FEARFUL EXPLOSION IN THE HARTLE- POOL TEMPERANCE HALL. •An explosion of a fearful character took place in the Hartlepool Temperance Hall on Friday night, by which two females were frightfully injured. A Mr. and Mrs. Morley, together with some local vocalists, who have recently been conducting the People's Con- cert Hall, announced their favourite entertainment in the Temperance Hall for Friday night, and, during the evening, "Pepper's Ghost" had to fee exhibited, under the management of Mr. Morley. A t about a quarter-past eight o'clock there was a tolerably large audience assembled awaiting the commencement of the entertainment, when a bright light illuminated the side of, the building, succeeded by a most violent report, resembling the sound of some heavy ordnance. The whole building shook, the seats rattled, and the people were lifted from their seats, and the greatest consternation prevailed amongst the assembly. Dense volumes of smoke began to ascend .the staircase at each side of the platform and through the boards, and before the people had time to know the position they were placed in-whether an accident had occurred, or whether it was the preliminary of the ghost illusion—they were almost suffocated. A cry of Fire was raised, and a rush was made to the dif- ferent doors. In the passage leading into the rooms occupied by the keeper a frightful spectacle met the eye. Two females were enveloped in flames, and were writhing in agony on the floor. Mr. Morley and Mr. Reed were the two first to enter the place, and all was in darkness, except where the flames produced by the burning clothing of the two females cast a light, which was the only means by which they could discover where the poor women were. They managed to drag them out from among the debris almost in a state of insensibility, and succeeded in extinguishing the flames, but not without burning their own hands. One of the females was the wife of Mr. Reed, the hall keeper, and she was burned in a most frightful manner, and bruised in various parts of the body by the fragments which were scattered about. Medical aid was immediately sent for, and although Mrs. Reed suffers most excruciatingly from the burns, her injuries are not of such a nature as are expected to produce fatal results. The other woman is named Mrs. White, wife of a seaman, but her injuries are not of so serious a character as those of Mrs. Reed, although she has one very serious burn on the side of her neck. It appears Mr. Morley had obtained leave from Mr. Reed to manufacture the gas required for the lime light neeessary for the gas illusion in his kitchen, and a little after eight o'clock he had all his apparatus ready, and a large fire was made Tip at his request. The crucible, containing a large quantity of black oxide of manganese, and double the amount of chlorate of potass, was placed on the fire, con- nected by a tube to a retort. Mrs. Reed and Mrs. White were sitting opposite the fireplace, and they inquired of Mr. Morley if there was any danger in the preparation, and he said it was "quite harmless." He left the room for a few minutes to attend to some, other business, and in his absence the chemicals ex- ploded in consequence of heat being rapidly applied making four times the amount of gas the tube to the retort would convey. The oven, copper, and stove were blown into the middle of the room, the furniture was destroyed, the windows smashed into atoms, the ceiling came down, the door was blown off, and the fenders and fire-irons were broken into numerous fragments, and scattered with terrible force about the room, making innumerable indentations in the walls. The females were sitting one at each side of the table, and the chairs and table were smashed to pieces, and how they escaped with their lives seems to astonish every one who has visited the scene of the explosion. A large iron bar from the fire-grate was sent two inches into the passage wall directly in a line with where the females ware sitting.
gREAT FIRE IN THE CITY. Destruction of Haberdashers- Hall. Between the hours of three and four o'clock on IVIonday morning a fire broke out on the second floor of the premises occupied by Messrs. Hellaby and Co., warehousemen, Gresham-street West. These premises occupied not fewer than seven houses, and were also in, the occupation of several other warehousemen, in- cluding Mr. T. Tapling, carpet manufacturer, who occupied the first and ground floors. Engines were aoon on the spot from all parts, but by the time they arrived the flames were rolling out of nearly fifty windows, and the light was so intense that the reflec- tion could be seen all over the metropolis. Floor after ..floor of the premises in which the disaster commenced, belonging to Messrs. Hellaby and Co., were all but destroyed, and the roof was burned off. The premises of Mr. T. Tapling, carpet manufacturer, comprising the, basement, the first floor, and also the ground floor, were seriously damaged by fire and water. The houses, num- bered 14 to 19 in Gresham-street opposite were also dightly injured by fire and water, &c.; and so were the premises belonging to Messrs. Curtis and Bedford, solicitors. Mr. Hugh Jones, the warehouseman, has had the ground floors and the second and fourth floors seriously injured by fire, water, &c., and the roof destroyed. The hall of the Haberdashers' Company "ip irreparably injured. The site of this building was bequeathed to the company in the year 1478, and the original hall is described as haying been very spacious, for in it met the Parliament Commissioners during the interregnum. Its successor was built by Sir Christo- pher Wren upon a portion of the site of the original structure, which was destroyed by the great fire of London. This building was of brick, a heavy pile, having no particular pretensions to exterior orna- ment, but richly fashioned and decorated in the interior. A short time since, when the premises of Messrs. Taplin and Co. were erected, a hand- some gateway and passage leading to the Court- room and back buildings were constructed in Gresham-street. In the hall of the master and wardens, we understand, there were several admirable paintings by early masters, one especially rare and fine, called The Wise Men's Offering;" also a small statue of Henry VIII., several portraits of benefac- tors to the charities of the company, including one of Robert Aske, who left the guild the magnificent sum of £ 30,000 to build and endow almshouses in Hoxton, considered to be the finest and most comfortably pro- vided of any similar institution in the metropolis. In the chests, within the, building were the archives of the company—at least, those saved at the time of the great fire in 1666, including those up to the reign of Charles I., and also a small vellum book of ordinances, in which there was a good illumination of St. Katharine, the patron saint of the haberdashers. There was likewise a fine portrait of Sir George Whit- more, lord mayor of London in 1631, who entertained Charles 1. and his Queen in his noble mansion of Bauuaas (or Balmas), in the Kingsland-road, Hoxton. To: give anything like a correct account of the loss occasioned by the fire would be impossible. Some of the surveyors belonging to the insurance companies interested are of opinion that it will not exceed a quarter of a million sterling, whilst others are of opinion that it will approximate to half a million. Unquestionably the present is the largest fire that has occurred since the memorable one at London-bridge, when Mr. Braidwood was killed. Some idea of the extent of the mischief done may be gathered from the subjoined official report:— „ Nos. 1 to 7, Gresham-street, City, Messrs. Hellaby and Co., warehousemen, haberdashers, &c.—Building of four floors and contents all but destroyed, and roof off. Insurances unknown. Ditto, ditto, ground floor and first floor, T. Tapling and Co., carpet manufacturers-First and second floors severely damaged by fire, water, &c. 8, ditto, and 1a, ditto.—Similar damage. Ditto, ditto, Haberdashers' Hall—Roofs of hall, drawing and reception rooms burned off, and contents, including pictures, severely damaged by fire, water, -&c. Kos. 101 to 104, Wood-street, Mr. H. Jones, Man- chester warehouseman, &c.—Ground, second, and fourth floors seriously damaged by fire, and back part of roof burned off. Rest of building seriously damaged by fire, water, &a. Insured for building and contents in the Atlas, Liverpool and London, Royal Exchange, Globe, Phoenix, Mercantile, Guardian, North British, and the Royal fire offices. Nos. 104 to 107, ditto, ditto.—Large building, un- finished and partly occupied; severely damaged by fire, water, &c. Insurance unknown. Nos. 107 to 109 ditto.—Three upper floors severely damaged by fire, roofs burned off, and rest of buildings and contents seriously injured by water, &c. Insurance unknown. No. 100 ditto, and 1, Gresham-street, Ratcliffe and -tiotchings, ribbon manufacturers—Contents damaged "J^ater and removal. Insurance unknown, f Tv?8' (opposite), belonging 0 Uessi's- Irving, Keeling, and Co., and various other warehousemen.—Fronts of warehouses scorched and windowsbroken,&o. An assessor of losses by fire states that one of the sufferers was insured for £ 20,000, but that his loss will amount to < £ 200,000, and the salvage, judging i from the appearance of the ruins, will not amount to more than £1,000 or =62,000. The cause of the fire is at present unknown.
THE DUBLIN INTERNATIONAL EXHI- BITION. The project for holding an international exhibition in Dublin next year may be now considered in a fair way of being realised. Offers and assurances of sup- port have been received from many of the large towns and manufacturing districts on the Continent, and applications for space have been made by several of the principal manufacturers in our own country. A number of Irish noblemen and gentlemen, anxious to take advantage of the opportunity presented to them by the erection of this building, have patriotically come forward to give their support and countenance to an undertaking which promises to be so beneficial to arts and manufactures in their own country. The executive have entered into an arrangement with the company who have erected the building, under the terms of which the exhibition palace and winter garden will be placed at their disposal for the period of the exhibition. Out of the receipts the company will be repaid any cost they have been put to for additional buildings erected for the purposes of the exhibition, and will also receive a certain fixed sum for the use and wear and tear of their premises. Any surplus remaining after these charges have been defrayed will be applied to the purposes of national industry and art, according to the direction of the exhibition committee. In order to secure an adequate representation of the manufactures and industries of the United Kingdom, the executive have applied to the Society of Arts for their assistance. With the sanction of the society a committee of advice has been formed in London to promote, as far as possible, the success of the exhibition. The following gentle- men have kindly consented to act on this committee: -Messrs. J. Anderson, R. K. Bowley, E. A. Bowring, C.B., Antonio Brady, Sir David Brewster, F.R.S., H. Cole, C.B., Sir C. W. Dilke, Bart,, Messrs. Thos. Fair- bairn, J. H. Foley, R.A., Geo. Godwin, F.R.S., G. Grove, W. Hawes, R. Hudson, F.R.S., Owen Jones, C. Manby, F.R.S., P. C.. Owen, Hon. B. F. Primrose, S. Redgrave, Sir C. P. Bonev, Sir F. R Sandford, Messrs. R. A. Thompson, E. Watertcm, J. Way, G. F. Wilson,, F.R.S., T. Winkworth, M, Digby Wyatt. P. Le Neve Foster, M.A., hon. sec. Although not on sp large a scale as the Great Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, the Dublin International Exhibition of 1865 may be easily made both attractive and successful. Every attempt which is made to turn the attention of the Irish people to arts and manufactures is deserving of sympathy and support, and it is to be hoped that the artists and manufacturers of the United Kingdom will on this occasion give their best cooperation,. "WI"
MR. NEWDEGATE, M.P., ON THE HOWE OF COMMONS. The Warwickshire Agricultural Society held its annual meeting last week, at Coventry. At the usual dinner, in responding to the toast of "The County Members," Mr. Newdegate, M.P., expressed his great regret at the absence of Mr. Spooner. It had been thought that upon a recent occasion he represented a small minority. It was true that he did take a part which appeared isolated, but he represented the mass of opinion in what he did with respect to Denmark, as appeared by the result. He confessed that when that debate occurred he thought both parties in the wrong. Well, he certainly did take an isolated part, and it did appear to him that the House of Commons had grown a little old. It was old, according to the duration of Parliaments. He left the House with a melancholy sense that there was some truth in the carioatareof Punch, which represented John Bull in a state of plethora, not to say adolescent obesity—a sort of com- mercial Falstaff in top-hoots. His belief was this, that it was the fault of the Opposition that the Government did not interfere to stop the war;, and that if England had shown her ancient spirit in sup- port of her ally early enough, perhaps later, Denmark would not have suffered the oppression which he understood the great Powers, were now combined in order to relieve (hear, hear). Some people seemed to think that the House of Commons was a sort of moral backgammon-board, with an expert gambler seated on each side, and its members performing the mere function of counters. Others seemed to think that the House of Commons was little more than a municipal corporation. There had been two very opposite, and yet two very graphic descriptions of what people understood by the House of Commons. One of them was contained in the speech of Mr. Roebuck. He presented to the public a just estimate of what were the duties, the functions, and what should be the functions of the House of Commons; for although designated by the names of the places they represented, they were members for all England, representing the people of England and the vast intelligence which the term conveyed. The constitution cf England was re- formed when our church was purified at the reformation. The constitution of England was based upon the principle of the freedom of the people, but a freedom regulated by adherence to the only true source of freedom—that pure morality which was to be found only in the Gospel. All throughout the institutions of England were founded on that principle. In the House of Commons it was represented directly; in the oaths taken by the Peers was found a recognition of the same principle; while the Sovereign who sat upon the throne, held her crown, her indemnity from all per- sonal liability, on the condition that she adhered to that pure morality which was found only in the Gospel. Hence the vast difference between the Governments of England and of France. England has never suffered a social revolution, for England was Protestant long before the Reformation. France, on the contrary, had suffered a social revolution-the revolution preceding the commencement of this cen- tury, and a social revolution casts back a nation, so far as regards the power of self-government, into a second childhood. Then France had never yet been able to reach the point at which our freedom com- menced. He saw before him two clergymen of the Church ef Rome. He spoke openly to every inhabi- tant of North Warwickshire. Perhaps they would scarcely believe him when he told them that his first tutor-a man he loved—was a Roman Catholic. He was a Catholic, and the stronger Protestant because he was so. He hoped he should be forgiven for touching upon deeper subjects; but he believed that he represented not merely the Toryism, not merely the Conservatism of the House of Commons, but the justification for the Liberalism, as it was called, of those opinions which had hitherto guarded our freedom while they preserved order, and maintained the balance of the constitution by regulating the great powers with which it had been the pleasure of the people of England to invest the House of Commons.
— f SHAKESPEARE'S PORTRAIT. In the Sheriffs' Court, London, an action was brought by Mr. Ellis against the defendant, Poland, to recover a sum of money for certain portraits of Shakespeare and engravings of Shakespeare's house at Stratford-on-Avon. Defendant objected to the por- traits, because they were not like the original. His Honour (Mr. Gibbons) would like to know who could decide the question, for there were half-a-dozen different portraits of Shakespeare. Defendant produced two or three of the pictures sent in by the plaintiff, and his Honour remarked that it appeared to be a very good likeness, taken from the celebrated Chandos portrait. Plaintiff: That is exactly so. Defendant had the pictures for the fancy fair held for the benefit of the Dramatic College, at the Crystal Palace. Defendant: Yes; but I could not sell them. His Honour Let me see the engraving of the house. Well, that is a very good one, indeed. What is your objection to it ? Defendant: There is a modern brougham standing at the door. His Honour: I cannot see anything to complain of in that. Perhaps you object to the tiger standing by the brougham ? Defendant: The pictures were sent in on approval, and, as they would not sell, I contend that plaintiff ought to take them back. Plaintiff r They have been so roughly used that I cannot do so. Why, defendant papered the whole of the inside of the Shakespeare-'s house at the Crystal Palase with the engravings,, and; I believe that some were actually nailed up! His Honour asked, the defendant how long he had bspt the goods ? Defendant: Till the fair was over. His Honour thought it was too long. It was clear that goods sent on approval ought to be returned im- mediately they were found not to suit. Defendant assured the court that the engravings were not at all damaged. His Honour directed that they should be produced on a. future day, when he could judge of the state they were in, and if the plaintiff should receive them back upon certain terms.
LETTER FROM MRS. STOWE. The following letter from Mrs. Stowe has been published:— Northampton (U.S.), August 16,1864. Dear Sir,r—I have delayed answering your letter of July 9, enclosing a certificate of F.C.Ii. stock for benefit of Freed- man's Aid Society, because, being at a watering place, I could not immediately find the address of the treasurer of the Boston Society. I have this morning transmitted to him an order for the money, requesting him to acknowledge it to you, and to forward to you such documents as may show the progress of the society for the year. Never were a people more peaceable, more industrious, more hopeful in all respects. In the army are no truer soldiers, more exact in discipline, more docile to command, more fearless in battle. My brother. Colonel James C. Beecher, com- mands a regiment of them, and he speaks in the highest terms of their bravery and docility. The camp is also a school, and spelling-books and Testaments take the place. in leisure hours that is often given in armies to worse things. Eventually America, England, and the world will be of one mind on these subjects. There has been a great diversity of spirits, throughout the world, in this our controversy, but God will show the right, and when the right is shown all will acknowledge it. So now we keep silence, and wait; but when a brave heart sees things before the times we rejoice in it, and when the hand of aid comes to us from a, true Englishman, we hail it as a forerunner of the time when England and America shall be knit together in one heart and one mind, as they seemed to be before this conflict, only the union shall be a true one. The taking away of this accursed thing, slavery, will bring moral heal- ing and soundness. One great thing that has corrupted the world will have sunk like a millstone, never to rise. When I think how this accursed system of fraud and cruel tyranny ha.s sunk, and is still sinking, every event of our long and cruel struggle sending it still lower, I am reconciled to our sufferings and sorrows, to the shedding of such precious blood and loss of such precious lives as we are giving: and not long are we, I hope, from the time when the amend- ment of our constitution will finish and perpetuate the work, and make it impossible to hold a slave on American ground, as now on that of England. As I have changed my residence, and hope at some future time to have the pleasure of hearing from you again, I in- close my address (Mrs. H. B. Stowe, care of Dr. C. E. Stowe, Hartford, Conn., U.S.A.).—Very truly yours, H. B. STOWE.
A WATERSPOUT AT SEA. The barque Jane Doull, Captain Smith, which arrived in the Mersey last week from Bermuda, had an exceedingly narrow escape from destruction by a waterspout at sea. She left Bermuda on Sunday, August 14th, but, shortly after, the wind having fallen to a dead calm, came to anchor off the Great Sound. The evening (writes one of the passengers) was sultry and oppressive; not a breath of air rippled the water, or cooled the hot atmosphere. The sun travelled down the west, and disappeared like a great circular patch of blood be- hind a heavy bank of black clouds. The night was equally miserable—the heat intense the wind was dead, the broad expanding waters smooth as glass, and everything in nature seemed to denote some unusual phenomenon at hand. The morning came, but no change with it: clouds of various hue, but all sombre, grey and black tinged, chased and gathered beneath the sky. The sun rose a ball of fire, and loomed in the distance like a redhot 68-pounder spherical shot. No wind, no ripple, no sign of change except perhaps for the worse. At seven the clouds gathered thick and heavy, and far in the distance we could see rain beating down on the sea in lines of water. Our attention was soon diverted from the rain. Captain Smith and Mr. Virgin, the pilot, asked if we could not hear a distant roar as if there were a naval engagement going on at some short distance. A dull, rumbling roar could be distinctly heard. We next observed, about five miles from us, a cylindrical column reaching from the sea to the altitude of 500 feet. From our point of view it appeared about three feet in dia- meter it was of a greyish hue. It rested upon the water, and by the aid of our glasses we could distinctly observe the salt water ascending, and the fresh water descending in torrents—the sea in a state of great, agitation. Around this cylindrical column the winds seewedto fee rushing with the force of thQ volcano. A smaller one which appeared about this time was apparently "swallowed" by the larger one. For some fifteen minutes we watched this remarkable, and to us novel, phenomenon. The pilot then pronounced it a waterspout. As we had never seen one we felt no alarm till warned that if it struck the vessel we musi) save oturstelvea. While. we were yet conjecturing -kgt would t)e ths result of this extraordinary formation, the great line of black elouds solemnly advanced on each wing of the spout. The rain was pouring in wild torrents, and then the spout dropped down its mighty weight of water on the pitiless sea, while the winds madly rushed it towards us. We now became alarmed. The roar of the falling waters came to us like the distant sound of Niagara, the sea was lashed into great waves: the waters poured and bubbled and rose in swaying masses over six feet ia height. With deadly aim and certain purpose the awful column advanced. Not one on board the ship but felt the danger, and knew- that nothing could save us if it struck the ship. Thank God, it burst about thirty yards from us, and the last remnant of water ceased within but ten feet of the stern. The weather immediately cleared, a breeze sprang up, and the Jane Doull proceeded safely on her voyage.
DEATH OF THE EARL OF CADOGAN. This nobleman died last week at his residence in London. The deceased George Cadogan, Earl Cadogan, Viscount Chelsea, county Middlesex, Baron Cadogan of Oakley, county Bucks, and Baron Oakley of Caver- sham, county Oxon, in the peerage of Great Britain, was the eldest surviving son of Charles Sloane, first Earl of Cadogan, by his second wife Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. Charles Churchill. He was born on the 5th of May, 1783, so that he was in his eighty- second year, and married, on the 4th of April, 1810, Louisa Honoria, fifth daughter of Mr. Joseph Blake, and sister of the first Lord Wallscourt, by whom, who died in September, 1845, he leaves three sons and two daughters-viz., Henry Charles Viscount Chelsea, Col. the Hon. George Cadogan, C.B., the Hon. Frederick WilliamCadogan, and the Ladies Augusta and Honoria Cadogan. The late Earl was the third senior Admiral in the navy, and, consequently, a general promotion takes place. He entered the navy in December, 1795, and for twenty years of his professional oareer saw much active service. He served in the Indefatigable at the capture of the French frigate Virginie, in 1796, and at the destruction of the Droits de l'Honinie in 1797. He was mate of the Impeteux, commanding the barge appointed to lead the fire ship in the attack on the combined French and Spanish squadrons in Aix roads, in 1799. He took part in the expedition to Ferrol; and was at the capture of Guepe in 1800. As lieutenant of the Leda he was in action with the Boulogne flotilla, was com- mander of the Cyane at the capture of the French privateer brig Bonaparte, and of the Ferret at the capture of a Spanish brig of fourteen guns. As I captain of the Pallas, in the Walcheren expedition, he also rendered most useful service, and, when captain of the Havannah, he took and destroyed, within ten months, ninety-one sail of vessels, mostly armed. Lord Cadogan commanded the same frigate at the reduction of Zara in 1813, and that may be considered the crowning action of his naval career. He was made a Companion of the Bath in 1815, and was also a Knight of the Austrian order of Maria Theresa. His commissions were dated as follows:—Lieutenant, April 12, 1802; Commander, May 4, 1804; Captain, March 23, 1807; Rear-Admiral, November 23, 1841; Vice-Admiral, July 1, 1851; and Admiral, Julyl, 1857. During the year 1831 he was appointed an extra Aide- de-Camp to the late King William IV. The late peer is succeeded in his titles and estates by his eldest son, Viscount Chelsea, who was born February 15th, 1812, and married, July 13th, 1836, Mary, the third daughter of the late Hon. and Rev. Gerald Valerian Wellesley, and niece of the late Duke of Wellington. The present Earl was attached to the British Embassy at St. Petersburg from June, 1834, till July, 1835. He was M.P. for Reading from 1841 to 1847, and was returned for Dover in July, 1853. In the spring of 1851 he was appointed Secretary of the English Embassy at Paris, and was for a short time Charge d'Affaires. Death of "Viscountess Hardinge —The intel-
ligence of the death, so prematurely, of Viscountess Hardinge will be learnt with regret by a large circle. The lamented lady died last week at South Park, Peashurat, Kent, having been confined on the 1st instant. This amiable and charitable lady, who was born in 1835, was the second and youngest daughter of George, Earl of Lacan, by Lady Anne Brudenell, third daughter of Robert, sixth Earl of Cardigan. She married 10th April, 1856. By her marriage with the present viscount she leaves a numerous family. The Comst-ess of Lmiaia, her mother, was. present a::t tar dissolution. •
MR, BAXTER AND HIS CONSTITUENTS. The member for the Montrose Boroughs addressed a meeting of his constituents in the Town Hall, Most- rose, last week. The hon.. member dwelt at con- siderable length on his favourite topics of Peace, Re- trenchment, and Reform; whil&t Church endowments, the war in America, the Danish question, and forr L1 affairs generally, were not forgotten. He contended that the working man desired the franchise as much as ever he did; and rebutted the assertion of Lord Palmerston that there was in this country a growing aversion to political change, warning statesmen to be- ware of taking their stand on finality or of deluding themselves into the idea that the artisans of England care nothing about votes. In closing a long address the hon. member said:— I rejoiced in the July victory of Government, because it tended towards peace and non-interference, and also because it showed that the Ultramontane Roman Catholics, who were ordered to vote against a Ministry which sympathised with free Italy, were not to be permitted to dictate to the people and Parliament of England: It is the second' defeat which the combined Tories and Romanists have received of late-the first being when they voted against Mr. Glad- stone's Paper Duty Bill, on the suspension of the Galway contract, and perhaps it may break up the alliance. At all events it tends to delay the accession of the Conservatives to power; and if we are to have the Liberals in office for some time longer, let them do some liberal things. The pre. sent Ministry cannot go on in a new Parliament trading on the measures of the Chancellor of the Exchequer—without a programme, without a declared policy. There are men in Lord Palmerston's Cabinet who have been great public benefactors ia the past. My hope and confidence is that they will again be prepared to unfurl the old banner, and temperately, gradually,. but firmly insist on measures of progress and reform.
LORD STANLEY ON IRISH EMIGRATION. At the annual dinner of the Tipperary Union Farm- ing Society, which followed the Agricultural Exhibi- tion, Lord Stanley presided, and in proposing the toast of the evening, "Prosperity to the Society, his lordship addressed some pertinent and judicious remarks to the company assembled on the question of emigration from Ireland to America, of which the following is an extract:— You all know the state of things which exists now in the United States of America. You all know that there is there going on an expenditure moderately estimated at the rate of half a million a day, the like of which the world has never seen before. What the effects of- that outlay may be it is difficult to say, but I fear it will have a serious, if not disastrous, effect on the future of that magnificent coijntry. But, of course, the effect of that outlay is to produce a demand for labour at consequently a higher rate of payment than has ever existed before, whether in the Old or New World. When one hears of able-bodied but unskilled men getting 25s. a week, and that, too, often allowing for the depreciation in their paper currency, one cannot wonder that such prospects as those should be accepted by men who twenty years ago would have been satisfied with one- fourth the amount. But I don't think we can reckon on the permanence of that outlay upon the part of the United States. There. are signs already that the war is drawing to a close, and when it ceases, and when more than the million of men now in arms have returned to their ordi- nary occupations, and when the. taxes are being collected in to meet the interest on that enormous debt, then, I think, you will see, not indeed a cessation, but a considerable re- laxation in the demand for European labour. But that is not all. There is always a disparity, there will be always a disparity between the wages of the Old and of the New World; but that is a disparity whioh, from the nature of the case, tends not to increase, but to diminish. As men here become scarce in proportion to the demand, wages will rise. As labourers there become more abundant, wages will recede, and every man who goes over from an over-stocked to an under-stocked market helps to bring about that result and readjust the balance. I think there are some signs of that already, for you may aH recollect the wages we used to give in this part of the country. It was stated, on the authority of a. Government Commission, that in 1836 the average rate of wages was Sld, a day; and I recollect that Is. a day—6s. a week throughout the year—was considered not only good, but high pay. You know better than I do that in that respect there is an improvement. I believe that if you include your harvest time, the rate of wages throughout, the year may be taken in these parts as some- thing like Is. 4d. a. day. If I am wrong there are many who can correct me. All I can say is that I have taken my figures from those who ought to know. I think, therefore, there has been a rise in the price of labour, and that rise tends to increase. For my own part, I don't regret it. Of course, ia the interest of the labourer, I don't regret it, nor do I regret it in the interest of the farmer. There is no truth more striking than this, that low-paid labour in not always cheap labour (hear, hear). You can only get out of a man that amount of working power which you can put into him by food (hear, hear). The labour of a man well paid and well fed will be cheaper than the labour of two, or even three men half fed, and not able, or perhaps willing, to do more than half a day's work. Now, what I want to say is that I think the American demand for emigrants will slacken, and that the rate of Irish wages will rise. There is a third point to be considered. Recollect, the natural in- crease of any population in a healthy condition ought to be in a position to sufficiently balance a very considerable outflow. Now that is a very delicate subject to touch upon, but I can only say that it seems to me that this is a most prolific country. The old bachelor is rarely seen; the old maid is an unknown being (laughter). I have seen many cabins where, God knows, the occupants have few ef the necessaries and none of the comforts of life; but I have rarely gone into a cabin that I did not see two or three children sprawling on the floor (renewed laughter). You would have reason to know that, if you had heard so many complaints of heavy families as I have had within the last few days. What is more, they axe not only heavy families, but, notwithstanding many privations and occasional suffer- ing, which I would be the last to make light of, I believe they are generally healthy families-I believe they are healthy compared with the children of many persons better fed, better clothed, and better housed, but who live in the close air of crowded towns. The estimate is that in anew country, under moat favourable circumstances, the population doubles itself in twenty-five years. Even in England, taking the United Kingdom as a whole, the population has doubled itself in the last fifty years. I am not say- ing that that will prevail, or that our Irish population will considerably increase but I do say with some confi- dence that I believe the natural increase of the population would, by higher wages and by what higher wages bring, be sufficient before long at least to balance the outpouring of population to America and Australia. Now, I may be asked how it comes to pass that while the population of Ireland has fallen off, that of England has not decreased in a cor- responding proportion. My answer is that England is a manufacturing and a commercial country. But if you look to the rural districts alone you will find that the English and Scotch as well as the Irish populations have decreased. I state that because I think it is important in many points of view that you should not consider your own position as exceptional. In the districts into which the population of England is divided two-fifths of those which are purely agricultural show a diminution; and so in Scotland in 12 out of 30 counties. Now, where did the people go who left those districts ? Not, for the most part, out of the king- dom they went into the great towns. Recollect, that has been the case with a large proportion of the Irish as well as the English and Scotch populations. We have in Liver- pool alone, and the districts immediately surrounding it, upwards of 100,000 persons born in Ireland. It is reckoned that in England and Scotland altogether, there are 800,000 Irish. I think when gentlemen write or speak of the de- crease of the population in Ireland, they ought in fairness to bear this in mind, that to that extent at least the decrease does not represent an emigration out of the country as a whole, but simply a movement from one part of the country to another. These 800,000 people are living under the same laws and the same Government; and I hope the day is far distant when an Englishman will be unwelcome in Ireland, or an Irishman unwelcome in England.
A POOR SOLDIER'S WIFE WORKING AS A BOY. The following singular story is told in the Chicago papers: A boy, giving the name of Henry Goodwin, recently made application to the Briggs Ironworks, Lanesborough, for work, and, although they were not in need of help, he pleaded so hard that employment was finally given him. His superior intelligence, modesty, and freedom from profanity and coarseness, and his great industry, all conspired to win the favour of his employers, who spoke of it to several gentlemen of the village, who also became interested in his ap- pearance. Shortly after commencing work he was taken ill, and repaired to Munson's Hotel, where, in order to be apart from the other boarders, he had a bed in the garret. The care he received was not the best, and the patient grew rapidly worse, when a phy- sician was finally sent for, who wished to examine him, but, Henry objecting, the doctor did not insist. The next day the doctor found him insensible, and the case hopeless, and on examination discovered his patient was a woman. During the night the patient continued in- sensible, or deranged, and died in the morning. An inquest was held, at which it was ascertained that the deceased had worked for a Mr. Barton, at farming, then came to Pittsfield and worked for Amos Shepard- spn, farming, at 1 dol. 50c. a day, but left, as she could not do haying. She then applied for work at the ironworks in Lanesborough, and with the sad result narrated above. The Pittsfield Eagle says that every- where she conducted herself with extreme modesty and propriety, and showed- great industry. From letters found among her effects, she appears to have been the wife of Leeman Underhill, a soldier or officer in Battery D, 1st Wisconsin Heavy Artillery, lately stationed at Fort Jackson, near New Orleans. The letters are addressed Dear Julia and Children.' The first ones speak of havjag sent her money, with some doubt in one case whether it was hscestly delivered. The late I ones spea'S, of want, not having been pa,id, sickness, &c., and at least intimate a request for more money. She sent money away at two different times at least— probably to her husband, and perhaps to her children, and there seems little doubt that she assumed her dis- guise in order to procure more remunerative pay, and died from over exertion for those she loved. A fine bowie knife, ground very sharp, was found among her effects, and was doubtless intended for defence against insult."
LIFE IN SAN FRANCISCO: FATAL EFFECTS OF A STREET ROW. There was a serious shooting affray in our principal street (Montgomery), says a San Francisco paper, which resulted in the death of four persons. The facts, such as are ascertained, are as follows, viz. :—- It seems one Bill Davis, a noted gambler, who resides at Yreka, was interested in and drove a horse race which came off at Placenville on the 15th instant, and" throwed" the race, making 4,500 dollars by it. Hank Stevens, Ball, Dutch Abe, and Spanish Bob, four sports," backed Davis's horse and got broke; swore vengeance, killing on sight, &e. On the IStk they all came to this city (except Davis), and pub- licly said they were going to shoot Davis on sight, &c. On the 21st Davis came in town. and at two o'clock p.m. was sitting having his boots polished in a black's adjoining the Fashion, when Ball and Dutch Abe came to the door, and, looking in, exclaimed, Here's the dirty thief now," and drawing their revolvers, commenced shooting. Davis jumped out of the chair, with one boot polished, and, draw- ing his revolver, fired, and Ball fell dead across an iron grat- ing. Davis then jumped out on the sidewalk, laughingly saying, You've made a mistake," and fired at Dutch Abe, the ball taking effect in his right breast. He fell, when Davis ran and caught the revolver from Ball's hands, saying,, as he walked towards the door of the Fashion, Where's the rest of your murderers?" Blood was running dowu Davis's left hand from the arm, and also down the rilfht cheek. As he was on the point of entering the door he was met by Stevens and Spanish Bob, when Davis raised the re- volver in his right hand and fired twice. Stevens fell, and Spanish Bob jumped over him on the sidewalk and fired. Davis staggered, but, recovering, they (Davis and Spanish Bob) commenced in good earnest, each striv- ing to fire a deadly shot. Davis was laug-hing all the time. They then commenced firing at each other, twenty feet apart. After Davis had fired two shots he threw the revolver at Bob, and, changing the re- volver he took from Ball into his right hand, he raised it, and it snapped three times; the fourth time it went off, and Bob fell. (Davis had fallen before this, and was lying on his breast on the banquette.) Davis threw the revolver into the street, saying, Hell and furies damn the thing." He then pulled a deringer, and both (only having one shot each) began crawling towards each other on their stomachs. When about five feet apart they both raised partly up and fired simultaneously, when Bob's head fell, and he remained per-, fectly still. Davis then said, crawling towards Bob, "He's gone, I cooked him," and then partly turned on his side and tried to rise. On examination, Ball and Spanish Bob were dead, Dutch Abe and Stevens mortally wounded, the first having been shot through the right lung, causing internal hemorrhage, &c.; the latter was shot through the left breast. Spanish Bob had four wounds on him-two in the right breast, one in the right arm, and one between the eyes. Ball had a ball in his heart. Davis had six wounds—two ia the right leg, one in the right breast, one in the left shoulder,, one in the left wrist (through), and one on the right cheek, where a bullet had struck the cheek bone and glanced off, cutting out a piece of flesh of the size of a ten-cent piece. Stevens died on the 24th, at forty minutes past ten a.m.; Dutch Abe died a few days after. Doctors say Davis will certainly recover.
WILLS AND BEQUESTS. The will of the Hon. Fanny Caroline Pennington, of Muncaster Castle, Cumberland; Warter Priory, York- shire; and Clarges-street, Piccadilly, was proved in London by her brothers, the Right Hon. Joslyn Francis Lord Muncaster and the Hon. Alan Joseph Pennington^ the joint acting executors. The personalty was sworn under < £ 25,000. Her ladyship was the eldest daughter of the third Baron Lowther, Augustus Lord Muncaster, and died on the 12th of July last, at Vevey, Switzerland, at the age of 35, having executed her will in July, 1863. Her ladyship has bequeathed to her sister, the Hon. Louisa Drummond, wife of Mr. E. A. Drummond, all her jewels, with the exception of a pearl necklace, bracelet and earrings, and diamond star, which are bequeathed to her ladyship's two brothers, the executors, who are also appointed residuary legatees of both the real and personal estate. The will of Mr. Edmund Hanborough Joynson, of St. Mary Cray, Kent, paper manufacturer, was proved in the London court by his brother-in law, Mr. Charles Robert Collings, together with Mr. John Gotch Hep- burn, and Mr. Charles Beadle, jun., of Erith, the executors and trustees. The personalty was sworn under .£35,000. The will bears date April 23 last, and he died June 29, at Eastbourne, Sussex. To his wife he has bequeathed an immediate legacy of £500 and the furniture, &o. also the sum of £10,000 under the terms of their marriage settlement, and leaves her a life interest in his estate at Beckley, Kent. This estate, upon her decease, is to be divided equally amongst their children, who are also appointed resi- duary legatees of the real and personal estate, including his share in the business of paper manufacturer, carried on by his father and himself. To each of his three sisters, as well as to a friend, he has left legacies of .£500. There are legacies left to his coachman, gardener, and all his other servants. The will of Mr. William Simpson, civil engineer, of Belgrave-road, Pimlico, was administered to in the London Court of Probate on the 6th ult., by his son, Charles Seaward Simpson, one of the residuary lega- tees named in the will, the executors-namely, Mr. Charles Simpson, the testator's brother, having died, and Mr. Henry Lloyd having renounced. The per- sonalty was sworn under < £ 30,000. The testator, who was drowned in the Thames, near London-bridge, in May last, had executed his will so far back as 1849, bequeathing to his wife a life interest in two-thirds of his real and personal estate; and the remaining third, together with the reversion on the death of his wife, he leaves to his son and only child, the said Charles Seaward Simpson.—Illustrated London News.
IMPROVEMENT IN CAVALRY STABLES. In the annual review of the progress of hygiene presented to the Army Medical Department by Professor Parkes, of the Army Medical School, and just issued, notice is taken of the recent report on cavalry stables made after an in- quiry into the subject by the Barrack Improvement Com- mission. The question is entirely solved whether or not the men should be placed over the stables. As regards the men, there was much to be said against this arrangement, but there was something to be urged for it. But the horse's health has turned the scale. The stables cannot be propeily ventilated or lighted if the men's rooms are over- head. In some of the cavalry stables examined the air was so foul that it was matter of surprise how animals could breathe it and retain any measure of health. In the old troop stables at Hounslow each successive horse, from the corners to the centre, is supplied with air fouled more and more by the other horses. Many animals would perish under the treatment inevit- able in the older class of cavalry stables but for two things -their daily exercise in the open air, and a certain habit which their constitutions acquire of resisting air poi- sons by continued exposure to their action but this resist- ing power of habit can only be trusted to temporarily, and inevitably ends in loss of health and life. If the horse is to be in health and strength he must have a free diffusion of the atmosphere, including absence of stagnation, abundance of light, good drainage, absence of nuisance, and sufficient space to live in. The inquiry has shown beyond question that the best form of building is a one-storeyed stable and only two rows of horses, the ventilation to be by the roof, and formed by a louvre 16 inches wide, carried from end to end, and giving four square feet of ventilating outlet for each horse. The stables recommended to be built in future would give each horse 100 feet of superfici",l and 1,605 cubic feet. A course of air-brick would be carried round at the eaves, giving one square foot of inlet to each horse; an air- brick is introduced, about six inches from the ground, in every two stalls; there is a swing window for every stall, and spaces are left below the doors. In this way, and by attention to surface drainage and roof lighting, it is antici- pated that stables will become perfectly healthy. In old stables ventilating shafts are to be carried up and air-bricks introduced. More window space is to be given. — *— —
Sad Accident to a Railway Guard.-An extraordinary and frightful accident has just occurred on the Greenwich line of railway to a guard named Deric, and which, it is fearetl, will terminate fatally. It appears that on the 10.50 train leaving the Green- wich station, Doric, observing one of the carriage doors open, left his break van to close it, carrying a lantern in his hand. Just as he reached the carriage the open door came in contact with a projection and was broken, and the door having also struck him the unfortunate man was thrown completely over the parapet, which, at this spot, is 32 feet from the public roadway. He fell on his right shoulder, shattering his arm in a frightful manner, and injuring himself internally. The occur- rence does not appear to have been witnessed by any of the passengers, but on the arrival of the train at Deptford the station master, missing the guard from his box, and seeing the broken door, concluded that an accident had taken place. In the meantime, how- ever, Doric contrived to walk round to the station, and to give the above particulars to Mr. Groom, the station master, immediately after which he fainted away, and became insensible. He was then placed in a carriage of the next departing train, and conveyed to Guy's Hospital, where he remains under surgical treatment.