HO:/SK OF LOilD-S.—Till IISDAV. There was no business of public interest, and the sitting oni> lasted twenty minuses. The Royal assent was given by torn- mission to thirtv-two public and private Bills, among them being tt,e M*» BBf;KSE QF C03!)I0N-s,_T„ol5r,1T \H the early part of the sitting was given up to the asking o. Questions Mr. Osborne .Morgan intimated that, finding himself Spointed in obtaining a place for his resolution on he Burials question, he will take the earnest opportunity o- bu » in" it forward next session.—In answer to Mr. Smyth tfle Chancellor of the Exchequer said the Government could not at present promise to devote another day to the consideration c the Sunday Closing (Ireland) iiul, but he to facilitate it.Ur. Suiiivaii complained of the tonduct of the Government in the matter, and in oruer to bring on ;ii (leb.it..on the question, moved the adjournment of the House.-This course was severely deprecated by the Chance.lor of the Lxtheqaer, who justified the conduct of the Government as perfectly fail •mil itriin-litfonvard.—The Marquis of Hartington also con- demned the obstructive policy, but desired that tne (<o\eminent would give a pledge to give the Bill uheir hearts support, c. deal with the matter themselves.—Ion* debate,in which the Irish members took the principal part, the motion for adjournment was put and negatived, and the House went into Committee of Supply. HOUSE OF LORDS.—FRIDAY. In committee on the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge Bill (recommitted), Lord Granville moved an amendment to Clause 15, the main, object of wlncii was to aoolish tests and obligations as part of the conditions of eligi- bility to university or college emoluments or office. Ihe noble lord save details as to the number of fellowships at the universities that could only be held by clergymen, and ur"-ed that the removal of the existing restrictions wouLd meet with general approval. The .Marquis of Salisbury opposed the amendment, which was debated at some length, and was eventually rejected on a division by a majority of 34. The other clauses were agreed to with certain verbal amendments. HOUSE OF COMMON'S.—FRIDAY. There was a morning sitting of the Commons Mr. "11alley postponed his motion with respect to the Society of the Holy Cross until the 24th July. On the motion for going into Com- mittee of Supply, Mr. Parneil moved a resolution amrming the desirability of an independent inspection of convict establish- ments, and praying for a Royal Commission to inquire into the discipline and management of these prisons. Mr. halley seconded the motion, complimented Mr. Parneil on having taken up the question, and then proceeded to refer to the objection- able treatment of a prisoner at Dartmoor, for which he cen- sured the Government. Mr. Downing complained of the treat- ment of O Donovan Rossi tn(I other political prisoners, Tile Home Secretary opposed the proposal, but said he would care- fully consider the matter during the recess. He also opposed the appointment of a Itoyal Commission. The amendment was withdrawn, and the House having gone into Committee of Sup- ply, a number of votes were agreed to. The attention of the Government having been called to the recent suicide of a Blue Coat School hoy, the Home Secretary announced the names of the Commission appointed to inquire into the discipline in Christ's Hospital. The sitting was suspended at seven o'clock. The House resumed at nine o'clock, and was immediately counted out. HOUSE OF LORDS.—MONDAY. Lord Oranmore and Browne called attention to the prevalence of undetected and unpunished crime in Ireland, and asked if it was the intention of the Government to propose any measure for the better protection of life in that country. He stated that in his part of the country threatening letters were so numerous that their name was legion, yet such was the terrorism exercised that publicity was not given to them through the press, or by information furnished to the Government or to the police. In 1876 there were 33 murders and 300 crimes against human life, and whereas outrages were formerly committed at night, they were now perpetrated in open day.—The Duke of Marloorougli, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, quoted statistics to show that since 1S70 there had been a very large diminution in the number of outrages reported to the police, and a very favourable decrease of crime generally. He believed the powers already possessed by the authorities were sufficient, and hoped it would never Ml to his lot to advise Her Majesty's Government to increase the restrictions now imposed.—Lord O'Hagan expressed surprise at the statements of the noble lord who had brought on the question, and asserted that Ireland not only occupied an excep- tional position as compared with her former condition, but she held a prominent position as compared with other nations.— After a few words from Lord Carlingford, and a brief reply from Lord Oranmore and Browne, the subject dropped. -Their Lord- ships adjourned at 7.45. HOUSE OF COMMONS. ^TUESDAY. Mr. Egerton, in answer to Captain Pim, said the report of Admiral De Horsey, on the action between her Majesty's ships Shah and Amethyst and the Peruvian ironclad Huascar, was under the consideration of the law officers of the Crown, and would shortly be laid upon the table.—The Chancellor of the Exchequer stated that he hoped to be able on Thursday to make an announcement as to the course of public business.—Mr. Holms, member for Hackney, then submitted the following resolution That the recent appointment of Controller of her Majesty's Stationery Office is calculated to diminish the usefulness and influence of select committees of this House, and to discourage the interest and zeal of officials employed in the public departments of the State." He urged that Mr. Pigot, the gentleman appointed, had no knowledge of stationery, and the only reason that could be suggested for his selection was that he was the son of the Vicar of Hughenden.—The Chancellor of the Exchequer admitted that the committee had recommended that the Controller should possess a technical knowledge of stationery and printing, but he urged that Mr. Pigot had had a good deal of experience in public business, and finally he-threw the responsibility of the appointment upon the Prime Minister. —A sharp debate followed, in which the Government were directly accused of jobbery, and then the House divided, the result being that the motioll of -Air. Holms was carried by a majority of four against the Government, an announcement that was received with loud cheers.—Mr. Chamberlain moved the ex- penditure for the promotion of science and art should not be exclusive!}' confined to institutions in London, Dublin, and Edinburgh.—Lord Sandon, on the part of the Government, acknowledged the great advantage that would accrue from the establishment of museums of science and art in all the great provincial centres, but if the resolution were not pressed at this time, he hoped that next session he might be in a position to make some announcement on the subject.—The resolution was withdrawn.—Sir W. Harcoiirt drew attention to the lengthy de- tention in gaol of prisoners who were awaiting trial.—The Home Secretary said the matter had been under the considera- tion of the law officers of the Crown.—The House then went into Committee of Supply on the Civil Service Estimates. HOUSE OF LOUDS—TUESDAY. The House met at five o'clock.—The Report of Amendments to the'Univers-ities of Oxford and Cambridge Bill was brought up and agreed to.—The Inclosure Bill, he Public Work Loans (Ireland) Bill, and the Companies Acts Amendment (-No. 3) Bill went through Committee.—The Registered Writs Execution (Scotland) JBill was read a second time.-In reply to Lord O'Hagan, the Lord Chancellor observed that allleislation re- lating to Ireland since the Union came under the Ilead of im- perial legislation.—The Ante Union statistics had been revised to the year 141)4, and the Government were anxious to continue the work, but unless the Bills introduced for the purpose were practically unopposed, there was little chance of their passing in competition with the more pressing legislation of the session. -The House adjourned at quarter to six. HOUSE OF COMMONS.—TUESDAY. Sir G. Campbell gave notice that on going into Committee of Supply he will call attention to the Russo-Turkish War, and its necessarily internecine character, and ask whether her Majesty's Government are prepared to try and unite the Great European Powers in an effort to obtain a settlement on the principle of the Self Government of the Christian Provinces of Turkey, as already sanctioned by the European Conference"antl accepted by Russia.—In reply to Mr. Gourley, Mr. Bourke said it would be useless to ask the Turkish Government to exempt from search suspected vessels, which were those only as to which the right of search would be exercised. —In reply to Sir C. Dilke. Mr. Bourke said her Majesty's Gov- ernment had received information similar to that in the news- paper telegrams as to the appearing of the Russian forces on the southern side of the Balkans at the places mentioned, but from information received from Constantinople it appeared that the force which had crossed the Balkans was not so large as was re- presented by the newspaper telegrams. The Government had no information beyond that contained in the newspapers as to the death of the Ameer of Kashgar.—The House went into Committee of Supply, when the votes in class three for the learned societies, the Scotch Universities, the Queen's Colleges, and the Queen's University in Ireland, the Educational Boards and scientific institutions were agreed to. The votes for the diplomatic anil consular services, superannu- ation and charitable allowances, temporary commissions and miscellaneous charges in the other classes, with the exception of the grants in aid to Colonies, were agreed to. Several formal Bills were advanced a stage, and the sitting was suspended at seven o'clock. HOUSE OF COMMONS.—WEDNESDAY. On the motion of Mr. Bright, a return was ordered of the in amount expended since 1854 on experiments in connection with the construction of ships of war, guns and gun-carriages, torpe- does, rifles, and mal.1-a:ms, or other weapons of military offence or defence; distinguishing the amounts paid to inventors from the expenses, and giving the names of such inventors and the sums paid to each. -Mr. Sullivan moved the second reading of the Intoxicating Liquors (Ireland) Bill. The hon. member stated that his Bill was a compromise, and he was not wedded to the hour named m it, but would leave it to be debated whe- ther the closing hour on Saturday should be uniform throughout Ireland, or should be different in town and country.—Mr. Shaw moved that the Bill be read A second time that day three months. —After a long debate, Sir M. H. Beach said it was impossible that the Bill could pass in the present session, and therefore he did not see what useful purpose could be served by pressing the motion for a second reading. He promised to consider this sub- r ject, in conjunction with that of Sunday closing, during the re- cess, and to bring it under the notice of his colleagues with a view to the framing of a measure which would deal with both questions as a whole.—The motion was negatived with- out a division.—The Sale of Intoxicating Liquors on Sunday Bill, which was down for a second reading, was withdrawn.—Mr. Cowen moved the second reading of the Intoxicating Liquors (Licensing Boards) Bill. -On a division, the Bill was rejected by a large majority.
THE i'lC KLENESS OF FASHION. One leading characteristic of pleasure-seekers at the present time is extreme fickleness. One year all the world plays at croquet, the next year it throws aside its croquet and devotes itself to lawn-tennis. For a few months it goes mad on the sub- ject of "rinking." Rinks at a great cost are built for its con- venience, but in the meantime rinking has gone out of fashion, and the rink builders are left lamenting. As with its amuse- ments, so with its places of "favourite rosort." Where the world flocks to this year is no criterion as to where it will flock next year, and those who, misled by its momentary fancies, build houses for its accommodation do- so it their own peril Foreigners have not yet realized this lack of stability in British tastes, and occasionally find themselves in an awkward predica- ment, owing to their having counted on an annual rush to some town or village which has for one or two seasons attracted a large number of visitors. This appears to have happened at San Remo, in Italy, where, according to the report of Vice-Consul Congreve, a fever of speculation seized landed proprietors house-owners, and hotel-keepers when the English began to flock to San Remo and made it a fashionable winter resort The speculative fever reached its height in ls76, when villas which used to let at 5,ooof. were eargerly snapped up at 10,000f. Others not yet finished, and therefore" unwholesomely fresh," were taken at equally high rates, and hotel-keepers enormously increased their already high charges but as the season advanced these glittering expectations proved to be a delusion and snare. They all found they had been going too fast, and the result was "general discontent, lamenting, and fault-finding."—Pall Mall Gazette..
THE AXCIENT CORNISH TONGUE. Next year (bï) being the 100th year since the date when, as is commonly supposed in tne >> est of England, the Cornish language actually ceased to be spoken, through the death of the last person who could converse in ii> uuently—an old woman of Mousehole, near Penzance, who used the language chiefly for the purpose of swearing in it—it has been proposed to commemorate the "Centenary" by holding it at Penzance or at Truro—prob- ably at the former—a Congress of Celtic scholars. At this Con- gress papers will be read and discussions invited upon the history and affinities of the ancient and now extinct Cornish language. Although this language has ceased to be vernacular for so long a period, yet it is well-known that there still remain a number of manuscripts which were written in it, and some of which have recently been translated and published. For in- stance, sundry of the old Cornish Scriptural dramas, the Origi Mundi," the Passio Christi," and the Resurrectio C'hristi," by Mr. Norris, and the Beunands Meriasek," by Mr. W. Stoke. It is expected that other similar manuscripts will also shortly see the light under the auspices of the Cornish Manuscript Society;" and it may be added, as a connecting link with our own times, that not a few old Cornu-British words are still em- bedded in the modem Cornish dialect. The celebration of this forthcoming" Centenary" is expected to prove the occasion of a re-union, in one of the western-most towns in the kingdom, of some of our leading Celtic philologists and antiquaries and the gathering, if it should be held, will be one of the results of the interesting Congresses of the British Archaeological Association held in Cornwall in August last.—Times.
NOTES, QUERIES, and REPLIES, on sitbjects interesting to Wales and the Borders, must be addressed to "BYE-GO-,T-S, Croeswylan, Oswestry." Real names and addresses itiust be given, in confidence, and .1[3S must be written legibly, on one side of the paper only.
JULY 18, 1877. NOTES. A BURIED MILL AT BRIDGNORTH.—In the year 1773, as we learn by a. paragraph in the Annual Register,— A collier discovered in a coal-mine, near Bridgnorth, in Shrop- shire, seventy-five yards below the surface, the ruins of a water- mill, and the skeleton of a man, without any head likewise the remains of some a.mmals, but in such an imperfect state, that thev could not even so much as conjecture their original figures. The learned there account for these things by imputing them to an earthquake which happened about two centuries ago. To what did the learned elsewhere impute them ? SCROBBES BYRIG. HARD TO KILL !—I have recently been looking over some of the earlier volumes of the Annual Register, and find the following entries of deaths of centenarians in the respective vols. of the dates mentioned :— 1767. Jane Holt of Wem, ICS. HGS. Jane Holt, near Ellesmere, 10S. 1709. Jane Holt, ill Shropshire, 105. In the second of these entries she is said to have survived her husband (who died at 1)9) ten years. For the present my examination has ceased with the vol. for 1769, but on some future occasion I may be able to record further deaths of this old lady. AULD SHROPSHEEK. COALBROOKDALE MANUFACTURES.— Shropshire has long been celebrated for the manufacture of iron, and I read, under date of "Newcastle, Feb. 26, 17t>3,"the following On Wednesday last was landed at Winkham Lee Coal Staith, for the use of Walker Colliery, a fire-engine cylinder, the largest that has ever been seen in this country, or perhaps in any other the diameter of tiie bore measures upwards of 74 inches, and it is 10i feet in length: it weighs, exclusive of the bottom and piston, 130 cwt. or tons, and, together with the piston and bottom, contains between 10 and 11 tons of metal. The bore is turned perfectly round, and well ^polished; and the whole is so complete and noble a piece of iron work, that it does the greatest honour to the foundry where it was cast, viz., Coal- brook Dale in the county of Salop. When the engine to which this cylinder appertains is compleated, it will have the force to raise, at a stroke, above 307 cwt. of water. D. QUERIES. FEARING FOR SUPPOSING.—The other day I received a letter from an Oswestrian, which belonged to me, but which he had opened in mistake. On the outside he had written I opened this fcCtring it was for me." Is this odd use of the word at all general in Shropshire ? SOJOCR.YER. MONTGOMERYSHIRE LIEUTENANCY. What was the nature of the meeting called in the follow- ing advertisement ?— MONTGOMERYSHIRE. GENERAL MEETING of the Lieutenancy of the County .1 of Montgomery, will he holden at the Royal Oak, in Welsh Pool, in the County of Montgomery, on Wednesday, the 17th Day of September next, at eleven o'Clock in the Forenoon JONES, Clerk of the General Meetings. Maesmawr, 26th August, ItSOO. The advertisement appeared in a Shrewsbury paper. BLACKPOOL. CYRN YR YXAIN BANNOG. The CWllb. Q'l.nr. Mag., vol. 5, contains a letter from Mr. P. B. Williams, dated Havod, Carnarvon, May 1, 1833, as fol- lows :— Some years ago two horns were exhibited at Llanddewi-brevi, in Cardiganshire, which were called Cyrn yr Yxain Bannog," i.e., the horns of the large or celebrated oxen. The legend re- specting them was as follows:—"A lake in that part of the country was occupied by a large monster, by some called avanc, a beaver, by others y ddraig, the dragon, which infested the neighbourhood, and committed great depredations. At last, by the united efforts of the inhabitants, it was speared and wounded, and the yxain bannog were fastened to it, in order to draw it out, which eventually they succeeded in doing: but their exertions had been so great, that one of them died in con- sequence, and his partner lowed so mightily for the loss of his companion, that the mountain was rent in twain, and the place, from that circumstance, was denominated:Llau Ddewi Brevi, i.e., St. Davids of the Lowing or Bellowing. The above traditional tale is supposed to be allegorical, and to allude to the confuta- tion of Pelagianism at the synog of Brevi, about the year 522 by the two archbishops, St. Dubricius (Duvig) and St. David. According to this interpretation the two archbishops were the Xxain Bannog or celebrated Oxen, and Pelagius (Morgan) was the monster. The wonderful tale of the dividing of the moun- tain must be attributed to the same origin as that which reports that the ground on which St. David stood, in order to preach to the assembled multitude at the synod upheaved, and most miraculously elevated itself to the size of a pretty high hill under the holy man's feet namely, to the superstitious credulity of the age, which greedily swallowed all kinds of legendary tales and monkish fictions. What became of the horns referred to ? They would be a curious addition to the museum now in course of forma- tion at the University College of Wales. ELIOLA. Aberystwyth. REPLIES. SIGN BOARDS (Nov. 24, 1876).-The sign of the Carpenter's Arms in one of the little mountain villages of Monmouthshire proffers excellent advice to those who fre- quent the house, in the following doggerel:— Call softly, pay freely, Drink soberly, and depart quietly. H. LLYWELYN YOELGRWM (May 2, 1877.)-fil Notes and Queries, 20 December, 1856, Francis Robert Davies, inquiring for the arms of Llewellyn Voelgrwn, I adds" They are borne by his descendants, Davies of Peniarth. This family of Davies merged into that of Davies of Marrington Hall, representatives of the younger branch of Davies Guasanau, by marriage." R.E.D. HOTEL VISITORS BOOKS (July 12, 1876).- The following I copied while staying for a few minutes at the Peniarth Arms, Mallwyd, on Friday, Oct. 1,1875 :— Here one lives in health and bounty, If the weather should be tine, Not an inn in all the county, Gives one better food and wine. H.W. Also this :— "Swans sing before they die 'twere no bad tiling Should certain persons die before they sing. So sang a poet once-an(I so think I, Then I'll be dumb if Mallwyd's many charms, And only say to others, "Come and try The thousand pleasures of the Peniarth Arms." This was signed Ernest S. Hilliard, Ch Col:, Oxford." J.O.J. [The Tourist season having set in again, perhaps some of our readers will occupy their spare moments at Welsh hotels, in copying such effusions from the Visitors Books for Bye-nones', as may strike their fancy. Sometimes we get a gem.—ED. J WELSH AND BORDER PRESS (May 23, 1877). —I have an etching of Wrexham Church, by J. Boydell, dated 1748, sold by J. Payne, Bookseller, Wrexham. Perhaps this may be useful to Mr. Allnutt as fixing the actual date when Payne (see May 9) was in business at Wrexham. It is dedicated to Sir W. Williams Wynn, Bart., and is locally interesting, as it bears the following inscription above the clock dial, "The gift of W. Williams Wynn, Esq., 1735." I can still see a small gilded eagle upon the dial of the clock, but can discover no trace of the inscription as represented in the engraving. LAXDWOR. HILLS OF CARNAU IN CARDIGANSHIRE (.June 20,1877).—Your correspondent LLALLAWG calls intdk question the accuracy of the historian of the Princes of Wales, who states that the hills of "Carnau," where the battle of 1080 took place, are situated in Cardiganshire. LLALLAWG relies on the Gwentian Chronicles, and on the non-existence of any hill in Cardiganshire of the name of Carnau,' and fixes the place where the battle was fought at Llangattock in Breconshire. Let me inform LLALLAWG of the following fact:—Bordering a part of the Vale of Aeron, in Cardiganshire, is the well-known mountain commonly called Tichryg." The name has its origin in the existence of three mounds, comparatively near to each other tn chrug." On the slope of one of the "Crugiau," and on the edge of a narrow" pass" or cil" (Ciliau abound in the neighbourhood of the Aeron) is a snot called Mynydd y Castell"—a height comiLndfn^n extensive view of the country. At the back oAliis mountain is the hill called Mynydd y Carnau and at its foot a farm house called "Carnau". The form- ation of the ground here is striking. It is a deep hollow approached by a narrow pass, or" cil." Fifty years ago the attention of antiquarians was directed to this spot. The Carnau" in it were numerous and there was no difficulty in coming to the decision that they were remains of a great encampment, and particu- larly places of sepulture. One of them was examined and among other relics of war there was found a sword, which I believe, was for many years at Tymawr Cilcenin, and is now, I am told, at Glanrhydw, near Carmarthen. The present generation, within whose reach books have been brought, does not feel the same interest in traditional lore that its predecessors did. I remember, when very young, hearing a great deal from old people of the battles fought at "Cilcenin Mynydd of Castell" and "Carnau." They spoke of the battles having been fierce, and the slaughter terrible, and regarded the Carnau" as the place where thousands of their fellow countrymen lay pro- miscuously buried—buried "yn garnau" in "great heaps." This neighbourhood abounds in historic events -ma;ny for ever lost—still many that might by enquiry and research, be placed am<Mig the records of our county. Near to Carnau we have "Coed y Brenan" and" Ffald y Brenin"—many evidences of kingly dwelling Castle Cadwgan is within five miles of Carnau. OH an elevation known now as Banc Henfynyw, on the farm of Geraint, are to be seen the outlines of a great en- campment. Until within the last six years there stood on the spot a large upright stone, some feet high, which con- tained an inscription. I accidentally heard of its existence and went to inspect it. The inspection was a week too late, for within that time a workman, not knowinn. the historic value of the stone he dealt with, destroyed it, for the purpose of repairing a broken hedge close to it. Should LLALLAWG visit this neighbourhood, when I am sojourning here, I shall be glad to offer him hospitality, and assist him in his inquiries. J.G. Dolygwartheg.
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THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR THE RUSSIANS IN BULGARIA. Osman Pacha, after a rapid march from Widdin, is said to have attacked the Russians at Plevna but unless tlieRussians have retaken the town, from which they were dislodged, it will be remembered in the early part of last week, this is old news. Simultaneously with this move- ment in the west there was a similar advance from the east on Monastir, and though this operation was frustrated, as we were informed at the time by the Daily News corres- pondent, the attempt appears to have been renewed on Thursday. Active preparations are being made at Giurgevo, where some tremendous siege guns are being mounted, for the bombardment of Rustchuk, which place the Russians mean to assault both from above and from below, but it is improbable that their operations in Bul- garia will be pushed much further until their communi- cations with the northern bank are improved. The bridge near Sistova, it seems, has again broken down. A few nights ago there was another heavy storm, which swamped several of the pontoons and caused two great gaps in the bridge—one extending over a hundred yards—which will take at least a day or two to repair. If such an accident occurred while the Turks were assaulting the Russian positions at Sistova it might prove disastrous. In the Dobrudscha, the Russians appear to be progressing but slowly, owing, probably, to natural difficulties. There have been some skirmishes near Medjidje, on the Tcherna- voda and Kustendje line between the outposts of the opposing armies, but the main body of the Russians is still concentrated in the north of the peninsula, near Matchin. The Turks are said to have 25,000 men in line for the defence of Trajan's walls. Very strong representations are being made by the Porte to the Powers respecting the alleged atrocities committed by the Russians in Bulgaria. MONTENEGRO. Montenegro has again taken the field on the Herzegovina side, and while Prince Nikita is marching a fresh army upon Nicsics, another insurgent column has crossed the river Tara, and after a short engagement with the Tur- kish troops there, has captured six villages in the district of Focia. Should the Montenegrins be able to muster in any considerable force, they may yet prove a terrible thorn in the side of the Turks, and contribute not a little by their diversion to the success of the Russian invasion of Bulgaria. THE WAR IN ASIA MINOR. The result of the Russian invasion of Turkish Armenia is now fully known, and there is no doubt that it has been a total failure. The siege of Kars has been raised, as the Russian official accounts tell us to avoid an attack of the whole Turkish army of Anatolia. The army which attacked Batoum has been compelled to fall back within the lines of the Russian frontier. Erzeroum is perfectly safe against all attack, probably for the whole of the pre- sent year, and Trebizond has never been touched. Ae- I cording to Russian official accounts the Russian generals have succeeded in rescuing the Russian troops which had been blocked up at Bayazid for upwards of twenty days, and had inflicted a severe punishment on the army of Kurds and Turks who had blockaded them there. The only spot in Turkish Armenia which the Russians continue to hold at the close of the campaign is Ardalian, which was taken when the Russians first entered the Turkish territory. The strength of the fortress of Kars has again been estab- lished by the severest test, and Batoum seems to be im- pregnable so long as it is defended by the ironclad fleet of the Turks. We are told, however, that the Russian Government is pressing forward another powerful army, amounting to 50,000 men, to renew the invasion of Turkish Armenia, or at all events to protect the Russian territory from an invasion of the Turks. The latter object they will probably effect; but it is doubtful whether a second invasion of Turkish Armenia, commenced so late in the year and after so signal a failure as that which has been sustained, can have any more successful result than the first. The climate is most unfavourable, and the snows on the mountains block up all the roads early in the autumn. The result of the recent campaign in Armenia has shown that that country, instead of being easy to invade and conquer, is a country of extraordinary strength, and one which a Turkish army, well supplied with breech- loaders and acting steadily on a defensive plan of campaign, is quite capable of holding even against the excellent troops of Russia, commanded by able generals. The Turks are again taking the initiative. With this object Mukhtar Pacha and the commandant of Kars are uniting their forces, which consist of sixty-four battalions of infantry, some field batteries, 5,000 irregulars and 600 regular cavalry, or a total of nearly 50,000 men. On their side the Russians, who occupy an entrenched position near Kalikelli, defended by thirty batteries, with their centre at Zaim, nine miles north-east of Kars, are esti- mated to number nearly 40,000 troops, including 4!) battalions of infantry, four regiments of Cossacks, one militia regiment, three regiments of dragoons, and 13 field batteries. Reports received at Kars represent the Russians as being in considerable disorder, and the Turks appear to be of opinion that by a decisive victory at Zaim, they may yet be able to capture Alexandropol, and so turn the tables completely upon their assailants. Everything of course is possible, and the campaign in Armenia hitherto has been so fertile in unexpected issues, that it would be rash to affirm that its surprises are yet exhausted. It is evident, even from the Turkish enumeration of the forces, that there is no such disparity of numbers between the opposing armies as would justify the Turks in overlooking the unquestionable superiority of the Russians in officers, discipline, equipments, artillery, and cavalry, and in all probability, therefore, if they should venture to attack the invaders in fortified positions they will incur a disastrous defeat. For the present Mukhtar Pacha's army remains safely entrenched at Wahiran, with its centre at Verane Kaleh, some seven or eight miles to the south of Kars,- and barring the Soghanli road. An inspection just com- pleted of the fortifications of Kars shows that they have sustained little injury from the Russian bombardment, though the latter is described as being for several days overwhelming in its accuracy and intensity, over 2,000 shells from 15 and 18-centimetre guns being thrown into the place in a single day. This would represent an aver- age of nearly three shells per minute, or ICQ per hour for a day of twelve hours. No estimate is furnished of the losses sustained by the garrison during the siege, but they are described as "trifling," which may, of course, mean anything. The town and forts are said to be well supplied still with stores and provisions, and prices are actually lower in Kars than in Erzeroum. The appearance of the troops of the garrison, according to the Times correspond- ent, is excellent, and their health and spirits are good. The officers, moreover, seem to be well educated, and the place altogether almost impregnable. Obviously a better base for future operations against the Russians Mukhtar Pacha could not find, provided always he feels strong enough to keep open his communications with Erzeroum, whence supplies and reinforcements must con- tinue to come. Later intelligence from Bayazid tends only to increase the confusion caused by the recent contradictory telegrams from that quarter. On the one hand, the Russian official despatch confirming the release of the beleaguered garrison there contains confirmatory details which forbid us to question its accuracy. On the other hand, a despatch from Ismail Pacha, the Kurd commander at Bayazid, dated the 14th July, Saturday last, describes with equal circumstantiality the defeat, on the previous Wednesday, of the Russians, who are said to have been driven back to Karaboulak, three hours' march to the north, with the loss of 600 killed, twenty baggage wagons, the entire ambu- lance train, and a large quantity of provisions. Ismail Pacha states that he was encamped at Ipek, on the Russian I'll 1011 frontier, waiting supplies, when lie received information that twelve battalions of Russian infantry, with nine squadrons of cavalry, and sixteen guns, were attacking Bayazid. The Kurdish commander at once left Ipek with the Alaschgerd division, and arrived the same evening (Tuesday) at Bayazid, where lie at once engaged the enemy. It would seem from this account that whilst one column of Russians was being pursued beyond Ipek, another was marching upon Bayazid by some circuitous route, and it was between the departure and return of Ismail Pacha that the beleaguered Russians were released from the citadel. According to the Russian despatch, out of 1,600 men which originally composed the garrison, two staff officers and 114 men were killed, and seven superior officers and 359 men wounded. During the siege the re- mainder of the garrison were much weakened by the privations they had undergone, and will require great care before they regain their strength. During the latter part of the time they subsisted on horseflesh. There is no fresh news of importance from Kars, but at Batoum Dervish Pacha has again repulsed an attack of the Russian right wing, a detachment from which is again said to be on the road to Olti. THE RELIEF OF BAYAZID. After all, it seems Bayazid has been relieved by the Russians, and the detailed account, telegraphed from Erzeroum, of the repulse of the relieving force was either totally false or referred to some early stage or episode of the conflict. There can, at all events, be no doubt that General Tergukasoff has entered Bayazid, as he describes the pestiferous condition of the town, owing to the de- composition of the mangled and mutilated bodies which bore witness to the barbarity of the Kurds and Turks, and compelled the Russian troops to shorten their stay there. General Alkhasoff, we are told, has also resumed the offensive, and driven the enemy before him on the right bank of the Galiji. THE PASSAGE OF THE BALKANS. After all that was said about the great defensive pre- parations and stubborn disposition of the Turks, it is curious to note the ease with which the Russian invasion of the country is being accomplished. The opposition offered to the advance of the Russian troops is almost nominal, and their experience in crossing the Danube seems to have been repeated now on a smaller scale in the passage of the Balkans. On the occasion of the former event we were told, in explanation of the small- ness of the Russian losses, that the Turks were taken unawares at one of the weakest points in their extended line; but that the Russians would not find it so easy a matter to force the passage of the Balkans, where nature had provided fortresses for the Turks which are almost impregnable. Strange to relate, the Russians have now crossed the Balkans with even less difficulty than they did the Danube a month ago. According to the Daily Telegraph correspondents at Pera and Adrianople, a Russian cavalry force, estimated at 10,000 men, advancing probably from Tirnova, after driving back on Osman Bazar the Turks who barred the road, have crossed the Balkans into the Tundja valley and attacked Yeni Zaghra, a small town on the Jamboli branch of the rail- way from Constantinople to Sophia. One account repre- sents this column as having been led by Bulgarian guides through the Skipka defile, close to Gabrova, in which locality the Russian advance guard was last heard of, but according to another the Russians crossed by the Heion —by which, we suppose, is meant the Hena—road, lead- ing to the Kotel Pass, due south of Osman Bazar. This would harmonize with the statement that the opposing I Turks had been driven aside upon Osman Bazar, and as the road to Kotel, equally with that to Skipka, runs through Tirnova, it would be as easy for the Russians to cross by this Pass as by that of Skipka. The latter was latelj^-eported to be effectually closed, which would help to account for the selection of the Kotel Paes, if the Russians have indeed penetrated it; but there is just a possibility that, with the help of the Bulgarian guides, the invaders may have made their way across some mountain track intermediate between the two defiles. The material fact, however, that a con- siderable force of Russians is already on the southern side of the Balkans appears to be well established, and the most urgent question now is, Will they be able to hold their footing there until their supports arrive ? Their numbers are variously estimated at eighteen battalions and 10,000, and they are said to be without artillery or secure communications. If that be so, their position must be rather critical, as in the event of defeat they may find their retreat cut off. Renouf Pacha, to whom the defence of the Balkans has been entrusted, is said to be coming up to oppose them with a large force, and reinforcements from all sides are pouring in to strengthen the two bat- talions by whom the town is garrisoned. It is certainly a bold stroke to push their advance so far with only 70,000 men in Bulgaria, and a single frail bridge to maintain their communications with the northern bank; but they probably rely on the strength of the right and left wings, which are operating against Rustchuk and Nikopoli, to ward off any serious attack upon their communications or base at Sistova. According to a telegram on Monday, July 16, from the Standard correspondent at Bucharest, it is reported that on Sunday night, after a desperate battle between a Russian corps and a Turkish force covering Nikopoli, the latter was totally defeated and the forts assaulted and captured by the Russians. Assuming the correctness of this report it will probably be found that the attack upon Nikopoli was made from both sides of the Danube at once. For months past the Russian batteries at Turnu Margurelli, on the opposite shore, have been actively engaged in shelling the Turkish positions at Nikopoli, and more than one attempt has been made to cross the Danube there. Nikopoli, which lately contained a population of about IG,OOOinhabitallts, is situated near the river, at the foot of two small heights. On one of these there has been for many years a rather dilapidated fort; the other is defended only by a guard-house. Nikopoli has been the scene of many fierce conflicts in former wars, and was captured by the Russians in 1828. Its capture now would enable the Russians to throw a second bridge across the Danube at a much more convenient point than Sistova, and render their position on the Bulgarian bank virtually unassailable. While the Russian right wing has been thus successful, their left wing, con- sisting of two army corps under the Czarewitch, has been steadily working its way towards the quad- rilateral. Finding the direct road to Rustchuk from Biela too well defended to be quickly or easily forced, they have evidently been trying to turn it, by throwing forward their right in a south-easterly direction 9 towards Rasgrad. On Saturday they were reported to be within a short distance of that fortress, with the ap- parent intention of cutting the railway line there which unites Rustchuk with Varna. If the Turks can meet the Russians successfully anywhere it should be at Rasgrad, itself a position of no mean strength, and defended on either side by two of the strongest fortresses of the quadri- lateral-Sumlah and Rustchuk. On the other hand, if they are defeated here and driven into the fortresses, they will be shut in between two powerful armies—one under General Zimmermann, advancing in their rear through the Dobrudscha, and the other under the Czarewitch, coming from Sistova. There will be practically nothing then to prevent the main army of invasion under the Grand Duke Nicholas from advancing straight upon Constan- tinople, as the possession of Nikopoli will be an effectual barrier against assault from the side of Widdin, where Osman Pacha will probably find occupation sufficient in keeping the Roumanians at bay at Kalafat; and the irregulars. who are the chief reliance of the Porte on the southern side of the Balkans will scarcely be able to make a serious stand against well-equipped and disciplined troops. SURRENDER OF NICOPOLIS. The following official despatch has been received Turnumargurelli, July 15. After severe fighting from four o'clock yesterday morning until night, Nicopolis surrendered at discretion this morning at day break. Two Pachas and six thousand regular Turkish troops have been taken prisoners. The Russian troops fought with matchless bravery, and successfully carried all the positions. 7 THE ALLEGED RUSSIAN ATROCITIES. A telegram of the Russian Agency, dated Bucharest, Tuesday, says that some newspaper correspondents are circulating reports of atrocities alleged to have been com- mitted by Russians. The strict discipline and humane sentiments of Russians are sufficient refutation of such charges. In many places the Turks have remained, and notably in Batak, where Turks are treated by the con- querors on a footing of perfect equality. The life and prosperity of Mussulmans and Christians are equally res- pected. THE ROUMANIAN ARMY. The Political Correspondent learns from authentic sources that it is definitely decided that the Roumanian army will not assume the offensive, but will confine itself to covering the line of the Danube. The official telegram, announcing the defeat of the Russians under the command of Grand Duke Nicholas, north of Tirnova, witb t loss ofl2,000 men, is not confirmed by the despatches of the Turkish Minister of War, and the rumour was probably based on false reports made to the Governor of the district of Tirnova. Reouff Pacha for- wards a despatch formally confirming the news that the Russians had been beaten in the Hankoe Pass. The ad- vance of the Russians towards Namboli and Zani Aghra was reported in an exaggerated form by the stationmaster, who was influenced by the general panic. Prince Nikita is understood to have declined the pro- posal for an armistice made by British Consul from Sentaria. The Montenegrin forces are re-assembling under arms. A Russian official despatch, dated Tirnova, Monday, reports that General Gourko, the commander of the flying coluinn that crossed the Balkans on the 14th, is marching upon Kesanlik, on the rear of the enemy, who occupies the fortified defile of Schipka. The only fighting mentioned in the despatch, beside the engagement with the battalion of Turks defeated at the outlet of the pass through which the Russians crossed, is an encounter on Sunday1 between a Cossack force and a detachment of Turkish irregular cavalry supported by infantry, which ended in the flight of the Ottomans. From this despatch it does not appear that the Russians made any attempt to occupy Yeni- Saghra, but two sotnias of Cossacks had reached there and had cut the telegraph communication with Slivno, where a telegram from Constantinople states Raouf Pasha's forces are. The only news from the Asiatic seat of war is a telegram from Erzeroum dated Sunday, delayed in transmission, in which it is admitted that General Tergukasoff had succeeded in relieving the Russian garrison at Bayazid.
THE POLITICAL CRISIS IN FRANCE. M. Thiers has issued a memorandum on the subject of the period within which the French elections should take place. He condemns in strong terms the policy of the Ministry, which he says has deprived France of the chief organs of Government while the Russo-Turkish struggle is going on in the East and a Clerical struggle in the West. The Editor of a Paris paper, the Radical, has been sen- tenced to four months' imprisonment and to pay a fine of 1,000 francs for publishing a fictitious letter purporting to have been written by Marshal MacMahon. The Bieii Public has been fined 500 francs for reproducing the article. The French Court of Appeal has confirmed the sentence passed by the inferior court upon M. Duverdier, the presi- dent of the Paris Municipal. Council, for using insulting and threatening language in his reference to Marshal MacMahon in an after-dinner speech. The Bien Public, a Conservative Republican organ, has been fined 1,000 francs for having published what purported to be a Gov- ernment order as to the transport of troops by railway, but which was proved to be a forgery. At a meeting held on Saturday, July 14, M. Rouher acquainted theOBon- apartist committee with the result of his recent visit to Chiselhurst, and related the conversations he had had with the Minister of the Interior since his return. The Bonapartists are said to claim 250 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Paris Correspondent of the Daihj News points out that scarcely a day passes now in which the police tribunals throughout France are not engaged in dealin"- with an offence utterly unknown before May 1G viz that of publicly insulting Marshal MacMahon. In one recent case a clerk was heard by a policeman to say-" There is a dog the very image of the Marshal, and he has quite as much intelligence." For this he was. fined 50 francs. Two men, who called the Marshal "a traitor and a coward" were sentenced to a month's imprisonment and to pay a fine of 100 francs each. In a third case a man spoke of the Marshal as a wretch who never did any good in his life." He was sentenced to a month's imprisonment. M. Lockroy, ex-Deputy for Paris, who recently became the son-in-law of Victor Hugo, vouches for the truth of the following extraordinary story, told to him by a Senator at Limoges, a few days ago;—A commissary of police presented himself in one of the principal cafes of the town, which is frequented by porcelain manufacturers and the officers of the garrison, and told the landlord to keep his eye upon his customers, to note what they said, and to make a report thereupon. The very same evening, at seven o'clock, an employe called for the report. The landlord, who had heard nothing particular, and had put down nothing in writing, was sternly admonished, told that this sort of weakness would not do, and that unless he had a report ready every evening his house would be shut up. This is one of the first and most brilliant specimens to hand of the fruits of M. de Fourtou's (moral) orders to the Prefects. It is presumable that much more of the kind will come out by degrees. On Saturday, July 14, the editor of the Bien Public was sentenced to pay a fine of 1,000 francs for stating that sealed orders had been sent to the station-masters in France, in view of the possible mobilisation of the army. It having been announced that the French elections would take pl:tce in September, the Government journals state that the news is premature, and that nothing is yet decided on the sub- ject. A strong party is in favour of October, and the Bonapartists clamour for the utmost possible delay. Press pro- secutions meanwhile continue. Two Marseilles papers are to be prosecuted for publishing the report of a trial for an insult against Marshal MacMahon.
ENGLAND VERSUS FRA.NCE.-For generations chocolate has been imported in large quantities into this country from France. We are glad to find the tables turned at last, and that Cadburys, the makers of the well-known Cocoa e Essence, have opened elegant premises at 90, Faubourg, St. Honore, Paris.—Their Cocoa Essence being perfectly genuine is a beverage far better suited to warm climates than the thick heavy compounds of Cocoa with sugar and starch generally sold.
THE WELSH MINERS. The funds which were subscribed by members of the House of Commons for the purpose of rewarding the heroic rescuers of the men who were buried in the Tynewydd Colliery in April last were placed in the hands of Mr. Benson, the horologist, of Ludgate-liill, for the purpose of providing the miners with some suitable memento which should be at once useful and worthy of commemorating their gallant conduct. In order to best fulfil these two conditions, each man who took part in the rescue has had manufactured for him a splendid English silver hunting lever watch, together with a massive gold Albert chain. On each watch is engraved the recipient's name and the following inscription From members of Parliament in recog- nition of his bravery in saving life at Tynewydd Colliery, April, 1877." These articles are now on view at the manufacturer's and appear to create the liveliest interest among the general public. The men will be presented with these gifts by a leading member of Parliament in a few days. A protest, of which the following is a copy,was forwarded on Saturday to the Lord Mayor of London and the Mansion house Committee :—" My Lord Mayor and gentlemen,e be.g.respectfnll to call your serious amI immediate attention to the intense feeling of dissatisfaction felt in this district, the locality in which the late disaster occurred, with the list drawn up by the Rev. D. W. Williams, Fairfleld, osknsihly for rewarding the rescuers of the imprisoned Welsh miners in the inundated colliery. We, who were actively engaged in the rescue, being the only persons In .charge of the rescuing parties and the colliery (Inring that penod, awl from the time the calamity occurred to the time the poor fellows were delivered, declare most strongly, as we have already done, in the lists mbmitte(1 11y us to your Committee, and to that of the House of Commons, that the list submitted to you by the Rev. W. Williams, and approved of by you, is grossly incorrect. We therefore respectfully protest against it, and appeal to you to reconsider the matter. Our only reason for moving this appeal to your Committee is that we are extremely anxious that justice shall he done and honour given to whom honour is due, and to prevent the inonev which a generous public have subscribed from being contributed to the wrong parties, and also to guard against the rewards which her Majesty's Government have decided upon granting to the de- liverers from being awarded to the wrong individuals. We are so satisfied that the list sent by us to your Committee is the only correct one that we cannot conscientiously accept any recognition of our services except in accordance with that list. Therefore, Lord Mayor and gentlemen, while cordially thanking you for the very kind interest you have evinced in this matter we respectfully decline to accept the rewards as proposed in the lists prepared by the Rev. D. W. Williams. (Signed).- I). L. THOMAS, Brithweunydd Colliery, EDMUND THOMAS, Llwyncelvn and Gelly Collieries, WILLIAM BAV;I:S, Coedcae Colliery, DAÚD DAVIES, Pontypridd Colliery, DAVID JONES, Cymmer Level, THOMAS JONES, Ynyshir, Ty'nycoed and Hafod Collieries." In answer to this protest, the Lord Mayor has addressed to them the following communication:—"Mansion House, July 17. —Sir,—! have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of vour telegram of yesterday, in which you express dissent from the result at which, after long, patient, and mature deliberation, the Committee arrived as to the rewards to be given to those who took part in the rescue of the miners at the Tynewydd Colliery in April last. Your ground for such dissent is the assertion that the Committe adopted the list (which you say was incorrect) prepared by the Rev. D. W. Williams, a gentleman whose indefatigable exertions for the relief of the sufferers entitle him to much praise, and whose advice the Committee not only sought but profited by. Now the names of the widows and orphans and of the rescued men were common to all, and the Committee made their awards in accordance with the universal view. The rewards also to the shift colliers and pump men have been left entirely to Mr. Wales to settle at so much per day, and the carpenters, carters, &c., are to be remunerated on the same principle. As for the colliery agents, engineers, and others, among whom you rank, it is but just to Mr. Williams to state emphatically that his list was not made the standard of adjustment, and that he took no part in the discussion as to the amount of those awards. The vote was adopted by the whole Committee, and while I, personally, held (and still hold) that no part of the fund collected by me at the Mansion House was sub- scribed by the public with the views or for the purpose of re- warding gentlemen in your position of life, yet it was thought that pieces of plate of considerable value, with appropriate iu- scriptions, might be acceptable to you in recognition of the meritorious services you rendered. I am sorry you think it right to decline a memento of such an event, but I fully accept as final your determination in that respect. 1 am, sirs, yours very faith- fully, THOMAS WIIITE, Lord Mayor of London.—To James Thomas, Esq., Tynewydd Colliery, and others."—It is under- stood that, in consequence of the protest, the Lord Mayor has definitely decided to abandon his proposed visit to Wales to dis- tribute the fund. Of the gentlemen who signed the protest three had been voted presents of the value of sixty guineas each and the others of £ 30 each.
A resolution in favour of forming a School Board for the ui)ite.lj parishes of Llanfihangel-y-traethau and Llanfrothen was unan' mou.sly agreed to at a recent meeting of ratepayers held at tP? British Schoolroom, Penrhyndeudraeth, those who were first antagonistic to the proposal having withdrawn their oppO" sition. I A serious collision occurred on Saturday afternoon, July 1 as the steamer Andalusian was being launched from the combe ship-building yard, on the Cheshire side of the Mersef' The steamer had just left the ways and was proceeding acr°s the river when she ran into the outward-bound ship which was in tow of a steam tug. The collision was a very serious one, the Angerona having a large hole made near mizzen rigging, and she rapidly commenced to fill. Seve/^ steam tugs put off to her assistance, and to prevent her sinki°» in deep water she was beached near Egremont. The Andalusi3^ also received severe injury to her stern plates, and she ,v placed in dock. The Angerona is chartered for the White Sta* Line of Australian clippers, and at the time of the accident outward bound for Melbourne, having a number of passen £ eIJ on board but fortunately there were no lives lost chiefly oW!n ø to the promptitude of the assistance rendered. 'she is a fiJI iron vessel, of about 1,5(;0 tons register. HOLLOWAY'S OINTMENT AND PILLS.-Self Help.-To sickness it was a momentous matter to find an easy, reidy, and reliable remedy for outward disfigurations and 111 ward disorders before the inestimable discovery of the5 preparations. No invalid need now be at a loss for SUC- cessfully managing ulcers, sores, tumours, boils, bruised sprains, &c. Enveloping Holloway's medicine are verV intelligible printed directions for usini^ them, which sit*111 be attentively studied and immediately followed by application of his treatment. Sooner or later the sufferer will assuredly triumph over the worst diseases. '£hl searching Ointment disperses all those malignant hino"ur> which aggravate many diseases of the skin, often preve)^ the cicatrization of ulcers, and ever kindle inflammatory tendencies in the system.
THE NORTH WALES BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. The annual meeting of this Association was held in the new Assembly Rooms, Barmouth, on Wednesday, July 11, Dr. R. Roberts, Portmailoc, presdent for the yem., in the chair. There were present the following gentlemen Drs. Griffith, Port- madoc, Jones-Morris, Portmadoe, Kyton Jones, Wrexham, Roberts, Chester, Williams, Liverpool, Rees, Carnarvon, Lodge, St. Asaph, Lloyd, Barmouth, Jones, Dolgelley, Roberts, Denbigh, Jones, Bala, Jones, Ruabon, Hughes, Bala, Davies^ Machynlleth, Williams anil Evans, Wrexham, and others. A cordial vote of thanks was accorded to Dr. Richards, Bangor, the retiring president, for his ability in filling the presidential chair last year. Dr. R. ROBERTS, Port madoc, the president-elect, on taking the chair, delivered the following address In the first place, gentle- men, it is my duty to thank you for the honour you have con- ferred upon me by choosing me for your president for the present year. It is an honour I never expected, and a position I never coveted. I was in fact much surprised when told by a friend the day after the annual meeting at Bangor, that I was presi- dent-elect of the North Wales Branch of the British Medical Association. However, though I am quite sure it would have been better to place a member of greater experience in the art of chairmanship in so honourable a post, I feel it would have been ungracious if I had declined to accept so kind and valued a comphment from my profesional brethren. My friend Dr. Lodge, who did me the honour of proposing me as the president, said, in doing so, that he had noticed when we were together at the Edinboro' meeting, that I was as ardent as a student."— Gentlemen,-I always feel as a student, and I could wish for no better distraction from the labourious drudgery and anxieties of a busy country practice, than a winter's holiday in one of our large hospitals, and plenty of work in a well-supplied dissecting- room. And now, whilst on the subject of studentship, I wish to draw the attention of the members to, in my opinion, the grave mistakes involved in the practical abolition or apprenticeship. I cannot believe that the five years indentured pupilage, re- quired by the regulations of the Society of Apothecaries, is a day too long, particulary if served with a general practitioner in a mixed practice. During that time, in his young years, the pupil not only learns practical pharmacy and the uses and doses of drugs, but becomes familiar with the routine of general practice in the surgery and consulting-room, and has the great advantage of visiting patients, and attending to medical and ob- stetrical eases, not upon his own responsibility, hut with the feeling that he has always his principal to fall back upon in case of need and his m:1ster to censure him in case of unskil- fulness or neglect. He has ample opportunities of learning practical surgical duties, such as cupping, bleeding, dressing wounds, introducing catheters, <fcc., and often of treating fractures and dislocations: all this instruction he undergoes with the full knowledge, that he is bound by his indenture to do his work, and that the law invests his master with large powers of coercion and correction, in case of neglect or wilful default. A habit of discipline and self-control Lis thus early acquired, which, together with the practical experience he gains, is most valuable to hiin in after life. 1 might contrast the old system of apprenticeship, which I have imperfectly described with the curriculum now too much in vogue. The student goes straight from school, to a metropolitan or othcr large town, to attend lectures, and to observe practice at hospitals. He is thus thrown at a tender age, among all the temptations of a big-town life. He attends the lectures, which he is, for a very long time, unable to follow or understand. He daily walks through the wards of the hospital, in a crowd of other students, at the heels of one of the physicians or surgeons, and hears the patients interrogated, sees their tongues examined, their pulses felt, and his attention may be occasionally called to cases of rare or special kind, but seldom or ever to the commc n disorders of suffering humanity, which he willlllostly have to treat m ordinary practice. He hears pre- scriptions dictated, which to him are all double Dutch, as he has no practical acquaintance with any of the drugs, or the compounding of them. (Cheers.) He witnesses operations per- formed in the theatre, but is not allowed to try his prentice hand upon anything except tho" subjects" in the dissecting-room. He, perhaps, reads hard, and goes up for his examinations, in- flated and "crammed" with theoretical knowledge—it may be "A bookful blockhe:1(1 ignormtly read, With loads of learned lumber in his head." After spending in this manner portions of four short years in acquiring knowledge, he receives his diplomas, and is launched upon hi sun fortunate countrymeiiand country-women as a "fully qualified medical practitioner." Of course, in nine cases out of ten medical men so educated have the sense to perceive that they must learn the practical part of their duties, and they forthwith advertise for assistantsliips, condescending to accept salaries of from £100 to .ió120 a year, and their board and lodg- ings, for being taught the real, or, at any rate, the most im- portant work of their profession. But that is not all, and I hear the same complaint from many of my professional friends. The qualified assistant so educated is generally too conceited and self- sufficient to acknowledge his ignorance, or to consult his em- ployer, as an apprentice would. The employer, therefore, not only pays for a light which does not shine, but is constantly kept anxious and on the qui vive lest his qualified assistant, through. "ome maltreatment of a case, may bring him i1Ju trou hie. I think, therefore, that these gentlemen ought, 111 justice, to pay handsome premiums, mther than reeive salaries, for the opportunities afforded them of becoming practical practitioners, ere establishing themselves in practice upon their own responsibility. I must apologise for dwelling so much upon this subject, but I cannot help feeling strongly that something ought to be done either to return to the old and well-tried sys- tem of apprenticeship which, as you know, still obtains in the pri- fession of the law and most trades and callings of the higher sort, or to adopt some other plan by which the same advan- tages of real practical medical education in early life shall be secured. In all the general annual meeetings of the association which I have attended, the President has usually made some reference to the chief characteristics of the place of meeting. Fortunately, we are to-day assembled at one of the best represen- tative watering places on the West Coast of North Wales. You are prolmbly aware. -how popular this Coast h11s deservedly become since the railways made it accessible from England. Taking the chain of Cardigan Bay watering-places- beginning at Abersoch and Pwllheli on the north, and ending with Borth and Aberystwyth on the south-I can safely say that for the double purpose of summer bathing and winter resort, I believe these Western Marina are equal to those of any other part of the British sea-board. Of them all, 1 think Criccieth and Barmouth have the greatest natural advantages, whether of climate, sheltered aspect, or the neighbourhood orbeautiful scenery. And I do not see why they should not become as favourite and as safe places of winter resort for all invalids (except, perhaps, those suffering from advanced pulmonary diseases), as any on the south coast. But, to make them thoroughly valuable, Sanatoria ougntto be established, as I believe has been or is being done at linyl. There are many other subjects which I should like to touch iinon, such as the defect of the drainago and watei isupply in many of our towns and villages. But as regards the a. t-named subject I have every reason to hope ^.bet^ dawning; for, as you know, a most able medical office! of liealtfl MJJt'ees —has been recently appointed for this pa ^01'Wi Wales, who is already doing good work, as I my sea can peiceive in many places. But I am warned by the P™?1'pt""le> that there is much useful work before us, and 1: & i ef('re conclude by expressing my conviction, that it Ji ^o t loi us to be here- to exchange and discuss the results of o n laborious observation in the pursuit of the noblest artwloch itsgi\eri tOlUnn to cuit; vate -to evolve from our collective experience the sound and ripe Fruits of Philosophy," which help us to minister to the wants and alleviate the sufferings of our fellow creatures-rather than under the guise of the sacred name of medical science, to pander to morbid appetites, and to suggest demoralizing inter- ferences with nature s functions. it is for us to endeavour to counteract, as much as possible, evil and immoral influences which would contaminate what lias been aptly called the shrine of the soul, and without intruding upon the domain of those whose profession it is to cure souls, we may, I feel sure, be a force of moral police of immense power in preventing that which is evil, while in the exercise of our art we apply ourselves to a life-long contest with all the ills which flesh is heir to. (Cheers.) The PRESIDENT was warmly thanked for his address. He then called upon Dr. Eyton Jones, of Wrexham, to read the twenty-eighth report of the Council of the Association, which stated that a very successful meeting had been held last year at Bangor, attended by twenty-one members, presided over by Dr. Richards, who delivered an able and interesting address on mat- ters affecting the profession, and which address had since been inserted in the Journal. The intermediate meeting was held at Wrexham, and was attended by seventeen members and an able paper by Dr. R. W. Evans, on The Use and Abuse of Stimulants in the Treatment of Disease," was read and fully discussed. The report then proceeded to deal with the opera- tions of the parent society, which it was stated continued to flourish and increase in numbers. Dr. LLOYD-ROBERTS, Denbigh, the treasurer, read the fin: cial statement, which shewed a small sum in favour of the Asso- ciation. The report of the Council and the financial statement wer adopted, and it was agreed unanimously that Dr. Jones, RuaboDi be the President-elect of the next meeting, to be held at Lis"' dudno. t The Council of the Association, representatives to the Association, and to the Parliamentary Committee, were elected* and the secretary and treasurer were re-appointed. Dr. REES, of Carnarvon, moved a vote of thanks of the Asso- ciation to the Pontypridd physicians for their successful trea1 ment of the sufferers at the late accident. Dr. WILLIAMS, Liverpool, seconded it, and it was passed wit' applause. I It is purposed that the British Medical Association shot" t make a tit and proper recognition of the heroic deeds of tb Pontypridd doctors. Drs. Tom Davies, Machynlleth, Hunter Hughes, Nevi") Edward Jones, Dolgelley, and Edmunds, Bangor, near \Vrexban,< were elected members of the Association. tS Then followed the reading of papers upon different subjects appertaining to the successful treatment of diseases, by D13, Evans. Wrexham, Lloyd, Barmouth, Jones-Morris, PortmadoC' and others. Dr. Evans, Wrexham, exhibited a pair of scissor8 of his own invention, for grafting purposes. It is a very inge" nious instrument. The subjects were freely discussed afterwards, and at close of the discussion the members repaired to tlie < 'ursyge'i01 Hotel, where a sumptuous repast was awaiting them. tables and the catering were of first-class order,'and great credit upon the worthy host, Mr. Davies. After dinner a number of toasts were drunk. great credit upon the worthy host, Mr. Davies. After dinner a number of toasts were drunk.
0 ECCLESIASTICAL.. i -> '!in for Promoting Christian Knowledge has granted -i to theendowment of the see of Rangoon, toward the endowment of the new see of Transvaal, and ti,o00 town's the BIShop of Bombay's scheme for training natives .is catecliistf The Lord Chancellor has presented the important living of St- Mary le Crvpt, Gloucester, vacant by the appointment of CanO'J Spencer to the vicarage of St. Pancras, to the Rev Mowberr/ Trotter, senior curate at Sheffield to the Rev. Rowley Hill, the newly-appointed Bishop of Sodor and Man. d The company appointed for the revision of the Authorize" Version of the Old Testament have just concluded their 45 session. The company have completed the first revision f Hosea, and proceeded with the revision of Joel as far as 1. They sat for ten days, the usual period of a session. A declaration to her Majesty the Queen is, it is said, in Vre', paration on the subject of confession, to be signed by wives "an' mothers who themselves go to confession and who bring l|P their children to the same practice. Several of tlie first sign8' tures are those of persons in high position. A document to signed by laymen exclusively, expressing sympathv with i^e Society of the Holy Cross is also drafted, which "asserts tbe right of the laity to the use of confession. The Council of the Church Association has received a letter from the Archbishop of Canterbury, in reply to a mem'ir'. urging that the heads of the Church should exercise tli«rf power and influence to repress illegal innovation. Archbishop says he feels assured that in everv legitimate v111 the bishops of the Church of England will show their t!etermí!l:t' tion to effect a discontinuance of this lawlessness. The Rev. Rowley Hill, who has accepted the offer of bishopric of Sodor and Man, is the third son of the late George Hill, of St. Columb's, county Londonderry, bv his tgW riage with Elizabeth Sophia, eldest daughter of Mr "John of St. Columb's, and brother of the late Sir John Hill, the fourth baronet. He was born inithe year 1S36, and was educated Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took the usual degr^; He was ordained deacon in 13(50, and priest in the followin? year, by the Archbishop of Canterbury Havin<* held curacies of Christ Church, Dover, and of St. Mary's he was appointed in 18G3 incumbent of St. Luke's Church, ware-road, and held the rectory of Frant, Sussex, from 186S 1871, and the vicarage of St. Michael, Chester-square, from l3' f In 1873 he was appointed to the important v-'oarage Sheffield, and was made-rural dean of Sheffield in the foll°J*I ingjear. He is a canon of ork Cathedral and chaplain to "J Marquis of Abergavenny. He is in religious opinions a moder-1 Evangelical. The Turn's publishes a series of letters which have passed tween the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Rev V Tooth <"J the subject of ritualistic practices at Hatcham In a let'6, dated July 9, the archbishop says—" if against ail the author1' ties I have advanced you still assert your riyht to act in public ministrations on your own private interpretation of law of this church and realm, it is, I fear, needless for f reason further with you. I can no longer h»pe that anvthin§ K can say will induce you to act as you ought." In reply to Mr. Tooth says he does not care to defend himself from a ch of wilfulness which cannot be maintained bv anv authority yond his grace's statement. The Times, commenting on W* correspondence, says that Mr. Tooth requires a church 1 himself iu which he may stretch himself with more t're5 dom. Whether he will succeed in obtaining it elsewhere does not know. °
SALMON POACHERS. 'The Fishing Gazette says that in the Ouse and the mouth the Humber porpoises and grampuses have again made the* appearance this season, as they have of late years ) een incre»* ingly doing, for the purpose of feeding upon* salmon. The /1 struction caused to the salmon fisheries about Hull, Goole, L is simply incalculable. It has been computed that one of theS £ creatures destroys from a dozen to twenty pounds weight of s!l„j mon per day, besides other fish. They have this week and been seen coming into and up the rivers named above ™ hundreds. The beasts are as savage as sharks. On one oC&' sion some pleasure boats were out on the river near Goole, some of these fish boldly charged the boats, and the tisheiii1^ who had command of them, considering they were in absol«rj danger, immediately returned to the shore, the people iu boats being terribly frightened. In bygone years the imineOn havoc played by these creatures with the salmon was broug'j under the notice of the Yorkshire Salmon Fishery Board, g thev promised to do something to remedy the evil, Some ti*m back they held a meeting, Mr. Buckland beins present at wfci'5 var;ous suggestions were offered, and it was finally agreed 't not only should extra rewards be given to the fishermen ,5 kdhng or capturing the depredators, but that a General should be made upon them in boats. This has not vet made. Efforts have been made to shoot them bv oentieii>en yachts and boats, but without much success Not only porpoises and grampuses very hard hides, but they rarely Pr5 sent a good shot, coming to the surface suddenly and gOl J down again with equal quickness. That something will to be done, and that without delay, is clearly apparent to th° who daily see the destruction produced.
SPELLING REFORM. The select committee of the London School Board on spefj^ reform have drawn up an amended memorial to the Commit g of Council on Education. It states that as the memorialists'. t0 for inquiry by Royal Commission they do not deem it iiesii"l ,i. to anticipate the result of it by suggesting the methods of SPX,. ing that may best remove the anomalies of which all coUip'<, £ But they have no hesitation in indicating the conditions any acceptable method must satisfy Thev }v,vp mi <le=ire t*18 a new style of spelling should be enforced on the whole f studv im/thlns shoultl done which shall make study of our literature more difficult, or lessen the value books printed on the present system. As educators, appr(i:lC!L ing tlae subject on its practical side, tliev seek chiefly to t, greater simplicity and consistency, to minimise anomalies,il" yet, at the same time, to preserve whatever is helpful to kn^j. ledge and thought. The memorialists hope that such a reS,,|; would follow an official inquiry,and thev have the conviction th^ the best solution of the difficulties which beset the whole =u", ject of spelling will be found in attending to tlie practical pose they have in view. They submit as questions well woi'tO-, the consideration of the Education Department and of a H°-v> Commission, 1, the removal of any regulations that at impede the introduction of new methods of teaching ordinary English reading and writing 2, the various plans gested for reforming the spelling itself, with a view to deterifli'^ what system would secure the greatest amount of benefit^ the least inconvenience; 3, whether it is desirable to atteniP1' partial reform, retaining whatever is valuable as suggesting ^ji, etymological affinities of words, or a thoroughly reformed spe> ing for optional use alongside of our present system 4, the means of giving official sanction to any improvement that H1 be tledtlell upon.
A DEAF AND DUMB DEBATING SOCIETY 11 A deaf and dumb debating society seems at first blush barely conceivable institution. Nevertheless, such a tliin<r esi5t and flourishes in Oxford-street (London). I t has m-my membe^' and it seems, from an account of a dinner recently, iven in cole, bration of the close of the session, to be full of life, and to b 8 !i'']H,,fti! of many other such societies. We tlm-i'i ii! ind'W1 rifitic toasts were drunk with much e -I w- 'Y'V11? proceedings concluded by the adoption °f,2 Ton011 L'cl;u''ns it is indispensable for the finger ii?' w ')e maintained in order to enable the deaf :l(L dumb to conduct debates and receive lectures which are so ducive to their intellectual improvement in afterlife." It !| be observed that the finger and sign language is recomme'1(ley as the medium of communication. But it will occur to i":l.n;j th;it if debates are possible, and may be enjoyed when on by means of this very imperfect instrument, there is no to what may be done by means of the systems of communica^ now taught which depend on the movements oi the lips. rg meeting, however, seemed to think differently. We feel that The Deaf and Dumb Society will be a model to i°rjL loquacious societies. It will be no mean safeguard a!!alb(1 nucnt nonsense that speakers, if we may so term gentlemen tannot talk, have time to consider what they say and it wib a great relief to all that nobody need listen to anybody. these grounds alone we should expect the debating socic^j would and ought to flourish pre-eminently among the deaf 11 dumb.—Observer.
A SPANISH MENDICANT. D To lie a beggar and to be a poor man are by no synonymous terms, he who asks alms being not unfreouentiy richer than the alms-giver (remarks the Eeeni.no Standard).. it was, we learn by a Madrid journal, in the case of the bliw'j mendicant Pedro Verluli, whose sickly face anil distoi'te<; form had for the past twenty years been familiar to petlestn: in the Puerta del Sol. A for™ight since his wonted place vacant, and, as_ he was rather a protead with certain re^1''1. passers-by, inqumes were made concerning him, which result^ in his being.discovered dead on some straw in a wretch^ garret, clasping in his arms a fox that had evidently starved to deata A few pitiful-hearted individuals subscrib^ the m°dest s" /or a decent funeral, and blind I'e^ r°l found afterw^vf '86/1 out of men's mind" bad not a let** bef iished tbe ui'" the drawer of the rickety table, whic» e rat ve v l-ichm Uble, fact that the mendicant died a corO' these words --T^' a"(l a «rateful °"e- Thc Paper twentv vears bn ea!lmyf01'tune to M' Carlos, who during littio lV'J ,}s never failed to bring me his daily mite. of thp J. f°un(l beneath the straw." In the presen^ c .J Pr"Per authorities the straw was examined, and the 73, douros (five hundred pounds) brought to light. vas duly handed over to the legatee, whose position is such a to render the unexpected legacy very acceptable.