive privilege for 20 years of searching for and working mines of gold, coal, iron, copper, &c., and of exploring the woods and forests belonging to the State. In addition, the Go- vernor-General of Mozambique is authorized to make them a grant of 250,000 acres of land. News has been received that the Indian elephants presented by the King of the Belgians to the International African As. sociation have reached Mpwapwa in safety, and have so far given satisfaction. It is believed that an en- deavour will probably be made to use them at first for catching and taming African elephants. There is also a rumous at Zanzibar that Mr. Sanderson is to be Invited to go over from India for a time, and to take with him his staff for the purpose of catching and training African elephants for the service of the Bel- gian expeditions.—Academy. SALMON IN THE THAMES.—In the Inspectors of Salmon Fisheries' Report for 1879, may be found the following interesting account:—" About 1820 a salmon of 201b. weight was caught by a fisherman named Finmore. It was taken in a deep hole near Surly Hall, jufct above Windsor. This was sold to the king for a guinea a pound, who then resided at Virginia Water. A salmon was wanted in 1821 for the corona- tion of King George IV., and 30s. per pound was offered. No salman could be caught in time for the dinner, but the day after two were caught between Blackwall and Woolwich Reaches." NEAPOLITAN INDUSTRIES.—Some suggestive facts bearing on English commerce are mentioned by Mr. Consul Grant on his report for 1878. The engineering operations of the Italian Metal Works Company at Castellamare, started in 1871, have been a great suc- cess, and have entirely relieved Italy from all fears of foreign competition in the matter of iron bridges and railway plant generally. Between 1871 and 1878 this company has erected 801 iron bridges, mostly for Italian railway?, besides supplying 25,371 square mfetres of railway station and other roofs. All the pig iron consumed comes from Belgium. The wages per day of ten hours are as follows :-Fittera, Is. 2d. to 19. 9d. firemen, Is. 4d. to Is. 6d. erecters, Is. 9d. to 2a. 5d. strikers, lB. to Is. 4d. boys, 4Jd. to 5id. The work. men are described as sober, willing, and intelligent. The cotton industry of the district is nearly entirely in the hands of Germans and Swiss, who have greatly im- proved their machinery and raised their standard of production, As the raw material can be procured from India direct, and wages are very low, English cotton goods, such as domestics, T-cloths, and prints, are nearly driven out of the market. HINT FOB THE WINTER (in advan-ce). -How to keep your rooms warm—keep your grates coal'd.—Punch. IN PRAISE OF RED HAIB.-An admirer of red hair, who has it himself, glorifies that style thus :— "Throughout creation, nature appears to delight in red. It predominates in the pleasure of the imagina- tion, for whatever is beautiful, agreeable or sublime, partakes of red. The rainbow, the rose, and the charming lip and cheek of beauty's self, the sun, the source of heat and light, all are red as ia also the fire, the mighty autocrat of the universe. The most brilliant flowers, the most delicious fruits, the orange, the apple, and the peach, are red. Through the animal kingdom red predominates, as in the king of beasts, the lion. But go further: Adam, the first mankind, was red. The greatest of Grecians, Jupiter, Apollo and Jove, were crimson. Samson, whose strength was gigantic, derived his power from his red hair, and the destiny of the empire of Athens depended on the red hair of Niøus. Queen Elizabeth had red hair-so had Spenser and Shakspeare. Milton is another instance of the proof of my proposition. Also Defoe, the author of that world-renowned story, son Orusoe, Lafayette had red hair; Bonaparte's nair was of this colour. Artemug Ward has red hatr; so have the Red Indians, or else why so named ? &c. SALT PRODUCTION IN GERMANY,—Some interesting particulars as to the salt trade are given in the August number of the Government statistics published at Berlin. The production of rock salt has been rather on the increase, while that of salt obtained from salines has somewhat decreased. It Is as follewB (1 centner, 1101b.):—Rock salt, oent- ners: 1877-78, 3,220,992 centners; 1878-79, 3,757.186 centners. Salines, 1876. 8.3L1.061 ceatners; 1877-78, 8,317,886 centners; 1878.79,8.205 531 centners. Russia takes by far the largest amount of salt from Germany, as regards the exports, her requirements in 1878-79 (775,258 centners) having more than doubled those of 1873 (338,655 centners). Austria, the Netherlands, and Norway are the next largest-cuftomen). The total exports of German salt in 1878.79 were 2,089,785 centners. The applications of salt to the various industries during the past year were-in the prepara- tion and PregeryajQ°?0i)^ fodder, 1,815,251 centnen; artificial manure, 59,227; soda and glauber salt manu- factories, 1,783,816; chemical and dyeing works, 208,660; soap and candle works, 104,870; leather and tanning trades, 103,381; metal trades, 64,254; glass and pottery, 50,616; sundry technical uses. 31,256; total, 4,2217333. DISASTERS AT SEA.—There were 25 British and foreign wrecks reported during the past week, m^g a total of 1,268 for the present year, or an increase of 120 as compared with the corresponding period of last year. The approximate value of property lost was je540,000, including British, £ 320,000. THE MANHOOD OF AMEBICA.-Under the above title a lecture was delivered in London, on Tuesday evening, at Exeter Hall, by the Hon. L. U. Reavis, of St. Louis, U.S.A., who embodied in his address some interesting information respecting the North American Continent, its productive power and physical features, and the growth and the commercial interests of the United States. The object of the lecture was, Mr. Reavis stated, to present America as the land of refuge for the toiling millions of European peoples who are seeking homes for them- selves and their posterity on the wide areas of the globe. Mr. Reavis marshalled his facts and figures in an able manner, and managed to open up an attractive prospect for emigrants to the West. Referring to the ocate of Missouri, he said that there was no more in. viting field for those who wished to cultivate the soil or to engage in manufacturing industry of any kind. liaten^ to!' WM cordMjr received and attentively Near the village of Beeton, county of South Sunooe Ontario, Canada, there ia a bee farm which is probably one of the most extensive and successful things of the kind in the world. It consists of four bee-yards situate at the angles of a square which embraces several square miles of country. The current year, so far, has proved favourable for honey. Mr. D. A. Jones, the owner of the bee farm had at the end of July already secured 50,0001b. of honey from 620 stocks of bees. He expects a total yield for the year of 70,0001b. of honey from his 19,000,000 little workers. A TUNNEL THROUGH MONT BLANc.-The proposal of French engineers to carry a tunnel through Mont Blanc, instead of the Simplon, is receiving considerable attention in Switzerland. In the French Senate, General Billot, on the Commission respecting the com- pletion of French railways, had already advocated the superior claims of the Mont Blanc route, and now, in a special brochure, M. Chardon, Deputy for Upper Savoy, adds his voice in support of the latter scheme. His chief reasons in favour of it are, first, that the tunnel through the Alps would thus be entirely on French territory and, secondly, that by the Mont Blanc route the distance between Paris and Genoa will be 97 kilometres shorter than by the Simplon line, while the distance from Paris to Milan will be shorter by 44 kilometres, that between Geneva and Genoa by 140 kilometres, and that between Geneva and Milan by 88 kilometres. The cost, moreover, would, accord- ing to M. Chardon, be smaller and the work would be executed more rapidly, so as to be ready by the opening of the St. Gothard line. The tunnel would be carried through the mountain from Chamounix to Cormayeur at a height of 1,014 metresi The estimated outlay would only be 75 million franca, while by the Simplon route the cost would be no less than 136 million francs. PRAYER BOOK LEGISLATION.—At the suggestion of Archdeacon Denison, two meetings will tie held in London to declare that it is not expedient at the pre- sent time to alter the Prayer Book. The Archdeacon, writing on the Bubject, says:—"There are remedies for the difficulties of a position which are worse than the disease. Such a remedy is the convocational legislation' n~w proposed. There are two ways of dealing with this remedy—one to leave it alone to be rejected by Parliament, the other to prevent its being discussed in Parliament. In bringing together the meetings to be held iu London, Thursday, November 13, I nava invited churchmen of all sections to con- centrate their strength upon the latter of the two Ways above specified, as heing, under all aspects, much the better of the two." SMALL-POX IN HOLLAND —A Dutch correspondent writes (says the Echo) During the year of small-pox epidemic, in 187L, there were in Holland alone 15,787 deaths from that disease. In the year following the number of fatal caseB still amounted to 3,7Jl; in 1873 it was 351; and in 1874 130. Sinse then no official statistics of small-pox cases have been given; but the Handehblad publishes monthly lists of deaths from various ca.ueaa in the twelve greatest towns of Hol- land. For some time past," the correspondent con- tinues, I have carefully watched these list", and in- variably against small-pox deaths I found the mark nil. In the last two or three publications of those lists I have missed the column 'Smallpox', altogether. Vaccination is not compu'sory in Holland; but no child may be admitted to the public schools unless it has been vaccinated." SMOKING IN THE DARK—The question has been asked why a man smoking a pipe should not be aware when the candle is put out whether the tobacco is still burning. There it, first the point of fact. It may be questioned if any one really finds himself in the diffi- culty supposed. We believe, under certain condi- tions the doubt may exist. Smokers are not always large consumers ef the weed. They often form a habit of taking very little smoke into the mouth and of breathing chiefly through the nose. The consequence is that the "pleasure "of smoking may consist in having something to do, and the sensation of doing that something is quite as likely to be a matter of seeing as of tasting. In cases of this class the smoker, being deprived of his accustomed evidence of means of enjoyment, may be distressed. Of course, it is not alleged that a man cannot ascertain whether the contents of his ptoe are lighted when he happens to be in the dark. That would be sheer folly. Mean- while the experiment, if such it can be called, is well calculated to draw attention to the economic question how far the pleasure of smoking is generally imaginary. If it be, a suitable substitute for the expensive cigar and wasteful pipe might be found in some permanent material, of proper consistency, moulded into the ap. proved shape. It has long been a mystery to some smokers how other smokers could systematically smoke bad cigars; the mystery may be dispelled if it should turn out that the fumes of the tobacco consumed are not even inhaled.-Lancet. A DISTINGUIHED EMIGRANT.—Amongst other pas- sengers by the National Steamship Company's steamer France, which left the Victoria, Docks the other day, is a magnificent three-year-old bull, Prince George, by Royal G jorge—Katherine. He was bred by his Royal Highness Prince Christian, at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Park, and is sent to New York for account of his present owner, Mr. William Arbuthnot, of Coworth Park. Ruyal George, the sire, bred by Her Majesty the Queen, at the Royal Dairy Farm, Windsor, realised in this country the handsome sum of £2,500. A NEW TORPEDO.-Very satisfactory trials have, saya the New York Army and Navy Journal, been recently made with an "aggreaatve torpedo" of a novel and peculiar design lately invented by Captain Ericsson, The torpedo with which the experiments were made ia 19 feet long and 15 inches in diameter at its largest part, but pointed at both ends and carries a charge of 2501b. of explosive substance In its head. The tail is provided with a cast iron armarture, to balance the weight of the charge in the head, and the whole torpedo weighs 1,2811b. The peculiar feature in this new weapon is that instead of being propelled below the surface of the water by machinery placed within the t rpedo itself and worked by compressed air, Captain Ericsson's torpedo is fired from a gun, the bore of which it exactly fits, a cast iron piston being employed to transmit to it the initial energy of the charge and the gradually diminishing energy of the expanding powder gases, while the tail end of the torpedo is made blunt to enable it to withstand the crushing effect of the great pressure brought to bear upon it. A BALLOON AaciDENT.—A San FransiBoo despatch states that Professor Colgrove, aeronaut, and C. H. Williams, manager of Woodward Gardens, attempted to make a balloon ascension from the gardens on the 5th instant. The wind was blowing almost a gale at the time. The balloon seemed to be insufficiently in. flated, and rose heavily above the buildings of the garoen. It soon after dropped and sendded along at a low elevation, tearing away telegraph wires in its flight. The cloth soon ripped, and the gas escaped with a roar which was heard for a great distance. Both of the occupants were thrown out, falling in Folsom street, and the balloon came down a few rods beyond. vVuuama was fearfully crushed about the face and head, and died in a few moments. Colgrove's injuries seemed to be mostly internal; he died soon afterwards. The disaster created great excitement. Professor Marton, the aeronaut, and others who were present at the ascent begged Mr. Williams not to ge uP. Baying that in the half gale which was blowing he was literally taking his life in his hands. DESTRUCTION OF FiBBDAMP.—A mining student of Freiberg has invented an improved lamp for the pro- tection of life against explosions of fire-damp. It 18 based upon the property possessed by ethiope of olatinum of condensing on its surface not only oxygen, but also light carburettad hydrogen even when only small quantities of it exist in the atmosphere, and in this close contact of the two gases effecting a dark combustion of the carburetted hydrogen. A wire- gauze lamp is charged with pieces of pumice stone, impregnated with ethiops of platinum. These lumps are surrounded by coke to protect them, and enclosed in the lamp, which is then ready. In the presence of fire-damp the ethtops of platinum attracts ,vhe gas, which is gradually and harmlessly destroyed, the con- sumption being within the gauze and not of a nature to ignite a surrounding explosive atmosphere^. Mr. Korner, the inventor, points out that a great van- tage of this safety inflammable^ air-consuminBjj\anoP consists in ite not requiring continuous at'/??con a»a maintenance, as the ethiops of platinum *»■ a large quantity of the light tbe ja) >gen without losing its properties. Control as ip 1 effected through the escaping places "eB* cribed may be advantageously « journal. rl\o;)"f8 there is inflammable air, 4f»w»»y
enr. Janbmt Caraspaitiicnf. fWe ileem it right to state that we do not at all timet ■lentil) ourselves with our Correspondent's opinions.] One dark Octobar day, nearly half a generation ago, tbe bells in many a pariah church throughout England were set tolling because of the death of the Prime Minister. It was a, most unusual occurrence for a statesman holding that high and distinguished office to die in harness; and thus it came to pass that the removal of Lord Falmerston from the soene of his long and active labours erased a profound impression. The noble lord was staying at the time at Brockett Hall, in Hertfordshire three months before there had been a general election; and the country had confirmed him in office by a very considerable majority. On the 20th October, 1665, he would have completed his Slat, year, and a few friends were gathered at Brockett Hall to celebrate the birthday. But on the mom. tag of the 16th there appeared in some of the London papers an ominously-worded paragraph re- specting the health of the veteran Premier, which created uneasiness that speedily deepened into alarm. And yet, upon reflection, people could scarcely realise the fact of Lord Falmerston being taken from amongst them. For nearly sixty years he had been a member of the Houee of Commons; and his official career aa Secretary at War began in the early daya of the pre- sent century. He seemed to have become a per. manent institution of the state; while a genial and kindly old age had made him universally popular amongst the masses of his countrymen. However, here was the news of his illness; on the 17th the tidings were worse; on the 18th hope had vanished; and on the afternoon of that day—a day of drenching rain and funereal gloom-the words Lord Palmerston b dead!" appeared to fall like a knell as they passed rapidly from one to another throughout the metropolis. He did not live to see his 81st birthday after all. And so the body was brought to the noble lord's town residence at Cambridge House, Piccadilly and on the 27th of the same month was laid to its rest in Westminster Abbey, close to that Palace of the Legislature where he had so often wrestled in the political arena. His marble monu- ment now looks down upon his grave; and hard by the venerable minster. in Parliament-square, his statue stands with those of other statesmen whose political struggles marked the progress of an age that has long since passed away. The hives of the teeming industry of Lancashire have suddenly assumed a political importance in anti- cipation of the approaching general election. That event nay be postponed for even another fifteen months; but come it must at last; for there can be nothing terrestrial which is not overtaken by Time in the end. And as the great and absorbing conflict at the polls looms in the distance, the two great parties in the State are gathering together their forces to battle. Lancashire is, for the time, the chief centre of interest. The echoes of the voices of three Secre- taries of State at Manchester have scarcely died away before, in the same city, Lord Hartington, and Mr. Bright take up the word on behalf of what Edmund Barke was accustomed to call Her Majesty's Opposi* tion." Certainly Lancashire is well worth fighting for. It returns 33 members to the House of Commons, and there is only one county in England which sends more. That is Yorkshire, which has 38. Both counties claim to represent publie opinion in a more than ordi' nary degree. Lancashire declares that what it thinks to-day Eugland will think to-morrow. Of its populous neighbour it is said that when the West Biding speaks, Yorkshire speaks; and when Yorkshire wpeaks, England speaks. However, between them they return more than seventy representatives of the people; and without giving an opinion as to which Is the more important of the two shires, there is not an Englishman who would not be inclined to point with pride to their industrial activity, their commercial enterprise, their indomitable energy, and the pictures which they severally present of the life that has done 80 much to develope the qualities of a great and prosperous people. While in these islands the month of October has been almost rainless, thus strongly contrasting with the experience of the past few months, or rather of the cret three quarters of the year, terrible floods have visited some partB of Spain; and under the sunshine of our autumnal skies it is startling to read of whole villages being in ruins, of people being drowned by the hundred, and of thousands of peaaanta being utterly destitute. The King has proceeded to the scene of the disaster, and subscriptions to relieve the dis- tress of the suffering survivors have been opened throughout the Spanish Peninsula. These cala- mitous inundations are certainly most capricioua in their character. Four years ago it was France which was the scene of the visitation. Next came the turn of Italy then Hungary, as illustrated by the destruction of Szegedin; and now the blow has fallen upon Spain, which can ill afford to bear it. The cut- tjbog down of vast forests upon the mountain sides is frequently the cause of such catastrophes. When the forests are in existence the rainfall is to a great extent absorbed into the earth, which is necessarily loosened by the roots of the trees; but when these trees have been removed, there is absolutely no check to the violence of the torrent, which pours down the sides of the mountains into the valleys, bearing death and devastation to the peaceful inhabitants. So convinced is the Italian Government of the value of trees as tend- ing to prevent destructive floods that they are now seeking to atone for past errors in the wholesale re- moval of forests by planting trees in the districts which have been subjected to these periodical inundations, Snore especially in the basins of the Po and the Arno. The fact that a daughter has been born to the Duchess of Cumberland, although little noticed by the English journals, is well worth a passing observa- tion. The Duchess of Cumberland was the Princess Thyra, the youngest daughter of the King of Denmark, a sister of the Princess of Wales. ot the King of Greece, and of the Czarevna of Russia. The Duke is titular King of Hanover, son of the sovereign who was aligning over that country in 1866, when upon the out- break of the war between Austria and Prussia he took the Bide of the former, and was deposed when the Prussian armies became victorious. That monarch, who cied last year, and was buried at Windsor, was the cousin of the QasØA; and to the day of his death he was always described in the Court Circular as "King George of Hanover." But no such descrip- tion has ever been officially applied to his successor. Although he still maintains his claims to the Hanoverian throne, he has never been anything but the Duke of Cumberland in our court chronicles. Thus it was that the London Gazette contained the official intimation that the Duchees of Cumberland- not the Qaeen of Hanover-had been safely delivered of a daughter on Austrian soil. The Duke ia a peer of the blood royal in like manner as the Duke of Cambridge. If the best way to keep the peace is to be prepared for war. the peace maintained by England ought to be a Ion)! one. Upon our army and navy we spend nearly thirty millions annually; and a considerable proportion of the population devotes its sole time to tho&e works of defensive preparation which our naval and military authorities hold to be necessary. Sham. fights upon the land are common enough; and at 8u;h pi'es as Aldershot and Shorncliffe the advance of military science may be witnessed in various atagesofttt) df velopment. Butooeof the most interesting incident* w h ch the newep^p^g have lately had to record was the 3>t,tu;k by torpedo boats on Fort Monckton at Portsmouth, which the umpires declared to be in favour of the landsmen. The mimic fight lasted an hour, at th, close of which all the torpedo launches were hel/t to have been beaten-a decision eminently ■atisittcfcory to the defenders of English soil from the assault f auppoaed invader, and one which may possibly Jf-afi o a higher degree of tactical skill in the <oMtructn ud handling of those swift and deadly little ir.-m whose attack, effectually delivered, the most wrjfal ironclad afloat might founder and go down. The i f Prince Leopold to Sheffield is an event •4 l»u; li ■ *vv rest beyond the district which has more Jsune-iiate ombined to do honour to the youngest of the Queen. When Lord Beaconsfield proposed a "pu a iowanca of £15,000 a year to Prince Leopold, in accordance with the precedent esta- blished in the cases of the Dukes of Edinburgh and Connaught, he spoke of the Btudious habits of his Royal Highness, and of the way in which he had devoted himself to literature and art. The immediate purpose of his now going to Sheffield was to open the Firth College, a noble institution erected at the sole cost of Mr. Mark Firth, one of the merchant princes of that busy town. Mr. Firth haa expended JEM, 000 in order to carry on the University extension schools in Sheffield, and Prince Leopold travelled from Balmoral to open the college. Mr. Firth was Mayor of Sheffield in 1875, on the occasion of the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to that town, which cheerfully raised more than £100,000 to defray the expenses of the reception of their Royal Highnesses. That was before hard times fell upon Sheffield and upon the cation; but the magnificent hospitality of the Sheffield people was not forgotten at Marlborough House, all was shown clearly enough last winter, when the Princess of Wales, in sending a subscription to alleviate the distress in the town of paralysed industry, made especial reference to the way in which she and the Prince had been received there three years before. Whether the move lately made by trade ia as some avow the result of unsound speculation, or the pre- cursor of a return of that national prosperity which it was once our fortune to enjoy, there can be no doubt that we stand upon the threshold of the winter on terms very different from those of this time twelve months. It was in October, 1878, that disturbing influences &rose in commercial circles, which added to the gloom and depression of a winter of exceptional severity. Those disturbing influences exist no longer; confidence seems to be reviv- ing, and owing to the receipt of foreign orders, some of our branches of industry are displaying an activity to which they have been strangers for years. It is true that meteorologists tell us of another winter being in store for us which will resemble its prede. cessor; and the cold wave which has lately passed over these islands would appear to lend some degree of strength to that prediction. A severe frost is reported from Bordeaux, which threatens the already compro- mised claret vintage of that district. Still, the winter if hard, will not abound with such stories of destitu- tion as did that of last year. Hitherto the riches of the British Museum have been inaccessible to those who, with evenings only at their disposal, have found the great national collection closed at that time, six o'clock in the summer being the latest period at which It is kept open, while in the winter it is shut up at four. A strong objection has always been felt on the part of the trustees to the use of gas, which might possibly endanger the safety of some portions of the building. The electric light is, however, to be brought into requisition; and if it proves as successful as in illuminating the streets and squares,—where it is now one of the Bights of the metropolia.-a material add-on will be made to the usefulness of the British Museum as one of tha great national institutions to which all classes ccntri- bate,
The SANITARY CONGRESS at CROYDON. SALUTLAND, AN IDEAL OF A HEALTHY PEOPLE." The annual Congress of the Sanitary Institute was opened on Tuesday at Croydon, and in illustration of the practical objecti of the Congress, an exhibition of engineering ap- pliances and of articles serving In the advancement of domestic knowledge and economy, had been brought to- gether, with much care and commensurate success. The meeting was numerously attended by gentlemen interested in the progress of sanitary reform. Dr. A. Carpenter, on behalf of the inhabitants of Croydon, gave the Institute a cordial welcome to Croydon, and dwelt upon the Important task It had undertaken In the work of preventive medicine. He expressed theiiope that, sooner or later, the Institute would obtain a charter, to give the stamp of authority for its teachings to sanitary officers; but he considered that even now local health authorities should not appoint sanitary ofreers-surveyors and inspectors-who had not obtained the certificate of the institute showing that they were fully competent to dlsoharge the important duties of their offices. Dr. Klchardson (the President of the Congress), in respond- ing to the welcome, commented on the success which had attended the work ef the Institute. The Chairman of the day (Mr. Diummond), In responding to the toast of his health, gave a short and interesting sketch of the town's history as regards its health, of the work of its Local Board, and the success which had attended its efforts. In 1818, he said, when the Act of Parliament passed which gave localities the power to form Local Boards of Health, Croydon was one of the first to apply for a provisional order. Ha described the valley of the Wandle below Croydon as being at that time in a marshy state, but by the work of the Board the land was drained, and the rateable value at once Increased. At that time. 1843, the town of Croydon, which was spread over a large acre- age, had no sewerage. The Local Board mapped out the town and carried out the works but the cost was practi- cally nil, for the money was borrowed over a term of years, and the increased rentals bore the cost. The rates were go. 4d. In the pound 16 years ago, and they were the same now with aU the improvements carried out. in the same way Croydon had supplied Its own water. The population of Croydon, when these works commenced, was 20,000; now It was 70,000 its rental value had Increased trom £ 60,000 to £ 360,000, and its death-rate, which up to 1848 stood at 23'66 per 1,000, was now far below the average rate of London, being only 17 81 per 1,000. In the evening the meeting was held In the great public hall to hear Dr. Richardson's address, entitled-" Salutland, an Ideal of a.Healthy People," and the following report of which we take from The jMaK< :— Dr. Richardson commenced by giving the ages to which various animals lived naturally, as stated by Dr. Owen and Flourens. From these figures it ap- peared that animal life extended to five times the num. ber of years taken by the animal to arrive at maturity. Thus an elephant was young at 30, and lived to 150 years a horse was matured at five years and was full- aged at 25; the lion and ox, which were matured at four, came to full age at 20; the cat, which matured at 18 months, had full life at seven and a half years and the rabbit, which matured in a year, came to full age at five. Continuing, Dr. Richardson pro- ceeded to say :—" From these contemplations our minds very naturally revert to the animal man -to the members of the human family. Man, we learn, follows the same rule as the rest of living beings. His maturitir-perhaps not quite the full maturity- ia twenty years. His full age, therefore, is hundred years. This is the anatomical estimate of human life, the surest and by far the best of all that can be sup- plied, since it defines a law irrespective of and over- riding all those accidental circumstances of social and physical storm and strife which may interfere, and, indeed, do interfere, with every estimate based on the career of Ufa itself, all it is shown in the epehemera by and through whom it is phenomenally demon- strated. We are led once again to the inevitable con- conclusion that man, even in this stage of his proba- tion on the planet, is naturally destined to walk upon it, endowed with sensibilities of life and intelligence, for a period of a hundred years, and that until he re?H?e8 'k*8 destiny practically he is in value of physi- °~ actually degraded far below his earth-mates, whom be designates the brute creation, and over m? PreBUDQea to exercise his, to them, almighty will. The constant of human life is naturally 100 years. 13ut more remaina. Because the fulness of age is 100 years it ia not an essential that death shall immediately crown the advent of that fulness. To certain parte of the scheme of natural life there is a boundary. The period of maturity of development has its boundary of twenty years, when the body, as Flourens says, ceases to grow; but if it ceases, in the ordinary sense of the term, to grow, it does not cease to increase; its nutrition improves and perfecta for twenty years more at least, and then only has reached its complete physical condition. It should never from that period gain in weight, and for a long time it should not lose. It goes on now through a third period, which Flourens admirably calls the period of invigoration, during which all its parts become firmer, all ite functions more certain, all its organi- zation more perfect, and this period coverB thirty years. At seventy old age begins--the first old age, in which naturally the fruits of wisdom are most bountifully developed, and which lasts from fifteen years to 20, to mellow down to a period of ripe old age, commencing at 85 years and lasting 15 yeara more-i, e., until the constant ia attained. And yet there need not now be death; for though, as Lord Bacon haa said, old men are like rained towers, and though, as Flourens has quoted, youths live in a double sense, with forces in reserve and forces in action, vires in posse et vires in actu,-the radical forces and acting forces of Barthez, while old men live only on the forces in action,—' vires in aetu,' possessing no reserve, it is wonderful how the forces in action will continue after the reserve is withdrawn. This kind of half-life has continued unquestionably many years beyond the fulness of age, both in man and lower animals, and to give it 20 years beyond the natural 100 is to be just without being in any extreme sense generous. In this anatomical reading of human life we see the growth, the increase, the invigora- ration, and the solidification of the body we see the life with its reserves on its two threads; the life without reserve on its one thread; and, finally-the force in action being withdrawn—the life ceasing, and the earth, proclaiming her mastery, dragging the actor aa unconacioualy to herself at death as he was unconsciously projected into the world at birth. How many sink naturally to the earth for her final and gentle embrace ? The answer to this question appals the mind, Some individual UTØI the whole natural period of life, exceptionally, as an elephant, a horse, a lion, a dog, a cat lives it ordinarily, and thus, by ad- venture, proves the truth of the law which has been laid down. The event, perfectly commonplace in the case of a lower animal-a dog that lives to ten—is a perfect marvel, when it happens, to a man who lives to a hundred years, the equal term. To see a cen- tenarian we travel miles and miles, and discuss the time of his birth with keenest criticism, so truly un- natural is the state of things under which human exist- ence at present is unfilled. The question arises, how long is this condition of affairs to last ? No more vital ques- tion stands for solution at the bar of civilization. To speak in plain terms-and if ever plain terms were de- manded theyare demanded now-theworld in this matter of life and death has by daily observation of the phenomena got into the habit of looking on wrong as right, and on what is practically suicidal death as death that is natural. It is a strange fatuity. If we were, for a short time, to see the lower domestic creatures under the same curse; if we were to witness horses enjoying ten, dogs four, and cata three years, as an average duration of their lives, we should think that a persistent murrian had come upon them, and that, in relation to these useful domestic animals, the whole course of life had undergone a deteriorative change. Yet that is what, in effect, we are observing among our own kind. Why should we, of all animals, perish as we do in the first part of the second third of our natural career ? The answer is that we have never as a community let ourselves study the question; have never, in truth, looked at the facts plainly as they stand forth. And now comes another question-- Knowing what is the natural term of human life, can mankind learn to attain that term ? Can man learn to live his hundred years, with a prospective chance of extension to a fifth of a century more ? I do not dare answer that question on my own account, because it is answered for me. He who gave the life has answered the question. He has written it for us in unmistakeable language. He has shown all of us who can read His natural designs, that It is one of them that man may live the term if he will. Free-will, making a man a free agent, is all that is set above the natural law, and free-will is natural law too, governed by intelligence which is as natural, and is as freely supplied. How, then, shall civilized man live, that the natural term may be found ? There are many modes of replying to this inquiry. I prefer, in the reply I shall venture to offer, to frame what I have to say in the most easy form. I address you, a learned body of men and women but I remember, at the same time, that through you I am addressing thou- sands also who will read what you hear, many of whom are most easily approachable by a description which will hold the imagination while it conveys the moral. Permit me, therefore, after having built an ideal city, now to create an ideal people that shall show a model longevity a people that shall have an ordinary term of life of 100, and prospective term of 120 years." Dr. Richardson then sketched out his people of Salutland as a people dwelling in the 50th year of the 21st century of the Christian sera in a point of the earth's surface lying to the extreme south of the region fancifully called New America. The land he pictured as having been peopled 100 years at the time he gives their bistory, and he sketches their lives. They have never engaged in war, they have no centre of Government, all their oities being equal, and they practice the cardinal virtues of the Christian religion in loving their neighbours as themselves. In regard to their social and domestic life he puts it that it is considered that a centre of life con- taining, in a limited space, more than 100,000 people is a danger, is in truth, for all purposes of health, unmanageable. Death, they hold, is the shadow of birth, and if large communities be admitted in which people are herded together the shadow may be calculated with as much accuracy as an eclipse. Five separate dwelling-houses to an acre of land, and five persons to a separate dwelling-house, is the densest population allowed. The houses, large and small, are all built, with varieties only of artistic design, on arches which raise them from the ground; the bed- rooms are disconnected altogether from the living rooms; gardens are all around, and gardens are on the roofs. In the midst of the towns the eye ia struck with the cultivation of fruit trees that prevails. The towns of Salutland might be called, as ancient Nor- wich once was called, the towns or cities of orchards. Throughout all the country the land is under cultiva- tion of the most perfect kind for cereal produce and fruit and vegetables. Through this cultivation there are interspersed magnificent parks and glades, in which harmless animals of the most beautiful kind are free to wander. Every tameable animal is there, and all ani- mals are objects of singular and lively interest. The rivers and lakes are filled with varied kinds of fish, and every sort of bird that can be collected, retained, and naturalized on the land is also to be seen. A man, woman, or child, who for wanton pleasure should hunt down or torture one of the Inferior crea- tures would be cast out of society, while the idea of having the dumb creature killed and hung up in open shops to bleed and be quartered and cooked for human beings to live on, would be treated with as much disgust as we should now treat the prac. tice of the owners of those African shambled for human remains, which Professor Huxley, in one of his most charming boohs, has so faithfully re- copied to illustrate the history of a past civilisation. Animals are, notwithstanding, still used by our model people. Their fleeces are used for clothing, their milk for food, and many of them are made to work. The elephant works with art intelligence and skill that is almost human, and with a power that is superhuman, so that he is one of the most useful and faithful and beet beloved of all the lower animals in the land. He is the rival of the horse, which is also much cared for, and is bred in a state of great perfection for bearing the rider, to which duty he is mainly consigned. He is in nfach request, for all persons in Salutland, male and female, are consummate in the Baddle; their country, which contains vast and fertile plains, divided by splendid roads, and their atmosphere which, except during a short periodical rainy season, is mild and dry, being remarkably suitable for horse exercise. The roads leading from one pait of the country to the other are maintained in the most perfect efficiency, smooth in all parts, and dry as our best aephalte. Transit along these highways on horseback and by velocipede has supplanted most other modes of per- sonal conveyance. The lines of railway, once so general, have lapsed now into conveyance for heavy goods mainly. The cott of coal haa rendered steam locomotive power very limited, while aerial locomotion has replaced steam-propelled carriages in a marked degree." In this land there would ba no workhouses or gaols, and Dr Richardson entered fully into the fanciful day-by-day work, and described the people as in the keenest enjoyment of life. One reason of their acquired health would be that they had mastered the pesti- lential diseases. An epidemic from pollution of air, of water, of food would be with them impossible. The hereditary tendencies to disease would be either lost altogether or so nearly eradicated as to be prac- tically removed. Thus, with the fewest accidental exceptions, the men and women would attain the sacred age. Their death-rate would be normal and constant, at eight in the thousand per year, and death itself, painless, final sleep, would be hardly more than departure to rest when the day of work was done. He traced out at length the measures by which this could be attained by a thoughtful and studious people, and interspersed his fanciful pictures with many hints of practical value, in which he urged the evils of inter- marriage, by which diseases of the hereditary type progressed, and he gave suggestions with regard to the conversion of man to be a frugivorous or fruit-eating a.nimal, urging that life was greatly shortened by the overwork thrown upon the stomach. The address occupied nearly two hours in delivery. It was frequently applauded, and some of Dr. Richardson's fancies caused much laughter. He re- sumed his seat amid much cheering, and Mr. Drum. mond, who spoke of the lessons to be learnt from the address, moved a vote of thanks, which was carried and acknowledged.
On Wednesday, Dr. A. Carpenter delivered an ad- dress on The First Principles of Sanitary Work," in the couise of which he said that a very large portion of diseases resulted from fatty degeneration of the tissue, which he attributed to the habitual use of alcoholic liquors. Before English people could have a perfect health-which was the birthright of every child born into the world-it would be necessary to alter our plans respecting the breeding of cattle and our methods of housing and feeding them. Animals fell an easy prey to every kind of epidemic. We could not remove disease from our midst, or reduce the death-rate much below 17 in the 1,000, until we could ensure a more healthy progeny amongst our domestic animals. Professor Da Chaumont read a paper on Some points in reference to drinking water," and Dr. Horace Smete followed in a paper on Interpretation of water analysis tor drinking purposes."