Meeting at York. The city of York, at an early hour on Monday, gave signs of the scientific festival which was formally opened on that day. Lord Brougham arrived on the previous evening, and was the guest ot-the Lord Mayor. During the day, the reception room at the Guildhall presented a busy scene, every one, on arrival, naturally gravitating towards the centre of information. Al- though there were, during the day, some smart showers, the weather was, on the whole, favourable for York; where there is a tradition that its rain is always abundant, and according to a native of the place, speaking in his vernacular, invariably on special occasions; his observation-" It be always so; when aught is out at York, it do rain, surely." At three o'clock the first formal appearance of the Association took place. The opening address was delivered by the president.
Lord Brougham's Address. Lord Brougham, in his opening address, touched upon a variety of topics, from which we give some extracts. His lordship obsel-ved-That I should once more preside over our Congress, after so often filling the office, is a matter of some regret, sonsidei-ing the many younger and abler members whose turn is thus deferred, and my own resolu- tion had been taken to refuse the honour. But when it was represented to me that my old friends and constituents in this great county strongly desired it, no choice was left but to submit. And now in revisiting the scenes of former years, the pleasure naturally arising is sadly damped by the blanks, the dismal blanks, that meet the eye wheresoever it is cast around. Lett me avoid this retrospect, too painful to bear, by at once plunging into the affairs of the hour; Offspring of woe, a parent of our ease, The toil which teaches pleasure's self to i>lease Diverts the grief that spurns direct control, And stills the raging- tempest of the soul."
Middle Class Education. A most important measure has lately been adopted at the instance of our council, with regard to the education of the midGleclasses. The council, taking this important subject into their consideration, appointed a deputation upon it to wait on the minister, and it has since been announced in Parliament that a commission shall forthwith be issued on the whole subject of middle class education in com- pliance with the recommendation of the council. An important discussion tqok place in April on the ad- mission of girls to the university local examina- tions. It was unanimously agreed that this is most desirable, and the committee formed for promoting this ob- ject are very desirous that it should be included under the head of those matters referred to the commission for in- quiry. There can be no doubt that it will. The object is to have those examinations opened to females. The importance of-these to persons who desire to follow the line of gover- nesses and schoolmistresses is manifest. But we have always been zealous in our efforts to encourage women of a higher class in their endeavours to better their condition by culti- vating letters; and here at York we are naturally reminded of one intimately connected with the county where she was born (the daughter of a highly respected clergyman), and es- teemed by distinguished families—the Stricklands, Swanns, Ramsdens, Headlams-Miss Eyre, whose works, Queen's Pardon and" Family History," have been well received, and as will be in a few days found in the pages of Mr. Gassell's Quiver, another is about to appear, A Lady's Walks in the South of France," giving a most interesting account of the inhabitants, the working classes especially, of the countries near the Pyrenees. To patronise those who thus supply their wants by labour is an appointed duty to the members of, our association.
Mr. Lowe-Sir R. HilL The accident whieh gave rise to the resignation of our colleague, Mr. Lowe, is much to be regretted. The revised code has, on the whole, given satisfaction. The system of examination has both diminished the expense to the.State, and made the payment depend on the result of the instruc- tion, and those only receive the benefit who are unable to bear the expense themselves. Intimately connected with the interests of education is the great reform of the Post- office, which has of late years been effected by Sir Rowland and it is most gratifying to find that his merit and that of his plan has been recognised by the Government and Parliament since our last congress. The enabling poor persons to correspond with their friends has greatly en- couraged their learning to write, besides the unspeakable comfort afforded by this free intercourse. The Post-office Savings.Banks is another and most important benefit to the working classes, which can only be said to have been carried to its full extent by that system, though without owing its origin to it.
Our Convict System. No subject has more, engaged the attention of our asso- ciation in all its branches than the treatment of convicts. Last year some alarm was excited by the opposition ia high quarters (countenanced by the Home-office) to the intro- duction into this country of the Irish system; but this was allayed by the reports of committees in both houses; and, though similar attempts were afterwards made in the same quarters, there is happily an end of all doubt upon the matter by the Penal Servitude Aet of la^t session, which places the principle so strenuously maintained by us beyond the reach of further disturbances. The opposition of the Home Office is abandoned: the Act enforces the most im- portant of the recommendations in the report of the com- mission and of Lord Carnarvon's committee, and that office has shown a praiseworthy disposition to give up its former prejudices, and fairly and firmly to execute the Act, in the regulations issued under its provisions. On the subject of capital punishment discussion is certain in our jurisprudence department, and a respectable society under Mr. Gurney has been occupied in circulating information, part of which has reached us. No doubt the question of total abolition is attended with difficulty; but on one point there can be no difference of opinion, the necessity of an execution of capital sentences without suspicion that individual caprice or popular interference exercises any influence, and such sus- picion is sure to exist as long as there are no judicial asses- sors to the Home-office in determining questions of respite and reprieve.
The ifrancmse. I With all the care taken for the working classes, for pro- moting their comfort and furthering their improvement, shall nothing be done, even when we find them improved, to increase their weight in the community, by extending their influence on public affairs-in a word, by lowering the elective franchise, and admitting a larger number to concur in the choice of our representatives ? Every one must remark how constant the occurrence is of the poll having a very different result from the show of hands. Can nothing be done to bring them nearer together ? It is impossible so to arrange that the person returned by the show of hands should sit, unless the poll exceeded by a certain proportion the first return ? This would give the voters a very decided preponderance, but without denying the existence of the more numerous class. But, whatever difference of opinion may prevail upon the extension of the franchise, there can be none: upon the evil effects of corruption and the absolute necessity of freeing the community from that which is injurious to its most important interests, above all to its morals. The desire to have a seat in Parlia- ment is such that all risk of costs is willingly encountered, and the punishment of fine or imprisonment without hard labour is not sufficient to deter the candidate or his agent, who yet would not expose themselves- to the risk of the treadmill. The above trade flourished under the pecuniary penalties of fine and forfeiture, but when it was made felony the crime entirely ceased. So would bribery at elections were the treadmill the punish- ment, and,a public prosecutor appointed, as has become necessary on every account, unless we desire to see our criminal law continue to be most imperfectly administered. The bill for awarding this punishment was introduced into the House of Lords so late in the session, that when Sir Pitzroy^Kelly took it up in the House of Commons with the important addition of requiring a declaration to be made by every member on taking- his seat that he believed no illegal expense had been incurred by him or his ag'ents (a provision which could not well be introduced in the Lords), it was found impossible to pass the bill before the prorogation. The effect of the declaration proposed by our distinguished .colleague Sir John Pakington would be very great; for as the Lord Chief Justice Cockburn observed, when he in- tended himself to move such a provision, no man of the least regard for his character could make it when he knew what sums he had expended himself, or by his agents, in corruption. If the Commons really wish to prevent bribery, as we are bound to believe they do, notwithstanding all rumours to the contrary, they will take care to pass a bill with this provision.
The Co-operative Principle, But whatever may lately have been done by the legislature, or left undone, for the working classes, it is clear that they possess the power of doing much for themselves. This is by the co-operative plan, now so universally adopted, and which, since our last congress, has made such steady progress. There are now in England and Wftles 454 co-operative societies, and though of these 72 have made no returns, either from neglect, or from having- been too recently estab- lished, of the other 381 the number of members is 108,588, of whom 22,732 were admitted in 1863, only 11,358 having been withdrawn. The amount paid for goods was £ 2,370,153; "tha sums received for goods, £2,626,741, leaving a profit of £ 213,623, The whole expense for wages, rent, repairs, &c., was £ 176,544. The account which we have received since Mr. Tidd Pratt's report (which comes down to December, 1863) shows a very considerable increase during the present year, in numbers, capital, and transactions. A most important, step has been lately taken, which in its consequences promotes co-operation in a degree almost incalculable -the establishment of wholesale stores, the purchase and sale by general agency. For this great improve- ment we are indebted to Mr. Greenwood, of Rochdale, who having observed the failure of former attempts to establish such an agency, devised the plan, which after being sub- mitted to a conference, held in March, 1863, of delegates from almost all the societies in Lancashire and Yorkshire, was adopted by their unanimous concurrence, and is now in active operation. An office is established in Manchester^ and the whole expense, including the purchase and sale of the goods, is defrayed by a small contribution from the mem- bers of the societies in connection with the office. All the goods required by the societies are bought of the great dealers, and sent by them at the cost of the receivers. The goods axe thus of the best quality and at the lowest prices. the societies are, of course, recuired to confine their pur- chases to the central agency, which, buying perhaps for 150. stores, can afford to charge a very small commission from each. The incalculable benefits of co-operation to the com- fort and independence of the working classes are even sur- passed by the advantage which the community derives from the reconcilement to each other of the different bodies that compose it. There no longer prevail the feuds which most of us remember to have set against eaeh other the master and the workman, the middle and the humbler classes. We shall soon outlive all strikes of men and combinations of their employers in self-defence; and the time will never more return which brought a special assize to this great county for the trial of outrages not only upon property but life.
Spiritualism." We are now in York, the birthplace, it is commonly be- lieved, of the first Christian emperor, Constantino, who declared the gospel the religion of the state. It is lament- able to think that to this capital there has penetrated the unbelief which is one of the great misfortunes of the present day, prevailing much more on the continent than in these islands, by the elaborate and subtle efforts of its victims, yet somewhat to be deplored among ourselves. The friends of religion very justly complain of the mode and manner of these attacks, that they are not plain and open, but covert and insidious; casting doubts and- raising suspicions, with- out such a direct assault as the religion itself might meet and repel; nay, sometimes proceeding from persons who avow their belief, but would reduce the subject of it to such dimensions as left it unstable and incapable of defence. There are, however, more open assailants; and it is strange to find that while a body directing these are actually dis- tributing tracts, conducting a periodical work, and holding meetings for debate, both in the southern counties, and even as far north as Edinburgh, there should be found at the same time propagators of spiritual visions, in which, as extremes oftentimes meet, those are prone to believe who have faith in nothing else. Although some of the most zealous of those subject to these delusions fancy that true religion gains by them as affording. proofs of another world's existence, it is certain that the bulk of those who believe in spiritualism, in communications from remote regions of the earth, and even frombeyond the grave, are utter disbelievers in all religion, natural and revealed, unhappy persons in whom the works of the Creator which surround them fail to raise a thought of the Almighty power, wisdom, and gpodness, and to whom the revealed will of God is addressed in vain.
Losses by iJeatn, Death has since our last congress visited us with irre- parable losses, of which the greatest is that of Sir W. Brown, whose munificence, almost unexampled in modern times" bestowed upon the working classes in Liverpool their rieh library, and the great structure for their meetings. The loss of Lord Lyndhurst also befell us at the very close of our Edinburgh assemblage, and grievous it was both to his friends b.nd the world. To say anything of his other merits would be superfluous, but we here may commemorate the obligations under which he laid the promoters of improve- ment in our jurisprudence. His irreparable loss leads us, in connection with the topic now handled, to reflect with satisfaction on the peace which he enjoyed in his latter days, and the lively interest he took in religious study. The book which he read, without intermission, was the New Testament. It formed for many months the subject of his daily perusal; and he left in writing his important testimony to the comfort which he derived from the gospel truths. The last matter of a secular kind which occupied his atten- tion was the Edinburgh Congress and its proceedings, the very day before he retired to that rest for which he often said he was anxious and prepared :— Soul of the past! companion of the dead: Where is thy home, and whither art thou iled ? Back to its heavenly source thy being goes, Swift as the comet wheels to where he rose; Faith lured thine eye to deathless hopes sublime, Beyond the reahns of nature and of time." At the close of the address Sir J. Pakington moved, and Mr. Westhead, M.P., seeonded, a vote of thanks to Lord Brougham, which wa.s carried by acclamation.
TRAGEDY AT PRESTON. Confession of the Murderer. The man, William Barry (not "Berry," as hereto. fore printed), who murdered his wife at Preston, and afterwards attempted to commit suicide, about a fort- night ago, was brought up at the Preston Police-court. Dr. Haldan having granted a certificate that he was fit to be removed from the House of Recovery to the hospital in the House of Correction, he was taken from the House of Recovery to the police-station in a cab. Mr. Dunn, the head-constable, and two police- officers accompanied him. Immediately upon his arrival he walked from the cab into the attorney's room, where a fire had been made and an arm-chair placed for his accommodation. At ten o'clock the prisoner was brought up before the Mayor and 6. Sidegreaves, Esq. Mr. Blackhurat conducted the prosecution, and Mr. Watson attended on behalf of the prisoner. As the medical gentleman was of opinion that it might be dangerous for the man to be brought into the police-court, he being likely to take cold, the magistrates and solicitors adjourned to the attorneys' room. Mr. Blackhurst then said: The prisoner, William* Barry, is charged with murdering his wife on the 13th of September instant. The application I have to make is that he be remanded until next Friday. The coroner's inquest has been adjourned till that day, and it is desirable that Barry should be remanded to the House of Correction until the inquest be resumed. I shall, therefore, only bring before you evidence that will justify the bench in remanding the prisoner till next Friday. Catherine Leach, wife of Edward Leach, tinman, of 29, Ormskirk-road, then gave evidence of similar effect to that which has already been published. In addi- tion, she said: My husband held the prisoner back from following the deceased down stairs after her throat had been out. The deceased was placed upon a sofa down stairs, and Dr. Spencer was sent for. Before he arrived she was dead. Mr. Watson: At this stage of the inquiry I do not intend to put any questions. Mr. Blackhurst simply asks for a remand till Friday. Police-constable Dilworth was then called, and de- posed: 1am a police-officer in the Preston borough police force. I have been in charge of the prisoner at the House. of Recovery, Whilst I have been with the prisoner he has made a statement to me relative to the death of his wife. It was on the 14th of September. He said:—" Kate (Mrs. Leach) came down to our house, in Lund-street, about six o'clock on Monday evening. I and my wife, with Kate, went up to Leach's. I had some green peas. After that I became giddy. I told, Ned (Leach) I imagined I was going to be put in prison. Ned said, ',No, no you have done nothing.' I then said I would go and drown myself. About twelve o'clock Mary and me went to bed. Ned and his wife went to bed at the same time. At four o'clock in the morning I thought I heard some one tap-tap at the door. I touched Mary, and said, The devil must be here.' Leach's wife get up and went downstairs, and when she came baek I got up and fastened the door. I went back to bed, and heard the tap-tap. again at the door. I put my hand out for my trousers, which were on the floor, and took the knife out of my pocket into bed, anil said to Mary, The first one that comes in to strike me I will put the knife into him.' I then began trembling, and, if I think rightly, it was then I did the job. I think I made a second blow at her. I knew what I was doing. I do not know whether it was then I did this," point- ing with his finger to his own throat. He said, The devil done it, and no one else." Mr. Blackhurst: This witness can give other evi- dence, but at present I think that is sufficient to ask for a remand. Mr. Sidgreaves: I think it is sufficient. The pri- soner will be remanded till next Friday. The depositions were then read over. The prisoner, who had kept his eyes closed during the greater part of the inquiry, was then ordered to be removed at once to the House of Correction.
DISGUSTING AND HORRTBLE BRUTA- LITY TO A SAILOR BOY. Mr. John Squarey and Mr. George Watson, the chief and second mates of the ship Crouch Brothers, from Demerara, were fought up on warrants before Mr. Partridge, at the Thames Police-court, on Saturday, charged with committing a series of brutal assaults, mingled with tyranny and most disgusting behaviour, towards a sailor boy named John Carter, on a voyage from Gravesend to Demerara and back. Mr. Charles Young conducted tke prosecution for the crew of the ship; Mr. Joseph Smith defended the prisoners. It appeared from the opening statement of the solicitor for the prosecution and the voluminous evidence given that on the 12th of May last the ship sailed from Gravesend. There was one man short. The complainant, a delicate lad of seventeen, who had never been to sea before, whose right hand was crip- pled, and who was quite unfitted for the sea service, was hastily shipped in the dark as an ordinary sea- man, and taken to sea with only the clothes he stood upright in and a second pair of trousers. He ne- glected himself and became very dirty. On the 1st of June there were vermin about his person, and the chief mate gave orders to the second' mate to cut all the hair off his head, and ordered a, boy to put him in a tub of water ia which soft soap and soda were mixed. He was stripped and immersed in the tub, and one of the apprentice boys was directed to. scruh, Mm with a piece of canvas, and this was done so roughly that his skin was stripped from many parts of his body. Mr. Squarey superintended this torturing ablution, and repeatedly struck the complainant across the naked baek with a rope. On the same day the chief mate flogged the lad again when he had his clothes on. On the 2nd of June Carter was again stripped by the chief mate's orders. There were some lice on the lad's person, and the chief mate compelled him to put them in his mouth and swallow them. Several times the lad was ordered to go aloft to the royal yard while the wind was blowing strong, and his life was put in imminent danger. On the 4th of June the chief mate cut the lad's ear open, and it was sore for seven weeks afterwards. The chief mate was also frequently hitting and kicking him. All these facts and others were confirmed by Richard Lamming, who kept a log of the cruelties practised on the lad, and by John Macdonald, seamen. The case against the second mate was much worse. He beat the lad on the 2nd of June with a piece of wire rope, and made him swallow the insects he took from his person. The scars caused by the blows did not heal for three weeks. On another day, and without the semblance of provocation, he called the lad a fearful name, and kicked him from the poop on to the deck, a fall of eight feet. On another occasion he gave him a black eye by a severe blow with a rope. He kept i the boy for the whole of one day without food, and made him scrape up grease on his knees. He struck the lad en' the head with a bucket, and cut it. There was a bump on his head for some time afterwards. Richard Lamming was allowed to refer to his written log, and said the second mate was always knocking Carter about the face and ribs whenever he came near him, made him swallow lice, beat him with a strand of rope in three places, and called him foul names. On the 6 th of June Carter was coiling up a rope en the poop, and the second mate went behind him and kicked him from the poop to the main deck, a height of eight feet, and said, You son of a I'll skin you alive before I get to Demerara." That night the boy was sent on ths bowsprit on the lookout, although it was stormy, and the sea washing over everything. On the same night the second mate sent him up aloft to the yardarm for a gasket. The. boy slipped, but caught himself up by a foot rope, or he would have been thrown on to the deck and killed. It was not a place for a boy like him to go aloft. The second mate then sent him up again, and said, You I'll keep you there for a month until you stow that sail." Be- ing a cripple with one hand he could not stow the sail, and he kept him three hours and then sent a man up to stow the sail. On the 16th of June the second mate lit his pipe at the binnacle lamp, capsised the lamp and broke it, and spilled the oil on deck. The second mate blamed the boy for the accident, and told the captain the lad did it. The second mate sent Carter aloft wth the grease pot, and kept him there all day without anything to eat. He saw Mr. Watson strike the boy on the head with a bucket. On the 17th of June the second mate ordered the lad to let go the mizentopmast staysail down haul. The boy- did not understand what was meant, and the second mate struck him, knocked him down, and gave him a black eye. Mr. Partridge said he could not proceed farther with the case that evening. He had heard a series of gross assaults charged against the defendants, and they would have to go for trial. Mr. Smith said the mates had just been taken out of their ship, and were quite unprepared. He asked that the captain's bail should be taken for them. Mr. Charles Young objected. Heavy bail ought to be demanded and twenty-four hours' notice required. Mr. Partridge should require of each defendant his own personal recognisance in J2200, and two sureties of £100 each, and twenty-four hours' notice of bail. The prisoners were then remanded to Clerkenwell Prison. 17
ATROCIOUS MURDER. On Saturday morning a most cold-blooded murder was perpetrated in a cottage on Chadwell-heath, mid- way between Ilford and Romford, near the main London road. The unfortunate victim was a woman named Amelia Blunt, verging upon forty years of age. She had been married many years, and had two grown- up daughters, and up to two or three years since resided somewhere in the north of London. Her husband died about two years ago, and she then came to live in the neighbourhood of Chadwell-heath. 81..e there became acquainted with Francis Wane, a labourer, and they seem, to have lived together as man and wife. Wane is described to have been of idle and dissolute habits, and their home was main- tained by the industry of the woman, who went out washing. About three months since she left him and engaged herself as a kind of housekeeper to an old e man named James Warren, nearly eighty years of age, and his son John, who was about her own age, both occupying a cottage on the edge of Chadwell-heath, It seemed that the two were so comfortably cared for that the son John made. her a proposal of marriage, which was accepted, The banns were read last week at Dagenham Church for the first time, and she was preparing her wedding dress and making other ar- rangements for the marriage, which was fixed to take place in the early part of next, week. Wane frequently requested Mrs. Blunt to return to him, and on learning that she was about to be married to John Warren he was heard to say that it should not take place, and that he would do for her. Un- fortunately, however, they were only deemed to be idle threats, and no notice was taken of them. On Saturday morning he was in a public-house near the heath drinking, and in an excited state. While he was in the place the woman Blunt, who had been out marketing, met a woman coming out of the house. In tho course of conversation Mrs. Blunt made some allusion to her forthcoming marriage, which, no doubt, was overheard by Wane, She then proceeded on her way to the cottage, and, having prepared the dinner, she went to wash in a kind of little waskhouse or lean- to, and James Warren, as was his usual custom, took a short walk for half a pint of beer. This was shortly after ten o'clock. The old man, on his way, called at the house of a grandson, and among other matters spoke of his son's intended marriage, and how comfortable they would be. He returned to the cottage and called "Milly," the name by which they called the deceased. Not receiving any answer, he went into the washouse, and there saw her apparently leaning over the copper, as if she had been taking some clothes out of the boiler. He again called her, and at the same time put his arm partly round her waist to raise her. In consequence of his feebleness, however, he was unable to bear the weight of the unfortuna,te woman, and stumbled and partly fell with her. Ho then found that she was covered with blood flowing from frightful gashes in- flicted in the throat and side of the neck. He went out of the cottage as quickly as he could and alarmed the neighbours. His grandson, James Warren, who occupies a cottage near the heath, with several others at once rushed into the place, and they found that the, woman was quite dead. Messengers were instantly dispatched for medical men and the police. Mr. Bowers and other surgeons residing in the district were soon in attendance. The deceased had received three fearful wounds in the throat and right side of the neck, which extended to the vertebras, and divided the main arteries. Her hair was disordered and hang- ing over her face, as if she had struggled with her murderer, and a portion of the mortar of the copper had been torn away by the deceased in her endeavours to get away from her assassin. On the arrival of the police a brief inquiry was suffi- cient to give a clue to the supposed murderer. As the old man left to get the beer, Wane was seen by some children going in the direction of the cottage. Consequently, suspicion at once rested upon him. Wane has peculiar, short, almost club feet. This pe- culiarity of footmark at once enabled the police to track the course he had pursued in taking his flight. Police-constable Dunmow, K 371, and another officer, with James Warren, the grandson, went in pursuit. After a lengthened chase he was seen crossing a hedge into a plantation),, about a mile from Romford. Dun- mow at once ran after him. Wane had lain down on the grass. He was asked if he had been at Chadwell- heath that morning. He said he had not, and the officer then said that be, should take him into custody on suspicion of murdering his old sweetheart, Mrs. Blunt. It was found that Wane had been in the pond, no doubt for the purpose of washing the blood off his trousers, for he was wet up to above the waist. Portions of the upper part of his dress were spotted with blood, and a piece of his waistcoat had been torn off. He had no cap, and the knife or weapon with which the deed was committed could not bs found. The supposed murderer was then secured and removed to Ilford Gaol, where the charge of murder was duly entered against him. Mr. Sergeant Howie and Mr. Inspector Bi-yce, of tho Ilford district of the K Division, of police, soon arrived and joined in the examination, to secuxa tille: conviei&a of the guilty party. On examining the'garden at the rear of oM Mr. Warren'a house the short footmarks were clearly detected, showing how the murderer had got into the wash-house. It is thought that Mrs. Blunt was in the act of taking some clothes out of the copper when the villain came behind her and inflicted the wounds on her throat. Dunmow, the officer, con- tinued his search in tire ploughed field above referred to, and in a line with the footmarks, not more than thirty yards from the cottage, he found a pig-knife, which had evidently been used in the commission of the crime. The blade and handle were bloody, and it is stated that it formerly belonged to some member of Wane's family, and that Wane himself had been in the habit of using it in trimming greens. A most material piece of information, however, was elicited in the course of Sunday. Between nine and ten o'clock on Saturday,, a man named Hunter saw Wane go to a field, and put the knife in his jacket, Wane remarking, You'll hear of something presently." In the course of the search for the knife, the pond before alluded to was dragged, and the missing cap, with a briek in it, belonging to Wane was brought up. It is supposed that he used the cap in wiping the blood off his trousers and then threw it into the water. The prisoner was examined before the local bench of magistrates at Stratford Police-court on Monday. A number of witnesses were called who proved the finding of the woman's body, and that the prisoner had been seen in the neighbourhood at the time when the murder was committed. The prisoner waa re- manded.
General M'Glellan's Letter. The following letter from M'Clellan, dated from Orange, accepting the nomination to the Presidency, has been addressed to the Chicago Convention:- Gentlemen,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, informing me of my nomination by the Democratic National Convention, recently as- sembled at Chicago, as their candidate at the next election for President of the United States. It is unnecessary for me to say to you that this nomina- tion comes to me unsought. I am happy to know that when the nomination was made the record of my public life was kept in view. The effect of long and varied service in the army, during war and peace, has been to strengthen and make indelible in my mind and heart the love and reverence for the Union, constitution, laws, and flag of our country impressed upon me in early youth. These feelings have thus far guided the course of my life, and must continue to do so to its end. The, existence of more than one Government over the region which once owned our flag is incompatible with the peace, the power, and the happiness of the people. The preservation of our Union was the sole avowftd object for which the war was commenced. It should have been conducted for that object only, and in acoordanoe with those princi- ples which I took occasion to declare when in active service. Thus conducted, the work of reconstruction would have been easy, and we might have reaped the benefits of our many victories on land and sea. The Union was originally formed by the exercise of a spirit of conciliation and compromise. To restore and pre- serve it, the same spirit must prevail in our counsels and in the hearts of the people. The re-establishment of the Union in all its integrity is, and must continue to be, the indispensable condition in any settlement. So soon as it is clear, or eves probable, that our present adversaries are ready for peace upon the basis of the Union, we should exhaust all the resources of statesmanship practised by civilised nations, and taught by the traditions of the American people, con- sistent with the honour and interests of the country, to secure such peace, re-establish the Union, and guarantee for the future the constitutional rights of every State. The Union is the ene condition of pea-oe -we ask no more. Let me add what I doubt not was, although unexpressed, the sentiment of the Convention, as it is of the people they represent that when any one State is willing to return to the Union, it should be received at onoe, with a full guarantee of all its. constitutional rights. If a frank, earnest, and persistent effort to obtain those objects should fail, the responsibility for ulterior consequences will fall upon those who remain in arms against the Union. But the Union must be preserved at all hazards. I could not look in the face of my gallant comrades of the army and navy, who have survived so many bloody battles, and tell them that their labours and the sacrifices of so many of our slain and. wounded brethren had been in vain; that we had abandoned that Union for which we have so often perilled out lives. A vast majority of our people, whether in the army and navy or at home, would, as I would, hail with unbounded joy the per- manent restoration of peace, on the basis of the Union and the constitution, without the effusion of another drop of blood. But no peace can be permanent without Union. As to the other subjects presented in the resolutions of the Convention, I need only say that I should seek in the constitution of the United States, and the laws framed in accordance therewith, the rule af my duty and the limitations of executive power; endeavour to restore economy in public ex- penditure, re-establish the supremacy of law, and by the operation of a more vigorous nationality resume our commanding position among the nations of' the earth. The condition of our finances, the de- preciation of the paper money, and the bur- dens thereby imposed on labour and capital, show the necessity of a return to a sound financial system, while the rights of citizens, and the rights of States, and the binding authority of law over President, army, and people, are subjects of not less vital importance in war than in peace. Believing that the views here expressed are those of the Convention, and the people you represent, I accept the nomination. I realise the weight of the responsibility to be borne should the people ratify your choice. "Conscious of my own weakness, I can only seek fervently the guidance of the Ruler of the Universe, and, relying on His all-powerful aid, do my best to restore union anil pea.ce to a suffering people, and to establish and guard their liberties and rights.-I am, gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant, Geo. B. MOLELLAN."
President Lincoln's Addresses. Mr. Lincoln's acceptance of the nomination by the National Union Convention sitting at Baltimore, is couched in the following terms "Executive Mansion, Washington. Hon. William Dennison and others, a Committee of the National Union Convention. Gentlemen,—Your letter of the 14th inst., formally notifying me that I have been nominated by tha Con- vention you represent for the Presidency of the United States for four years from the 4th of March next, has been received. The nomination is gratefully accepted, as the resolutions of the Convention—called the plat- form—are heartily approved. While the resolution in re- gard to the supplanting of republican Government upon the western continent is fully concurred in, there might be misunderstanding were I not to say that the posi- tion of the Government in relation to the action of France in Mexico, as assumed through the State De- partment and indorsed by the Convention, among the measures and acts of the executive, will be faithfully maintained so long as the state of facts shall leave that position pertinent and applicable. I am espe- cially gratified that the soldier and the seaman were not forgotten by the Convention, as they for ever must, and will be remembered by the grateful country for whose salvation they devote their lives. Thank- ing you for the kind and complimentary terms in which you have communicated the nomination, and other proceedings of tho Convention, I subscribe myself yours, &c., ABRAHAM LINCOLN." During an interview of the President with Governor Randall and Judge Mills of Wisconsin, Mr. Lincoln spoke as follows:—Sir,— The slightest knowledge of arithmetic will prove to any man that the rebel armies cannot be destroyed by Democratic strategy. It would sacrifice all the white men of the North to do it. There are now in the service of the United States 200,008 able-bodied coloured men, most of i them under arms, defending and acquiring Union ter- ritory. The democratic strategy demands that these f orcesbe disbanded, and that the masters be conciliated by restoring them to slavery.. The black men who now assist Union prisoners to escape are to be con. verted into our enemies, in 'the vain hope of gaining the goodwill of their mastars. We shall have to fight two nPitions instead of one. You cannot conciliate the South-if you guarantee to them ultimate success; and the experience of the present war proves their success is inevitable if you fling the corapulsory labour of mil- lions. of black men into their side of the scale. Will you give our enemies such military advantages aa isanM success, and then depend on coaxing,, lfattery, aAi-lconcessicuSi to get i&ssa back intc.ibe Union? I Abandon all the posts now garrisoned by black men, take 200,000 men from our side and put them in the battle-field or corn-field against us, and we would be compelled to abandon the war in three weeks. We have to hold territory in inclement and sickly places; where are the Democrats to do this ? It was a free fight, and the field was open to the W r Democrats to put down this rebellion by fighting against > h master. and slavelongbefore the present polioy .vasin an jrurated. There have been men base enough to propose to me to return to slavery the black warriors of Port Hudson and Olustee, and thus win the respect of the masters they fought. Should I do so, I should deserve to be damned in time and eternity. Come what will, I will keep my faith with friend and foe. My enemies pretend I am now carrying on this war for the sole purpose of abolition. So long as I am President, it shall be carried on for the sole purpose of restoring the Union. But no human power can subdue the rebellion without the use of the emancipation policy, and every other policy calculated to weaken the moral and physical forces of the rebellion. Freedom has given us 200,000 men, raised on Southern soil. It will giva us more yet. Just so much it has subtracted from the enemy, and, instead of alienating the South, there are now Qvidences of a fraternal feeling growing up between our men and the rank and file of the rebel soldiers. Let my enemies provs to the country that the destruction of slavery is not necessary to a uestora- tion of the Union. I will abide the issue."
MURDERS IN FLORENCE. Three murders, committed within a short period, on women living in lonely quarters, have created a great sensation in Florence. Two of the supposed mur- derers have been arrested in a manner that speaks well for the police of that city. After the murder of the third woman, a. woman in the neighbourhood was heard to say, It is a singular fact that I saw a well- dressed man with a black beard enter the house, but since the murder I have not seen him." The police, having heard of this observation, called on the woman and asked her if she would know the man if she saw him again. She replied in the affirmative, and the policeman requested her to accompany him through the town, and to look out for the man she had de- scribed. She consented, and for five days she walk&d from nine in the forenoon until four in the afternoon, without success; but on the sixth day she pressed the arm of the policeman, and said, There he is," point- ing to a man who was crossing the street. Are you sure?" said the policeman. Yes, quite sure." "Then go home, and leave the rest to me." The policeman followed the presumed murderer step by step. He breakfasted at the same tavern, and drank his punch in the same coffee-house. He ac- companied him to the door of his residence at night, and pursued the same course for two days in succes- sion. On the fourth day the stranger went to the railway terminus, and asked for a ticket to Leghorn. The policeman did the same, and seated himself in the same carriage with the man he was watching. On arriving at Leghorn the suspected murderer met a companion, with whom he passed the entire day, speak- ing apparently of serious matters. The policeman then thought it necessary to employ an assistant, whom he instructed to place himself in company with the two, and to offer himself as a guide to conduct them to the best taverns and other houses of entertainment. He was accepted, and, after a couple of days, the three persons were on the best terms possible. The police- man then told his assistant it was time to act, and that he should, at a favourable opportunity, propose to his companions to commit a robbery. After having considered the matter, they agreed to carry it into effect the same night. In half an hour afterwards they were arrested in their lodging-house, handcuffed, and searched. On the person of the man with the black beard were found female ear-rings and other articles of jewelry, together with several bonds, which had been stolen from the women murdered. On a further search a well sharpened dagger was found in a, narrow pocket. The two persons were brought back to Florence by railway, and are now awaiting their trial.
COLLIERS ATTACKING THE POLICE. Ten men were brought up at Bilston, last week, before the Staffordshire magistrate, Mr. Isaac Spooner, charged with intimidating men on their way to work. The defendants were conducted to the town by bands of music and some 2,000 men. The men assembled around the police-station, and the proceedings had to be twice stopped on account of the uproar outside. Major Macknight, the deputy chief constable of Staf- fordshire, and Superintendent M'Cree west out, and found one of the men addressing the mob somewhat excitedly, and the crowd hustling a policeman who was ordering him to move on. The major added the force of his authority, and directed his attention somewhat prominently to a big fellow with a great stick in his hand. The man refused to move on, and the major deprived him of his weapon. The man then threatened to "do for" the deputy chief constable. Major Macknight then clutched the man by the collar, and wheeled him round into the hands of one of his officers with a force that astonished, the collier. Several of the mob then rushed towards the major, armed with heavy sticks,.and were about to belabour him, when some officers. interposed, deprived the men of their cudgels, and arrested them. A stone was then thrown, and it waa only the prompt action of the major and his men that prevented an extensive outbreak. The major himself disarmed and arrested three men. All the sticks that the mob possessed were taken from them, and the men who were sus- pected of carrying stones were searched. The three roads leading to the court were then cleared for some distance, and the approaches kept by a double line of policemen. Whilst the space was being kept the men in one direction refused to allow a horse and cart to pass into the open spaeo if they coald not do so," and a disturbance was imminent. Tke police interfered, and were arresting the chief actors, when an attempt was made to rescue the men from the custody of the officers. Another melee ensued. The police, however, kept their sabres in their scabbards and beat the mob back with their truncheons. They brought in four men, and order wa3 restored. A large number of policemen remained on duty in the station during the night, and the nine men who assailed the police were brought up at a special sessions. The men charged with intimidation (nine of them) were convicted, and sentenced each to six weeks' hard labour, and a woman who had assisted to fourteen days'. The person intimidated was a collier in the employ of the Earl of Dudley. He had gone to work at the wages which the men on strike refuse to accept, and when he was returning home from the pit he was met by a band of music and a mob, which ultimately swelled to 6,000 men, by whom he was coarsely assailed and threatened with death. He was supposed to owe his preservation to the presence of a policeman, who hearing that he was assailed went up and walked by his side. Nine other colliers wore arrested for rioting outside the police-court while their comrades were being examined, and were brought up and charged. The attack upon the police having been deposed to, seven of the prisoners wer9 fined £ 20 each, or, in default, two months' imprisonment with hard labour; one was ordered to find peace sureties for six months, or go to prison for two months and the last was fined < £ 1 and costs, or 14 days' imprisonment. 0
A Cliange of Base.—M'Clellan's change of base" in Union-square, on Thursday night (says the New York Tribune) will not save him. An- ticipating this (his single strategy), the Hon. John A. Peters, in a speech at Portland Maine, "brought down the house" with the remark, "If M'Clellan couldn't take Richmond, making Washing- ton his base, you may safely swear he will never take Washington, making Richmond his base An Irishman's Mistake.—A gentleman, whil taking a drive through one of our country towns, accompanied by his Irish servant, had. the misfortune to have his vehicle smashed, and himself and com- panion thrown violently to the ground, by his horse taking fright and running away. The gentleman was somewhat bruised, but not seriously. His principal loss was that of his wig, which had been shaken on; and on picking himself up he found Pat in a most ludicrous condition, holding on to his heat!, with the na blood trickling through his fingers, and his master's wig in the other hand, which he was surveying with the most ludicrous alarm and horror. Well, Pat," said the master, are you much hurt ? Hart, is it? Ah, mother dear, don't you see the top of my head, ia my -hand ? Pat, in his terror and confusion, had mistaken his master's portable headpiece for hia j own natural scalp, and evidently regarded bis last i hour as having arrived.