FALL OF A RAILWAY BRIDGE. The Great Western Company on Thursday sustained another loss by the partial destruction of one of its bridges in Birmingham, the accident being attended with serious injuries to one man only, though it is astonishing that no more have suffered either loss of life or injury to limb. The scene of the occurrence is known as Livery-street-bridge, the line of the Great Western Railway passing on a diagonal line beneath Livery-street at this point. The roof of the bridge is formed of large iron girders, supported on strong brick arches, and between it and the street pavement are courses of brick and a mass of soil. At present there seems nothing to account for the accident, a great portion of one end of it having given way with no warn- ing whatever. From Snow-hill Station a high brick wall runs by the side of the line, protecting it from thq street; and from the direction taken by the line at the end of the bridge farthest from the railway station, a portion of this waH was over the railway. The fall of the bridge, which took place about ten minutes to five in the afternoon, was observed by a great many per. sons in the neighbourhood, who at first thought several of the foot passengers in the street must have fallen with the mass of iron, soil, and brickwork. The wall was observed to totter, and then a great portion of that side of the roadway over the end of the bridge was seen to fall in, a tremendous crash alarming the people at a considerable distance, who were quite un- aware of. the cause. It was soon seen that one of the large and several of the smaller girders had given way, and having broken in several pieces, had fallen on the rails, leaving a great gap in the street, and tearing the masonrv on each side. Sergeant Heavering, of the Birmingham police force, wag within a very short distance when the accident took place, and he noticed that one man wa's passing along the footway, and had fallen with the mass of material, which there was much reason to fear would have crushed or stifled him. The first thing done by the police-sergeant was to send a messenger to Snow-hill and Hockler Stations, in order that the railway officers there might prevent any trains coming in the direction of the damaged bridge until the line was cleared, and he then sought assist- ance to extricate the unfortunate man, who lay almost completely buried amid the debris in which he had sunk. It was found that his name was John Hux- table, a traveller, living in Cox-street, and that he had sustained a fracture of the thigh and a lacerated face. These injuries were at once attended to, and there is every likelihood that the case will progress favourably. Birmingham Post.
ROMANTIC ELOPEMENT OF A YOUNG LADY WITH HER GROOM. At the Wandsworth Police-court, on Wednesday, George Smith, aged eighteen years, of short stature, who had a very boyish appearance, was placed in the dock before Mr. Ingham, charged with the abduction of a young lady named Crosse, and also with robbery, under the following circumstances:— The Rev. Robert Crosse, rector of Ockham, said his daughter's name was Alice Caroline, and she was twenty years of age in June last. She had been living with him until the night, or strictly speaking the morning, of the 26th ult. He missed her from the house. He knew the prisoner. He had baen groom and general servant in his house. He had sent him away on the Thursday previously. Witness recognised a box and articles in prisoner's possession when arrested as belonging to his daughter. Mr. Ingham inquired whether any property was found but what was expressly purchased for his daughter. <t. The witness said that some of the articles were not purchased for his daughter. Some of them belonged to her mother. Mr. Ingham said he woiald pass on from that part of the case, as it was not necessary to go into the one of robbery at present. The witness was then questioned with. reference to property vested in his daughter. He said that on her coming of age she would be entitled to a moiety of about = £ 2,600, also to further prospects on the death of her mother and himself. Mr. Ingham inquired whether he could swear that tha prisoner was aware of it. The witness said he had no proof of the fact, but he had reason to believe that he was aware of it, because his daughter was in the habit of speaking about her prospects. Mrs. Jane Wiggins, the wife of a labourer, of St. Ann's-place, said that on last Saturday week the pri- soner came to her house with his wife, as she thought. They both spoke about the lodgings. S-heasked them whether they were man and wife, as they looked so young—more like brother and sister. He said, "Oh, yes; we are manland wife." They took the lodgings for a week, but they remained beyond that time. Wit- ness could see that she was a perfect lady, but they conducted themselves with propriety. They looked at the bed.room together. The female made the agree- ment and paid the-witness rent. Mr. Ingham having expressed a desire to examine the young lady, Inspector Lovelace brought her up- stairsj into the court and placed her in the witness- box. Her appearance excited great interest amongst the persons in the- court.. She is a slight, lady-like I young woman, having a girlish appearance, and was very simply but genteelly attired in a small black straw hat, black silk eape, and a spotted muslin dresa. She did not exhibit any symptoms of nervousness, and kept her saze frequently upon the prisoner. CM being I sworn she-stated that' she- had been living with her father until recently. Mr. A, Taylor (the chief elerk) Kowexplain how .you came to leave your father's house. Witness (smiling): I don't know. I left to be mar- ried to Smith. He -was nearly two years in my father's service. The intimacy between the prisoner and my- self commenced about Christmas a little before, perhaps. Mr. Ingham How did t ho- intimaoy ifr at commence ? Witness: By riding with him. I went out siding, and he accompanied me as groom. Mr. Ingham: Who made,the first advanca ? Witness: I don't know exactly. Mr. Ingham: You can tell me that. Witness (smiling): I think we were almost equal. Mr. Ingham: Did you ever ge into the stable ? Witness: Oh, yes, Ihavaeoften gone into the- stable to see the horses cleaned. Mr. Ingham Who first proposed that you should leave the house ? Witness I think I proposed that. There had been a great row, and I was unhappy, and I wished to leave. There was a great row when it was fÓUrnd out, about a week before I want away». Mr. Ingham: Now tell me all about it. Witness: I; arranged -b. He was sent away at a minute's notice. I saw him in the passage when he was leaving, and I merely told him to. come the night after to my bedroom window, I used to light paper in the window. Mr. Ingham: What happened on, the night in question ? Did you light* paper P Witness; Yes; directly after papa went to bed. The Rev. Mr. Crosse (explaining): I went to bed about twelve o'clock. Witness:: I'lit papers in the wlndow. and he oame up. outside. I think he was in the lane. I told him I should go away. I put my things out of the window, and then I got out myself. I scrambled out some- how, as I had no assistance. I think he helped me a httle when I got nearly down. I think I was slipping down, and he held me. Nothing further took place, you know, except that we walked together to the sta- tion. I did not know where I was going, but I thought I was going to London. I proposed walking to Wey- mouth station. It is a distance of about five miles and a half along the road. We walked there together. We took a mail train to London, and I paid the fare. I don't know who paid for it, as our money was put together. I had about £ 2, and he had £ 5 2a: The money was put together at Weybridge. I took th9 money. We went to Waterloo station, from thence to a coffea-house in the City, where we had some coffee. We went to Doctors'-commons for a license of mar- riage. He applied for it. We could not have it with- out my father's consent. I did not hear what was said, as I was not present. He told me that after- wards. We came straight to Wandsworth. I pro. posed Wandsworth, as I thought it would be more convenient. I had often been through Wandsworth. We took lodgings at Mrs. Wiggins from seeing a card in her window. I know what fortune I am entitled to. I never talked much about it. Since I have been at Wandsworth I said I should have it in the summer. I had heard that there was a probability of my having money on my father's death, but I knew I should not if I married George. I might have said I should not have anything at my father's death. I am not the only child. I have a sister. My father is in good circumstances. He keeps two horses and a carriage. I suppose my father is a rich man, not very rich. I don't know whether the prisoner knew what my father had. I suppose he thought my father was in good circumstances, I never talked to him about my sister. It was my own act and deed that of leaving my father's house. The prisoner does not detain me. I prefer to have his society. It was my own idea the getting out of window. Whether George was there or not I should have gone. I don't know whether I should have left that evening if he had not been there. I had made up my mind to leave at the earliest opportunity, and I should have left if George had died. After I was out of the window I told him I wished him to accompany me. It was my own suggestion that we went up to London. He might have paid the fare, as I don't remember. He did not entice me to go away. When I got out of the window, he. asked me if I had not better stay. I said I would rather not. He asked a policeman about I Doctor's-commoms. I did not know much about it. I J proposed asking a policeman, and we got the informa- wuii jruiu ouo. J. ne prisoner went inside and I waited, outsido. Mr. Ingham said it was a question of law whether a person under twenty-one could give consent. At present he thought it was a case to be decided elsewhere. The question was whether she had been fraudulently taken away. There was no allurement, and there was no detention, but the prisoner assisted her to go away. He took her away, especially if he paid the fare, and he (Mr._ Ingnamj should like to hear the evidence on that point. The young lady, in answer to farther questions, said the prisoner was going to work for his brother, a. farmer. Nothing was said about that until they came to Wandsworth. They talked about how they should live in the country, and he said he could work for his brother. She proposed that they should buy a busi- ness with the money she would have. He asked her not to touch the money. Mr. Ingham then remanded the prisoner, but con- sented to accept two sureties in £100 each for his ap- pearance. The young lady retired with her friends, and the prisoner was removed to the cells. The bail, two tradesmen of Wandsworth, were, however, soon forth- coming, and he was led away by them in a half faint- ing and hysterical condition. It was stated that the banns of marriage had been published in Wandsworth Church.
The Artist and the Brigands.—From the friend of the young artist whose adventures near Borne, have become a subject of dispute, we (Athenceum) have received the- following additional statements, which we give on the authority of the artist's family I have only to add to what I have already stated to you that, on the English papers containing Mr. Oliver's letter reaching Rome, all the papers there copied his letter (in which I had unfortunately given his address), and the result was that another remittance I sent him about that time never reached him, and the circular notes as yet have not been heard of or presented (this money, be it known, was his own, the result of a commission for a drawing he had sent home), and he was positively driven out of the Roman States by a sort of vengeance got up against him, and he hastened for safety with all speed to Florence, where he was kindlyreceived by Baron Usedom, the Prussian author there, who knew him, and who, with others saw his wounds (which the hurry of his journey had made worse), and a doctor then and there attended him." We have written to Rome for official information, which our readers shall share as soon as it comes to hand.
TREATMENT OF NEGROES IN THE SOUTHERN STATES. The New York correspondent of the Daily News writes as follows:— There is an ugly look about the negro queation-SO ugly, that even those who were loudest in crying that things were going perfectly well at the South are un- able any longer to deny that the situation is alarming. The determination of a large number of the whites not to allow the policy of emancipation to be carried out, if they can prevent it by any means whatever, is daily becoming more manifest. There is, of course, every and X0lS-n f 8 Part b?th of the Southern Unionists f?nod f,i ?rn auPP°rtCTa of the President to put a ^e matter, and keep out of sight every ctritv ofH. J f ? t0/aise suspicion of the sin- TTnion P f-S8UT of alacr% in returning to the Union which continually reach us from the South; but in spite of all i his, very disagreeable revelations find fS fw?be PaP„ers„OTery day. The following, of Amm-J k' ■ ma i Southern ChristianIntelliqencev •'Tfnnp WT?0t P1™* wading for hot weather; f h paffc of the reports are true in regard blacks, which are coming aWkfni f ° flv uth.' thicker and faster, a moat t TP exisis- From localities where w «- T Jiatl0,KaI tro°Ps °°me reports that these d«I«ri^ I- Cref ulQ bein8f hunted down like dogs and dispatched without ceremony. The news- papers m tha South are filled with accounts of the brutal murders which foot up to an aggregate of several hundred deaths per day, which is doubtless only a small fraction of the number noticed. An Alabama paper says that this business has become so extensive and common that some planters even boast that they ™lTTe- the/r lan^ with the dead carcases of negroes. Seriously speaking, it is a matter which de- Wa8hingtonfrOIBPt attention of the authorities at "If negroes can be shot down daily in garrisoned towns where the authorities are unable to stop this state brntaT w'nrV ver7/eascmablG to suppose that this 18 carried on more extensively where the bldcka have no protection. This wholesale murdering n Is' 1S» W9 t'ear> the practical working of the conspiracy to exterminate the coloured race which is revolting to the Christian age. A just God will hold the Government; of the United States, which is respon- sible for the welfare of these people, to a strict accountability xor every life thus sacrificed. Deserting these innocent and helpless beings, and denying them proper assistance and protection in the hour of need, and thus leaving them to their fate, is an inhumanity as cruel as the grave, a crime for which the nation will be punished by financial bankruptcy, chaotic discord and J8J?1??'.01 f Pestilenca which will not leave enough, of the living to bury the dead." + j public were profoundly touched during the war by their own notion of the chivalry, piety, and gentleness of the Southern population, I wish to call your attention to a trial now in progress before a court-martial at Salisbury, North Carolina. The defendant is Miss Temperance Neely, who is described as "a wealthy and accomplished young lady moving in the first circles in North Carolina. The evidence on the trial is at once a good picture of plantation life and morals, and of the natural temper of the Southern people with regard to the negroes. North Carolina, it must be remembered, too, is, perhaps, the leaat fanatical of the slave States. Julina, a freed-woman, formerly the slave of Mrs. Pro- vidence Neely Miss Temperance's mother, though never married had borne Mr. Providence six little niggers." ortkeeo was olevren years old; and on her return from the plantation one afternoon was called to years old; and on her return from the plantation one afternoon was called to +r ?lstress for not having come at once tL™ Su 9 flon}? work ahe had ^id out for her there, who thereupon went to whipping her." The p' ■iina' lllterfofd> and, it appeared, pushed Mrs. Providence away from the girl. Miss Temper- ance, the accomplished and wealthy young lady, moving in the best circles in North Carolina," here appeared on the scene, armed with a revolver, and shot Julma killing her instantly. Now this offence was committed m the presence of negroes only and bL te la,ws °f- State the testimony of negroes is not admissible against white people, s t could not in ordinary times have been punished at all and Miss Temperance's counsel raised this P,°™1 beforo1 the court-martial but, of courae, SnTth °Terralef To this hour no civil court in the Kf.f1 receive a negro'stestimony, so that all cases w?? n oolonred fen are parties have to be brought by the Government before. courts-martial, and I con- noJ see »raoh chance of any voluntary move- ment; towards a change m the law on the part of the Southerners themselves. There appears to be hardly th J if t, mortlfies and enrages them so much aa °f-a ne3f°up™g evidence in a court of There is probably a little alarm at bottom 0 ia', PerhaPs> much well-founded aonbt amongst them as to a negro's respect for an oath, or his reluctance to use it for the confusion of his enemies.
DEATH OF MRS. MOORE. "On September 4th, died, at Sloperton-cottage, Mrs. Moore, widow of the late Thomas Moore, Esq., author of Lalla Rookh, aged sixty-eight." This is an announcement that one of the last roses of a glorious r. afc le»gth disappeared. Few arte now left If brilliant company who adorned the early part of the 19th century, and whose names are famous in our literature Among these names none is otwUI be held m more kindly remembrance than that of tha lady to whom the poet Moore gave his heart Moore not only loved her-he was proud of her, and it is de- lightful to see in his letters and in his diaries with what eagerness he sounded her praises. lie writes to his mother in 1813:- and certainly looked very beautiful. I neves saw so muck admiration excited; It strikes everybody almost that sees Calafef6 the f°rm and «»<>* of lT facets And so through all his letters and journals, he is never tired of referring to her-quoting what she said, telling what she did, describing how she looked in 1811, and her history is summed up in this one phrase-that she was the delight of his life. She does not appear to occupy a great place in his poetry; but if ri(T of maBy a poet that he II u Sjng les.s the reaJ mistress of his heart than by some imaginary heroine, or by some beauty that kindles a passing flame. Mrs. Moore was not a Leabia nor a Beatrice, nor a Laura, nor a Highland Mary, destined in song to live for ever; but as much as any of those if not more, she was a poet's idol. She died at three o'clock on the morning of Mondav last. She was sensible to the end sho know uTi was dying; and she said that she was Se hannt9 She was the last that remained to us of the Moore family, and now that she has departed we begin to lTf^A sadness» tow many links are there theXt generation of letter, with
Accident.at the Thames Embankment.-On Wednesday morning, shortly before eleven o'clock considerable alarm was created at the Thames Em- bankment, near Temple-bar steamboat-pier, whereby one man was, it is feared, fatally injured and crushed by the falling of one of the large iron cranes. It appears that the machine, which was on a kind of tramway, was used in the removal of timber, iron &c., for the works now going forward, when one of the labourers, whose name could not be ascertained mounted the upper portion of the machinery when, all of a sudden, the ponderous crane toppled over into the river, carrying with it the unfortunate man who was with difficulty extricated, in a shocking state' He was seen by a surgeon, and removed without loss of time to the accident ward of the King's College Hospital, where the resident house surgeon found that he had sustained a compound fracture of the leg, which, it is presumed, will be amputated. He was also much bruised about the arms and body. He lies m a sad state of suffering.' The Abyssinian Question.-Mr. Layard writes officially to the daily press that according to the in- ^P*'ifc appears that Captain not left- AhS ^6-n Ms chaiDS> bit has vffpi S ^yS8ima'*iand thafc Kin§r Theodore has in- vited Mr. Rassam to come to him at once through ugypt. The messengers which Mr. Rassam had sent up to King Theodore had been well treated, and allowed to return to Massowah. King, the murderer of Lieutenant Clutterbuck, was executed at Tullamore at half-past seven on Wednesday morning. He confessed his guilt, and went to the gallows firmly. He struggled for five mutes, and apparently died in great agony.
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. The meeting of this association at Birmingham ha been attended with very great success. Lecture have been given upon almost every subject, and mnci new and interesting matter has been introduced. From Birmingham, as a centra, the association ha divided, subdivided, and branched off from day to daj bent on excursions to places of interest in the sui rounding district. Special broad-gauge trains wer provided by lie Great Western Company, each t carry from two hundred to three hundred passengers The principal party, including the president and Lor Stanley, went to the Severn Valley, where, for e:s ploriag purposes, they dispersed In four sections About thirty, armed with hammers and loaded wit: bags, made geological attacks on the rocks about th Wreirin. Another division did" the Shrewsbury dis feet, proceeding from the railway station at Upto: mr t™1 T^°.xster> where they were conducted b; nil T Wright over the excavations at Uriconium I m ii ahtewsbEy the party wa3 ciceroned by Dr. Johnsor *»? ?» ail<^ -uildwaa were done under the guidanc GWayae; while Coalbrookdale was un molded by Mr, G-. Maw. All the divisions re-assemble* at live o clock on Friday, to dine at the commodiou house of the Severn Valley Field Club in this dale WhcHse guests they were. Mr. Jenkinson, the presiden of the club, presided. The day was very agreeabl; spent, but, as the train on the return journey occupie< nearly four hours instead of one and a half, th< evening did not pass so pleasantly. In this respec the excursionists to Warwick and Stratford-on-Avoi vero more fortunate, the journey both ways beinj accomplished in fair time and with some briskness This party numbering about 200, alighted at Warwicl between ten and eleven o'clock in the forenoon The museum, containing a good collection of fossils and which justly prides itself on a remark ably fine plesiosaurus, was first visited; then thl Leicester Hospital, a quaint old mediseval structure then St. Mary's Church and the Beauchamp Chape ar|d finally the Castle and grounds of the Ear of Warwick. A dissertation on the architecture o: Ms fifrignificent pile was given on the lawn; aftei which the party walked through the grand old baronial hall and through riohly famished apartments, con. taining many rare works of art. The castle, as every. body knows, has its legend, and nobody would think of leaving the place without seeing some relic of that great Guy, the gigantic Earl of Warwick, who lived in the rude days of feudalism, was as tall as a Chang, and who did yeoman service by killing that huge dun cow which had long been the terror of the neighbourhood. Guy never did things by halves j and so after killing his cow he boiled her in a cauldron, and ate all but the horns. This cauldron is of bell-metal, and is now used on the great festivi- ties of the Nevilles as a punch-bowl. It contains," to quote the venerable matron who acts as the custodian of these relics, "110 gallons, and was twice filled and drunk empty" at a recent joyous celebra- tion. Frem Warwick we went to Stratford, and there, like faithful pilgrims, did all that the shades of Shake- speare demanded of us. The party was received by Mr. Flower, the ex may or—his successor in office being too unwell to attend—who conducted them to the front of Shakespeare's reputed birth-place in Henley-street, and there gave a sketch of the history of that house. Having seen the rooms and relics, ihay went to the church and saw Shakespeare's monu- ment, his tombstone, together with that of his wife, and they saw also the entry of Shakespeare's baptism in the parish register. The church is in a most pic- turesque situation, and the associations of the poet and the place made the visit here highly interesting. In the town itself all is Shakespeare. Photographs, large or small, plain or coloured, of himself, as he was at nearly all ages-or stages—photographs of his monument, his house, his will, and photographs of his contemporaries abroad—they haunt yoa like a spell. The shade of Shakespeare looks down upon you as you dine at the Shakespeare Hotel; his bust on the landing claims your reverence as you go to your room; and when you have entered your room you find Shakespeare there also. He figures, perhaps, on your toilette service. Certain it is that in the crockery ahops he figures on all descriptions of delf. Certain it is that at'the confectioner's he appears "in his habit as he lived," visiting the pale surface of mint lozeages; and it may be that in the deepest recesses of some fruiterer's shop there may be treasured and pickled up a pot or so of Shakespeare's mulberries. The great majority of the party dined together, under the genial chairmanship of Mr. Flower, in the Town- haU; and at half-past seven they were conveyed back to Birmingham. There was a good accompaniment of ladies at this as well as at the other excursions, and the weather was fine and warm. These other ex- cursions were to Worcester and Malvern and to Coventry and Xenilworth respectively. Sections on Geology and Geography sat as usual in iheirrespective meeting-rooms, and disposed of several papers, amongst which was one by Dr. R. S. Charnock on cannibalism in Europe. It was attempted to be shown that cannibalism had been practised up to almost historic periods, until the practice became punishable by law. Dr. Burke and Professor Rawlin- son protested against the assumption that all the human race arose from a state of barbarism. The latter held that man was created in a state of civili- sation, and that, while the race had declined in many instances, the Egyptians and Jews had never sunk intolbarbarism. A lecture was also given by Mr. Crawford, F.R.S., on The Attributes of the ITegro. The author said that by the term negro, in so far, at least, as it is-applicable to Africa, we understand a human being wifchthe hair of the head and other parts of the body always brack, and more or less of the texture of wool, with a black skin of various shades dark eyes, a fat face, a depressed nose, jutting jaws, thick lipB, and a large mouth, with oblique incisor teeth. To this is to be added a peculiar odour of the skin, offensive to and unknown in the other races of man. The form of the skull, in so far as it is in the brain-case, cannot, I think, be insisted on as a criterion of the African negro, for I do not believe it has any characters by which it can certainly be distinguished from the skulls of nearly allied races, such as those of the Abyssinians and of the Oriental negroes. To the people of Europe, both of antiquity and the middle ages, the negro was as little known as the Hindu or the Chinese; but he was immediately known to the Egyptians, the Jews, the Arabs, and the Per- sians—most probably always a slave. The continent of Africa, reckoning on its western side from the south: ern limits of the Great Desert to the Tropic of Capri- corn, and on the eastern from the equator to 33rd degree of south latitude, is inhabited by the negre ace. To the south of the limits mentioned, we ex- olude the sqaab, yellow Hottentots, "although with woolly hair; and to the north, the Abyssinians, the Samauli, and the Galla, who have crisp long hair, and elevated features, albeit of dusky or black complexions. As we know nothing to the contrary, we may assume that all the races of men are of equal antiquity, or that, in so far as mere time is concerned, every race has had the same length of time for making advancement in civilisation. The great diversity of social conditions in which we now find them must therefore depend on quality of race or on difference of opportunity. The negroes of Africa are unquestionably the most ad- vanced of all the woolly-headed races. They have been iaame-morially in almost exclusive possession of the greater part of a vast continent, most of it within the tropics, but a considerable part also in a temperate alimate. The negroes of Africa, ever since they have been known to civilised man, have been in pos- session of the ox, the sheep, the goat, the horse, the camel, the hog, and the dog. As long as we have known them they have cultivated mil- lets, pislse, and rice, and, since the discovery of America, maize,, while the cotton-plant is either indi- genous to their own country or time out of mind was introduced from India. Wherever they have been seen by Europeans, they have been found in posses- sion, however rudely exercised, of the art of fabricat- ing malleable iron, and gold is the product of several parts of their country. On the western coast the negroes have been in communication with the civilised nations of Europe for four hundred years; on the eastern with the Arabs and Hindus immemorially. Their agriculture is rudimental and unskilful to the last degree, and their arts are eonfined to the manu- facture of a coarse pottery by the hand, to the weav- ing of a very coarse fabric from cotton, and to the fabrication of malleable iron. Architecture, in any scientific sense, is equally a blank with letters. The dwellings of the negroes, and even the palaces of negro kings, are ever of poQr. temporary, perishable materials. The art cf making bricks, or hewing stone, aeems to be unknown to all the purely negro nations wf Africa. The wars of the nogroes are but the in. cursions of savages, their chief object being plunder, and the main booty (man) to be sold into slavery or offered up as a sacrifice to some demon. On the western, side of the continent firearms are the usual weapons, furnished by European nations; but on the eastern, the bow and arrow are more frequent. The art of war is somewhat more skilful where the Arabs have intermixed with the natives, and here alone we find a cavalry. Government among the ne- groes is in the rudest form of a despotism the most absolute and unrestrained. The negroes of Africa are eminently a home-keeping, unadventurous race. Neither war, commerce, nor colonisation have tempted them to transgress their native bounds. In America and its islands, which before knew no indigenous negro race, there now exist probably not fewer than twelve millions of African negroes, a considerable number of whom are free, but the majority are still in the same state of slavery in which they were when first im- ported. Some writers have, in my opinion, very idly imagined that the African negro made some approach to the anthropid apes, forming, as it were, a link be- tween man and monkey; a fancy as unfounded as it would be to insist that a Shetland pony was not a horse because it wanted the size and strength of a London dray-horse, or the fleetness of a racer; or that a spaniel is not a dog because it wants the courage of a bull-dog, the size and strength of the mastiff, and the swiftness of the greyhound (loud applause). Among the arguments relied on for the degradation of the negro below the level of other men are some minute and assuredly fanciful differences between the internal anatomy of the negro and European. These differences, when they are real, appear to me of no value, because, for aught we know to the contrary, a superio- rity for the negro might just as reasonably be argued from them as an inferiority. The negro is a man, with every attribute of one. He is one of many races, of very unequal qualities. He is equal in strength and stature to the European, but very far below him in mental endowment. He is superior in strength, but inferior in intellect to all the races of Asia who have bad the same opportunities of development as himself. He is greatly superior in physical strength to the red man of America, but intellectually scarcely his equal, if we are to judge by the progress made by the Mexicans and Peruvians, labouring under disadvantages to which the negro is not sub- ject. But the African negro, although greatly in- ferior to many races, is far from being at the bottom of the scale. He surpasses the Hottentot and the Australian, and is far above all the races of Oriental negroes. The inferiority of the African is pleaded as a reason for holding him in slavery; but I presume it will hardly be argued that any one race of man was expressly created to be slaves to another, as certain black ants have been created to be t'he servants and slaves of certain red ones. A few freed negroes in the colonies of European nations, but never in their own country, have occasionally acquired some distinction in art, science, and literature; and well-meaning per- sons have adduced such cases as evidence of high capacity. But the examples have been rare, and the attainments not above mediocrity. Zoology: A Wonderful Fish. Of all the wonderful discussions in the various sec- tions, perhaps, that which took place in section 0, zoology and botany, has been most extraordinary. Amongst the papers set down to be read in this section was one written by Dr. Carle respecting the voracity of the chiasmodus. Numerous conjectures naturally arose as to who chiasmodus might be, and he turns out to be a little fish six inches long, respect- ing whom Sir Leopold M'Clintock makes the following remarks: —"Dr. Imray, of Castries Dominica has given me the specimen, of which the two sketches enclosed may afford you some idea. A small fish, with teeth inclined backwards, swallowed a very much larger fish, and whilst helplessly floating was picked up and given to Dr. Imray. The swallowed fish. was dead; the swallower yet alive. The abdominal integument has been stretched enormously, and is as thin as gold- beater's skin, but quite perfect.. Both fishes are known out here, but the smaller one is much the more rare. Sir Leopold goes on to say that he has the spe- cimens in spirits, and he will send them home the first safe opportunity. Accordingly, on the 4bh August, the jar containing the specimens were sent to too Natural History Department of the Royal Dublin, Society, by Lieutenant G. R. Ball. On examination the lesser fish, or swallower, appears- so closely allied" in its general character to the genua- chiaamodon, de-, scribed in the third part of the proceedings of the Zoological Society of London for 1883; p. 408, by Mr. J. Yates Johnson that it may, be referred to it. Kindly exhibit the specimen for me at the meeting of the Association." # The speeimens were in all.exoellent state of preserva- tion. The length of the swallower was 6|j inches, and of the swallowed fish 10J inches. Dr. Gunther said that, as far as he know,, only two, other specimens of this fish were known. The first was discovered'about thirty years ago, by the Bev. R. Lowe, the celebrated naturalist of Madeira, and he kept his- specimen until about a year ago, when the second specimen was discovered. The fish belonged to a1 class of which we knew but little., They were found always- at a depth from 300 to 400-fathoms, and they knew of only five or six species. The moat extraordinary characteristic of all these deep sea fishes was tha.t all of them had the stomach extremely extensible, and in two other cases, for instance, sacsopharynx, which had been caught in the middle of the Atlantic- Ocean,and in the species caught by Johnson at Madrid, a similar expansion of the stomach had been observed, bat it was far inferior to that seen in the specimens present. Another peculiarity in these deep sea, fishes was the looseness with which the single bonas-were connected; in fact many of these fish when brought to the surface fell to pieces. The great pressure of the water under which these fish were continually resting held the single parts together, and the cellular tissues were far more feeble than in fishes living nearer the surface of the water. MiF., Lowe had mentioned to him a most singular instance of the looseness of the bones of these fishes. When fishing atr a depth of 300 or 500 fathoms he had not unfre- quently observed a tremendous strain on the line, showing that he had evidently aaugiit a large and powerful fish. When he pulled up the resistance made by the fish became less and, less, and finally, when he drew in the line nothing remained but a piece of jaw and a piece of the head, the real having gone as the, fish approached the surface of the water. The specimen swallowed by this fiah was also a rare speci- men. He knew of only three other specimens; it was the Scopelus macrolepidotus. He was extremely glad to find that these specimens had passed from the bands of a private gentleman to those of a public body. Dr. Sclater asked to what families these deep sea fishes belonged, because he thought it would be much more singular if this extraordinary formation of the stomach was to be found in two or threo different families than if it were confined to only one family. Dr. Gunther was glad that attention had been called to this point, because, fifty years ago, they had no idea that fishes were able to live at more than a hun- dred fathoms in depth, and it was only by recent dis- coveries that these fishes had been made known. There were only seven or eight families* and they had all the same peculiarity in the construction of their stomachs, and in the organs of deglutition and diges- tion. Singular enough, they all belong to different families. First, there was the saccopharynx, an eel; the second belonged to a family by itself, the scope- lida; a third formed again a separate family. The specimen now shown belonged to the Gadidte, the same family as the cod fish and, finally, the last was the malanooetus, a kind of lophius, or sea devil.
CHANG, THE CHINESE GIANT. Chang is a Chinese giant, whose arrival in this country has been heralded by advertisements of a more or less sensational character, and whose departure from his native land was preceded by a variety of newspaper commentaries and discussions befitting the importance of the event. On Wednesday a medical gentleman of some standing invited the representa- tives of the press and a few members of his own pro- fession to meet the giant, who was thus allowed to give his first reception here, in an English drawing- room. The notes of invitation were from Chang him. self, and being in Chinese, were considerably supple- mented by a translation, from which, and from another note, it was made clear that the gathering would be of an essentially private character, and that the guests would be limited to journalists and medieal men. Professor Anderson and suite, including that dire foe to the Devonport Brothers, Mr. Sutton, of rope-tying celebrity, and other distinguished srnans, assembled on Wednesday afternoon to do honour to the new lion. *i. iS worth seeing. He is incomparably the^ best looking and most intelligent giant ever ex- hibited in our time, and we may say, in sober earnest, what Stephano said in mistake of Caliban, a most delicate monster," and one almost embarrassingly gentle and polite. Seated in a huge chair in the centre of a raised dais in the drawing-room just named, with two Chinamen, said to be his secretary and treasurer, at one side of him, his recently married wife and her maid on the other, and a grotesque dwarf at his feet, Chang looked like nothing so much as a gigantic heathen id-ol which had, been suddenly endowed with life. Gorgeously attired in a brocaded robe of white and parti-colouredsilk, with a massivestringof beads round nis neck, a handsome cap upon his head, and the or- thodox thick white soles to his Chinese boots, Chang sat motionless save for a light fluttering to and fro of the fan he held in his left hand. He has good teeth, expressive eyes, and a high forehead, and though his race ia essentially a Chinese one, it is of the most favourable type, and his mildness ha3 in it none of feeble idiocy which is-so painful, and so frequent a characteristic in tko physiognomy of preternaturally big men. Nor when he rises to greet each fresh arrival is the favourable impression produced by his prepossessing appearance at all modified. Really seven feet nine inches and a- half high, he looks, partly from the thick-soled shoes, partly from the robe he wears, considerably taller; and to see him towering above, and making pigmies-of stalwart men of six feet, was to realise Gulliver and the Birobdingnagians more clearly than ever. Lady readers will be interested in knowing that this social and domestic giant positively refused to leave China- a bachelor. His final determination on this head was made and announced with startling sudden- ness, and at a somewhat unseasonable crisis. It was, as we were told, after all arrangements had been made for leaving for Europe, that the ultimatum "a wife or I don't go j" was given out. A bridie had to be found on the spur of the moment, and one of Mr. Chang's English agents added, with a happy combination of business and sentiment, though we had to arrange it all in a great hurry, I believe the marriage has turned out a very happy one." This auspicious event took place- six months since. Mrs. Chang is insigni- ficant in appearance, unbeauteous in aspect, and ap. pears to have the advantage of her husband in point of age. Chang himself is said to. be nineteen, but looks about twenty-three. Besides the interest attaching to the feet of Mrs. Chang and her maid, both of which are orthodoxly cramped and small, and both of whom totter in minc- ing fashion when they walk; .the Chinese secretary and treasurer add to the entertainment provided for guests. Hearty welcomes and genial blessings are be- stowed-in writing. Chang'a. sign-manual is stamped upon a piece of coloured paper, and the blessings are added- in your presence, in Indian ink, by the two officers. of his household. The rapid manipulation- and these Chinamen are also singularly favourable specimens of their race, both in intelligence and ur- banity-and skilful wordpainting of this couple was interesting enough. And last, but not least-save- by that standard which Dr. Watts despised in rhyme-oomes the dwarf. Thirty years old, twenty-eight inches high, a Chinese rebel in politics, grotesque in face and figure, and a humourist in amusements, Boo Sing Sang-we cannot pledge ourselves to the correctness of this spelling—will be a, sure favourite here. Be is the convivialist; of the party, and while his five countrywomen and country- men are teetotallers, he has an outspoken preference for British gin. He swaggers round, too, and shakes hands in a funnily bumptious fashion, and is to his dignified and vast friend Chang what a low comedian ia_ to tfeo elassic professor of tragedy, what in the circus ring Mr. Merry man is to the graceful expositor of the haute- ieole. A. solitaire board afforded; him intense amusement, and he shouted with delight-which he insisted upon his visitors sharing—when he succeeded in clearing it of its men. His dwarf speaka a word or two of English, and shakes hands in thoroughly Bri- tannic fashion, without prefacing his shake,, as the gentle Chang does, by the salutation known as Chin- chajig"—a waving of the fan with both hands from the chin towards the person greeted. It was touching to hear Professor Anderson addressing the small mortal, and speaking, like Mr. Podsnap, from the lofty table-land of his own intellectual superiority thus: "How do you do, sir ?—tres bien-very well— you no savee—Yes!" and though neither deliberation of accent, nor loudness of voice, brought the full meaning of this coherent greeting home to the poor little barbarian, it was gratifying to note that he smiled with great roguishness as if he fully understood the joke. The whole of this party of interesting foreigners are recruiting themselves for a week or two out of town They came up on Wednesday for the reception, and returned at night, after which they will exhibit, pro- bably, at the Egyptian-hall, and will doubtless attract all interested in the exceptional and peculiar. We must not omit to mention that Chang has brought his coffin with him, in case of accident, or in obedience to traditional law. It was hollowed out of a tree, requires a. dozen men to lift it, and was put to good and practi- cal service as a packing-case for clothes and goods during the voyage to Europe. "♦