BUSINESS ADDRESSES. "l"V"V"w"J'r'w'oI'r.V Ipswich may be described as the birthplace of Chemical Manures" JOSEPH FISON & Co., Zljg\ MANUFACTURERS OIP f 0^^ HTvl ISyMA' yj S UL PHUivIC ACID AND CHE MIC AL M ANURES. (O'16 °' Oldest Firms in the Trade.) IPSWICH, BRAMFOKD, PLYMOUTH, POOLE, BIDEFORD, SWANSEA, AND HULL. A Pamphlet with-fall particulars of these celebrated Manures may be obtained of any of the Agents of the Finn, or (post freeJ from the Head Offices. Messrs. JOSEPH FISON & Co., having established a Depot at Swansea, are now prepaied to deliver their M inures, carriage paid, at any Railway Station in South Wales and the neighbouring counties. The Corn Manures are designed especiaily for thejpvoduction oifim quality combined with a large yield, in which respect they excel other well known fertilisers. and samples of corn grown with these manures have fetched the higkest market prices in past seasons. The Root Manures are designed, not only to give the young plants a good start, but to support them through every stage of their Attentiot is particularly drawn to these points as some manures are only partial in their action, and, thouglf forcing at first, fail to bring the crops to perfection. Purchasers are requested to give their orders to the nearest Agent, or, if there be no Agent in the neighbourhood, they can- be supplied direct from the Firm at list prices. Messrs. Joseph Fisoh & Co. are prepared to appoint direct Agents at places in which they are not at present represented, and gentlamer. of position and responsibility, who may be disposed to undertake such agencies, are requested to apply by li-tter to the Head Offices. A few districts only now remain unoccupied, and early application for agencies in such districts is particularly requested. Reference to a Bank or a Wholesale Firm of good standing is expected before opening an account. MKvn (WK-T-M EASTERN UNION MILLS. IPSWICH. THt NORTH AND SOUTII WALES BANK. REPORT, By the Directors to the Proprietors of the North and South Wales Bank, at their Forty-third Annual Meeting, held at the Rooms of the Liverpool Law Association, Liverpool, 28th January, 1879. THE Directors Inn e pleasure in submitting to the Proprietors the following Report :— The value of money during last year, but especially during the latter half of it, has ruled considerably above the average of recent years, and has favorably influenced the profits of the Bank, as will be seen by the accompany- ing Statement of Profit and Loss Account. As heretofore, #very Branch of the Bank has been visited in the course of the year by Deputations of Directors, accompanied by the Country Manager, and the Accounts, Bills, Cash, and Securities examined on the spot, and in -each case with satisfactory results. Recent Bank failures, especially that of the City of Glasgow Bank, have naturally created a feeling of uneasiness in the minds of many Shareholders in Joint Stock Banks. Although the feeling has but slightly manifested itself amongst the Shareholders of this Bank, the total number of whom has in fact increased during the last three months, it nevertheless appeared to the Directors expedient, under the exceptional circumstances of the time, that the present Balance Sheet of the Bank should be audited, and this has been done accordingly by public accountants of well-known standing. It will be for the Shareholders to determine whether they desire that the next Balance Sheet shall likewise be audited, and if so, it is desirable that they should appoint the auditors for that purpose at the present meeting. The following is the Statement of Profit and Loss for the year ended 31st ultimo Gross Profits, including a balance £ 13.390 Os. lOd. from last account, after deducting interest due to Depositors, rebate on Hills not due, making provision for losses, and writing off £5,000 from Bank Buildings Account 2162,750 4 10 Deduct total expenditure of the Head Office, thirty-eight Branches, and twelve Sub-Branches, in- cluding Salaries, Directors'Fees, Rent, Taxes, and other expenses 56,277 9 2 £ 106,472 15 8 Less Dividends paid to Proprietors, viz.:— Half-year ended 30th June. 1878, Dividend at 10 per cent. per annum £25,000 0 0 Do. do. Bonus at 7?> per cent, per annum 18,750 0 0 Half-year ended 31st]ecembe;\ 1>78. DiviJendat, lOper cent, per annum 25,000 0 0 Do. do. Bonus at 7-i per cent. per annum 18,750 0 0 Income Tax on Profits 1,567 6 5 89,067 6 5 Leaving, to be carried to next account £ 17,405 9 3 BALANCE SHEET AT 31ST DECEMBER, 1878. LIABILITIES. ASSETS. Deposits, Credit Balances &c. £ 4,164,958 15 101 Bills Discounted, Overdrawn Accounts, Acceptances and Credits of Bank Temporary Advances on Securities, Current 99,367 4 7 &c. £ 3,363,781 18 3 Notes in Circulation 50.275 0 0 Bank Buildings at Liverpool, and Capital paid up 500,000 0 0 Fifteen Branches 98,785 4 10 Reserve Fund 250.000 0 0 Investments in Consols Undivided Profits 17,405 9 3 and other Securities, 767,405 9 3 atcost £ 431,364 18 7 Cash in hand, Money at call, and at short notice 1,188,074 8 0 ———————— 1,619,439 6 7 £ 5,082,006 9 8 C5,082,006 9 8 We certify that the above Balance Sheet correctly represents, in our opinion, the present position of the Company's affairs, and that the Profits as shewn by the Profit and Loss Statement have been fully and fairly earned. HARMOOD BANNER & SON, Liverpool, 21st January, 1879. PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS. The question of limiting the liability of Shareholders in Banks has engaged the attention of the Board, and should a movement in that direction be decided upon by unlimited Banks generally, the Directors will be prepared to submit, for the approval of the Shareholders, any well-considered measure of the kind which, whilst giving a definite limit to the liability of the Shareholders, shall, at the same time, provide an ample margin of security to Depositors. The Directors who go out by rotation are Mr. ADAM EYTON and Mr. WILLIAM NICOL, both of whom are eligible for re-election, and offer themselves accordingly. GEORGE RAE, CHAIRMAN. E. JONES, (Late MORRIS JONES) COACHBUILDER Moor Street, Aberystwyth. CARRIAGES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION MADE TO ORDER Repairs executed by First-class Workmen. BINDING OF ALL KINDS CHEAPLY AND EXPEDITIOUSLY EXECUTED. ORDERS RECEIVED BY J. GIBSON, 3, QUEEN'S-ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH MUSIC WAREHOUSE, TERRACE ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. PIANOFORTES AND HARMONIUMS FOR SALE OR HIRE. W. K. WHEATLEY & SONS -i .,4 11' (; 77 HAVE now on View (inspection invited) the Paris JLl Exhibition Model American Organ. by Mason and Hamlin, 13 stops, knee swells, .Price 34 guineas. Hillier's New Model American Organ, nine stops and knee swell 28 guineas, The New Mo ;el Walnut and Gold Piano, seven octaves, ivory keys, truss legs, by Dodson, from Collard and Collard's. 33 guineas Walnut Cottage Piano, 7 octaves, by Dodson, from Collard and Collard s 22 guineas. A Stock of Pianos by Brinsmead, Kirkman, Metzler, and other makers, procured if not in stock, at London » prices Alexandre'.? Harmoniums, and Wheatley and Sons' Organ Harmoniums, from 5 guineas. For Price, Excellence of Manufacture and Quality of l'olle Unequalled. INSTRUMENTS MAY BE HAD ON THE HIRE AND PURCHASE SYSTEM OF MONTHLY PAYMENTS. A Large Stock of Ocarinas from Is. 9d.; Concertinas, 3s.; banjos, 5s.; violins, 4s. 6d.; cornets, 25s.; and Musical Instrument Strings and Fittings of every description. New and Popular Music from 3d. a copy; also the popular Copyright Music. Orders for Pianoforte and Harmonium Tuning, within thirty miles of Aberystwyth, will receive the attention of W. R. WHEATLEV. Teacher and Tuner from Messrs. John Brinsmead and Sons, London. Testimonials for Tuning from Brinley Richards, Esq., and other eminent musicians. DOLGELLEY. JAMES B. MEE, FISHMONGER, GAME DEAJLER, FRUITERER, &c., &c. Bridge End House, Dolgelley. Constant Supplies of various kinds of fresh Fish, Game, &c. according to Season. ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO, And anything not on hand procured on the shortest notice. Ice always on hand, and supplied by the pound and Upwards. J6QT Note the Address :— Bridge End House, Dolgelley. MR. CROSSLEY, Organist of the Pa.rishChurch, Dolgelley, RECEIVES PUPILS. Organ, Pianoforte, Harmonium, Singing, and Harmony. Bank Buildings, Dolgelley. ASTIFI,MA,-COUGH,-BRONCHI T IS immiiMitii GIVES INSTANTANEOUS RELIEF in tie worst cises of ASTHMA, CO!;GH, BRONCHITIS, and Si OF BEEATH, and may be used by the most delicate patients withou the lea-t inconvenience, as they contain no sub- stance capable of deranging the system. Price 2s. 6. p »r box, or seven boxes los., ft'ee by post •n receipt of P.O.O. to WILCOX & Co., 336, OXFORD- STREET, LONDON, and through all Chemists. None ¡ gonuino unl'.ss signed on the box E. W. WILCOX. MEETINGS. THE FIFTH OF A SERIES OF POPULAR EVENING ENTERTAINMENTS WILL BE GIVEN AT THE QUEEN'S HOTEL ASSEMBLY ROOM, ABERYSTWYTH (Kindly lent by Mr. Palmer,) ON TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11TH, 1879. CHAIRMAN—DAVID ROBERTS, ESQ. (MAYOR.) Accompanist-Mr. A. Evans. Admission—Reserved Seats, Is; Front ditto, 6d.; Back ditto, 3d. Doors open at 7 30, to commence at 8 o'clock. Proceeds for the Benefit of the National School. (When you ask for Paris BJ i if I See tliat yon pfet it;! las bad qualities are; j often substituted, j RX. LITHOFRACTEUR. THE Safest and most Powerful Explosive in use. JL Patented and Manufactured by Messrs. Krebs Bros. and Co~ of London and Cologne on Rhine, who have ap- pointed^ Messrs. VIVIAN & CO., Of Portmadoc, Carnarvonshire, To represent them in the Principality. LITHOFRACTEUR Will rend more rock than any other Explosive, Is equally powerful whether used in wel or dry ground, Will fill any size or shape of borehole, Has no noxious fumes, Has never caused an accident, Is stronger, safer, and healthier to use than any other Explosive. For Terms apply to VIVIAN & Co., Portmadoc, who are also prepared to supply Portable and Fixed Steam Engines for Winding, Pumoing, and General Purposes Rock Drills and Com- pressors, by the best makers; Haggie's Steel and Iron Wire Ropes Cast Steel Wheels; Best Drill and Jumper Steel General Mining and Quarry Plant, &c., &c. Agents for Whittle's Orion Gas Oil Lamps, equal in light to gas; no chimney, wick, or trimming. TO COAL MERCHANTS. CELEBRATED EAGLE COAL! HOT. FREE. CLEAN. DURABLE. To be had only from- J. H. ICHOLS, Sandfield House, Newton-le-Willows, LANCASHIRE. I NOW READY. I FREEMASONS' KALENDAR, FOR NORTH WALES AND SHROPSHIRE. PRICE, ONE SHILLING. By Post Is. Id. PUBLISHED BY WOODALL AND VENABLES, OSWESTRY. I NOW READY. History of the Gwydir Family WITH numerous valuable notes from the Brogyntyn, Wynnstay, and Peniarth MS,S., added by W. W. E. WYNNE, Esq., of Peniarth, and never before published. Printed in quarto, on thick hand-made paper, old-faced tvpe. Illustrated with portraits of Sir John and Sir Richard Wynne, Views of Gwydir in 1684 and 1720; of Dolwyddelan Castle in 1742, and Llanrwst Bridge in 1781. A copy sent post free to any address in Great Britain or America on receipt of Twenty-one Shillings, by WOODALL and VENABLES, Publishers, Oswestry. From the Daily Newt, Jan. 22nd, 1879. The thanks of antiquaries and historical students are due to Mr. Askew Roberts, of Oswestry, for his handsome reprint, with many valuable additions (Oswestry: Woodall and Venables), of the old memoir of the Gwydir Family, written by Sir John Wynne in the time of James I I., and first published in 1770. This narrative comprises the only known account of the state of society in North Wales in the fifteenth nnd the earlier part of the sixteenth centuries and its little incidental sketches of the wild, lawless condition of the country, and of the feuds of the different families who in certain districts were always contending for mastery, are curiously significant. The volume is accompanied by pedigrees, and by several interesting old portraits and views reproduced in facsimile. I BUSINESS ADDRESSES, "V''o. "NATIONAL" BOOT WAREHOUSE, 29, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. STEAD & CO., THE LARGEST MANUFACTURERS OF BOOTS AND SHOES IN THE WORLD, HAVE OPENED THE PREMISES AS ABOVE WITH THE LARGEST AND BEST STOCK OF BOOTS AND SHOES EVER SEEN IN ABERYSTWYTH STEAD & Co., THE NATIONAL BOOT WAREHOUSE, 29, GREAT DARKGATE-ST., ALL GOODS THEIR OWN MANUFACTURE. Every Pair Warranted All Leather. NO GUTTA PERCHA USED. MANUFACTORIES- LEICESTER, LEEDS, NORTHAMPTON, DAVENTRY, AND OAKHAM. WHOLESALE PRICES FOR CASH ONLY. NOTE THE ADDRESS- NATIONAL BOOT WAREHOUSE, 29, (GREAT DARKGATE-ST., ABERYSTWYTH UNION BANK of AUSTRALIA. -Establislie(I U 1837.-Paid-up Capital, 21,487,500; Reserve Fund, £ 783,500. Letters of Credit and Bills on Demand, or at Thirty Days' Sight, are granted on the Bank's Branches throughout Australia and New Zealand. BILLS ON THE COLONIES are negotiated and sent for collection. DEPOSITS are received, at notice, and for fixed periods, on terms which may be ascertained on application. W. R. MEWBURN, Manager. 1, Bank Buildings, Lothbury, London, E.C. T. & W. BUBB, PAINTERS, PLUMBERS, GLAZIERS, GAS- FITTERS, HOUSE DECORATORS, PAPER HANGERS, & GENERAL HOUSE FURNISHERS, Terrace-Roa,d, Aberystwyth, and Newtown. Agent for Kroner's BURNERS, and Wright's GAS STOVES. ESTIMATES FOR WORK ON APPLICATION. Agents for Atkins & Co.'s Patent CHARCOAL BLOCK WATER FILTERS. GADD'S PATENT REVERSIBLE HANDLE PERAMBULATORS. ATHS AND PERAMBULATORS ON HIRE. I WEBSTER'S WRITING INKS I cj AND LIQUID GUMS. g. 3} d-(9 p "MORRISON'S" OLD MAKE. <5 BLUE-BLACK WRITING FLUID, the best made. Wo BLACK, RED, BLUE and other INKS. ASKEW ROBERTS, WOODALL & VENABLES, 2 OSWESTRY, and all Respectable Stationers. s PECTACLES, s PECTACLES. C. B. RADCLIFFE, Esq., M.D., 25, Cavendish Square, London, Consulting Physician to the Westminster Hospital, writes:—"No Spectacles could possibly suit better than HENRY LAURANCES." EDWARD KNOCKER, Esq., J.P., Dover, late Mayor of Dover, writes :—" Mv sight has improved since usinq HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES." JOHN DEATH, Esq., J P., Cambridge, late Mayor of Cambridge, writes :—" Mrs. Death's sight has been much strengthened by the use of HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES." T. SMITH ROWE, Esq., M.D., Margate, Senior Surgeon to the Royal Sea Bathing Infirmary, Margate, writes:—"I regret that I did not use HENRY LAU- RANCE'S SPECTACLES long since." HENRY LAURANCE'S SPECTACLES Are the-CLEAREST, COOLEST, and BEST for the Sight. Thousands have been benefited by their use when all other Spectacles have failed. A list of the Testimonials can be had from the agent, from whom these Spectacles can only be obtained. All Spectacles stamped H.L. AGENT FOR ABERYSTWYTH— A. MAJOR, JEWELLER AND OPTICIAN, 38, PIER STREET. AGENT FOR MACHYNLLETH— E. REES, CHEMIST, MEDICAL HALL. REFORMED EPISCOPAL CHURCH.—AU Official Statement of its principles and objects, with hints as to commencing Evangelical Church Services, may be obtained by forwarding a Penny Stamp to the Rev. R. HUNSLEY TAYLOR, 8, Berriew-street, Welshpool. ENLARGED SERIES, 48 or 56 COLUMNS. THE LEADING PAPER FOR CARDIGANSHIRE, MERIONETHSHIRE, SOUTH CARNARVONSHIRE, &c. DELIVERED by Post, or at any Station on the Cambrian, Great Western, or Manchester and Milford Railway, for Twelve Months, for Ss. 8d. in ad- vance. THE CAMBRIAN NEWS. Delivered by agents (through whom it may be ordered) on Friday morning fot twelve months, for 6s. 6d. in ad. vance, at all the places mentioned in our List of Agents. Published by J. GIBSON, Aberystwyth; JACOB JONES, Bala; D. LLOYD, Portmadoc. NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. D."—The lines are respectfully declined. Letters on "Roligion in Wales," and "On a bad habit," came too late for insertion this week.
RELIGION IN WALES. (No. 6.) CHURCH AND CHAPEL GRAVEYARDS. FROM the time of JOHN PENRY, who was executed on the 29th of May, 1593, until now the gulf between Welsh Nonconformists and the Church of England has been widening and deepening. I ZD The Act of Uniformity passed in 1662, and the subsequent ejection from their livings of many clergymen, gave new life to Nonconformity and resulted in the establishment of Dissenting congregations, especially in South Wales, where Independency took fiuner root than in the North. It is a melancholy truth," says Mr. A. J. JOHNES in his essay on the Causes of Dissent, that a few P, .olis ministers are the weakness and not the strength of an Establishment, when the majority of its ministers are sunk in indifference to their sacred duties The zeal of the,few, only serves to cast into darker shade the apathy of the many; and, by raising the moral sentiments of the people to make them more sensitively in- tolerant of the abuses that surround them." From 1735 to 1795, HOWEL HARRIS, Trevecca, GRIFFITH JONES, Llanddowror, DANIEL ROWLANDS, Llangeitho, THOMAS CHARLES, Bala, and others, made the places associated with their names centres from which new religious life began to spread. After many years, this life took definite form in Calvinistic Methodism, simply because the Established Church was inelastic and utterly unable and unwilling to graft on the new life to the old stock. The pioneers of Noncon- formity did not leave the Established Church willingly, nor did they for many years look upon their separation from her communion as final. There is nothing more pathetic in the English language than the stories of the sad farewells taken of congregations by clergymen who were unable to comply with the Act of Uni- formity or who were impelled by conscience to teach and preach in ways not allowed by law, either before or after 1662. WROTH, Vicar of Llanfaches, who was deprived of his benefice, was buried at his own request under the threskhold of the Church at Llanfaches. BOWEL HARRIS on his death-bed expressed his love for the Church, and directed that his ashes should be entombed beneath the altar at Talgarth. DANIEL ROWLANDS on bis death-bed testified how firmly lie was attached to the Church, and it is well known how reluctantly THOMAS CHARLES severed himself from the Establishment. ROWLANDS was buried in Llangeitho Churchyard and THOMAS CHARLES in the Churchyard at Llanycil. It would be an easy task to multiply notable in- stances of affection for the Church of England among those who have always been treated as her bitter foes. For need the instances be confined to the past. There is still smouldering in the hearts of the people, an affection for the Church which the clergy, instead- of kindling by love and gentleness, seek to quench by every means in their power. A good deal of the active hate feit in Wales towards the Establishment, is partly due to the manner in which Dissenters have been treated who felt drawn towards the Church. The thorough-going English Nonconformist is as indifferent to the Church of Rome as to the Church of England. He would take from the one its political ascendancy just as he would refuse it to the other, but he bates neither as the Church is hated by many Welsh Nonconformists, whose bitterness cfn only be explained by a direct sense of The Church to-day, unfortunately, is as opposed to conciliat'on as ever in the past. This is seen very distinctly in the Burials question. When iWr. A. J. J omms wrote his essay, the quarrel had not taken the bitter form it now presents for he scarcely mentions it Dr. REEs in his history of Nonconformity in Wales has very little, if any- thing, to say on the point Sir THorAs PHILLIP I dces cot refer to it except incideatally and Mr' HENRY RICHARD in the letters re-printed from a London newspaper some years ago, only mentions the topic casually when referring to Sir MORTON PEXO'S Bill for giving the right to Dissenting ministers'to officiate in parochial church- yards. The Burials question is, however, an old grievance that has made itself felt in Wales as in England whenever a clergyman has forced it to the front by saying what he would not allow to be done in the churchyard; or when a Dissenting minister has created excitement by insisting upon officiating in parochial churchyar dsbut it is not a grievance that the people generally have felt keenly or frequently. Now and then at long intervals, something happens which remind Non- conformists that they still labour under disabilities because their fathers dissented from a Church that asked them to do violence to their conscience The old wounds are healed, but by the unwise ac- tion of over-zealous partizans they can be re-opened. As a matter of fact, the people are often anxious to be buried in the churchyard, and are not averse to having the burial service said over them by the clergyman of the parish. Down to about the year 1811 the Calvinistic Methodists considered themselves to be connected with the Church of England, and with them, therefore, no difficulty would arise as to burial in the church- yards. The Independents and Baptists, as a rule, had graveyards attached to the few chapels they possessed before the Calvinistic Methodists had finally severed themselves from the Church by establishing a separate communion. It is not c' difficult to understand that the Calvinistic Methodists even yet are bound to the parish churchyards by many ties, when it is remembered that there are people still living who were alive at the time when Calvinistic Methodists locked upon themselves as members of the Church of Eng- land. The desire of the people to be laid with thair ancestors is strong—how strong is some- times forgotten by prejudiced disputants eager to uphold their side. "When Nonconformists obtain burial grounds, except in cases where churchyards have been closed, it is a considerable time before they are used freely by the people, many of whom have relatives buried in the parish grave- yard. A hundred causes may drive a man from the Church of his fathers, but he may wish his dust to mingle with theirs when life is over. The Church of England unwisely opposes every attempt to confer upon Nonconformists the right to officiate in parish churchyards, and with strange blindness cannot see that this refusal will end in the complete severance of every re- maining tie between the Church and Nonconfor- mists. The Church would have aimed a great blow at Dissent by granting to Dissenters the right to officiate in the churchyards. More than this might have been conceded many a time with far less iujury than has resulted from denial. The Church would often have gained immensely by making concessions to sentiment instead of fighting it. The less educated portions of the community, it is true, do not quickly understand and sympathise with political battle cries that aim at nothing more than the recognition of a principle or the possession of a right few people ever desire to exercise, but they are learning to understand the Burials question. The church party, with an obliquity of vision difficult to comprehend, refuse to see that by keeping before the public a question like this, which if wise counsels had prevailed, ought never to have been contested at all, they are most surely hasten- ing the disestablishment of the Church by in- creasing the number of those who have no con- nection with it from the cradle to the grave. The right of Nonconformist ministers to offi- ciate in parish churchyards is becoming of less importance every year, but the battle may be kept up long enough to complete the injury already inflicted upon the Church bv alienating those who still feel that the old Church is something more to them than a mere name. It is entirely the fault of the Church that Mr. OSBORNE MORGAN has become the champion of hundreds of thousands in Wales who are gradually learning to be angry that the Church of England denies them the right to have their own ministers to officiate over their dead. If the right is obtained this very session. Nonconformists will feel that it has been extorted from unwilling hands, that there is nothing to feel grateful for, and that they are under no obliga- tion to slacken their efforts to obtain the dises- tablishment and disendowment of the Church of ngland. 0 It might reasonably be expected in a country like Wales, where so much is said about churches and chapels, and where the Burials question is of so much importance, that graveyards would be carefully kept. So far from this being the case, it may safely be said that the graveyards of Wales are often a disgrace to the people. Gloomy slate headstone;, graves paved with gas-tarred cobbles, raised tombs of common building stone, and the liberal use of whitewash, combine to give Welsh churchyards anything but a pleasant appearance at the best of times. When the headstones begin to totter and fall when the cobbles are scattered about the graves and when the masonry is in ruins and half covered with weeds, long grass, and brambles, then a picture of far too many burial places in Wales is presented. Perhaps the one great difference between Eng- lish and Welsh graveyards in rural districts is that in England the poor bury their dead and seldom think of marking the graves with any kind of memorials, except puch as nature gives- grass and wild flowers, which in time hide the place altogether. In Wales the labourer, how- ever poor, will make a border, even if it is com- posed only of the stones found in digging the grave, and will kill the grass with gas tar, but he must have a memorial of some kind. The well-to-do farmer or tradesman seldom thinks of anything less ugly than the dark slate. In psores of church and chapel graveyards there are bnrr wvg of black slabs, unrelieved by marble, graiiLe, or free stone. In towns as well as in the country, graveyards are so neglected and have such a desolate appearance that they are well calculated to humble the pride of him who hopes that some kind hand will pluck the en- croaching weed from his grave and tend the blue-, eyed flowers when he is dead. Many church and chapel graveyards in Wales are situated among the mountains, and are so thickly grass-grown that they have a wild beauty all their own but still it is to be regretted that more care is not taken to repair the ravages of time, and to keep the abodes of the dead as care- fully as we would like to have our own graves kept when we are gone. In towns and districts where burial boards have been formed, cemeteries are more carefully laid out. Trees and flowers are not altogether un- known, and the black slate headstones are not the only memorials erected. Of course it must be remembered that until very recently the slate of the country was the only material that could be obtained, except at great cost. Even now railways do not cover Wales as they have covered England. It is not difficult in Wales to find place twenty miles, and even more, from a rail- way station. It must not be presumed, either, that the neglected state of the church and chapel graveyards is a sign of want of feeling. Perhaps more individual effort is expended in the course of a year upon neglected looking graveyards in rural districts than upon the well-kept cemeteries in towns. In the one case the effort is skilfully directed and applied with taste, and in the other it is not. Some of the more objectionable features of graveyards in Wales are caused by the efforts of uncultivated people to give enduring expression to their sorrow and affection.
a NORTH CARDIGANSHIRE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. THE annual meeting of the members of the North Cardiganshire Agricultural Society was held on Monday last, at the Town Hall, Aberystwyth. Mr. LEWIS Pucu PUGH, an excellent farmer, and a landowner who li,, ii taken great inisrest in the Society since its formation, presided, and was elected president for the ensuing year. Mr. VAUGHAN DAVIES, who has also taken keen interest in the Society, and is specially identified with the improvement of the breed of horses, was elected acting vice-president. It is fortunate the CHAIn- MAN'S suggestion to breilc through the custom which has been followed in the election of presi- dents since the establishment of the Society was not adopted. The position of president is one of honour, and should be within reach of all the vice-presidents who take an active interest in tae I Society's management and success. After a long sitting the meeting was adjourned for a fortnight, when some, at any rate, of the important and interesting topics touched upon at the last meeting will be more fully discussed. It is hope- less to expect, however, that in one short after- noon satisfactory decisions can be reached on sub- jects so varied as the amalgamation of Classes B and C, a change which would bring together as competitors owners and occupiers of farms not ex- ceeding X200 rental or gross annual value, and occupiers the rental or gross annual value of whose farms does not exceed iSO the desirable- ness of establishing sheep dog trials the propriety of adding horse leaping trials, as a feature of attraction at the annual shows the best means of improving the newly established horse fairs, and how to obtain funds to advertise them the wisdom of reviving the Horse Society; the best means of appointing and managing sub-com- mittees to keep alive the interest of farmers in the Agricultural Society and how best to increase the amount of money taken for admission to the show yard. Before proceeding to examine one or two of the foregoing points, some of which have been referred to elsewhere, it may not be out of place to note the distinct testimony of Mr. FRYER as to the influence the society has already exercised in improving the cultivation of land and the breeding of stock in the district. The changes effected are undeniably great, but the remark made by Mr. GARDINER that cultivation and breeding have not reached their utmost points of excellence in Cardiganshire was very appropriate. Much has been done-much that at one time was believed to be almost impossible, but more yet re- mains to be accomplished: The greatest and most beneficial result of the improvements already effected is the irresistible conviction they carry into the minds of tenants and landlords that far more is still possible. Mr. JAMES JONES, Piers- field, made a remark that ought not to be lost sight of. He said that a tenant can breed as 0 good a horse, sheep, or cow, as his landlord, but not so many of them. The truth of this remark is so obvious that it is difficult to see how the amalgamation of the classes could prove fatal to the Society. It may be necessary to humour the prejudices of the less thoughtful section of the farmers by keeping up the numerous classes of exhibitors for some years longer, but there is one change that might perhaps be made with advantage and without giving rise to any [opposition. The Lampeter society divides the classes not according-to the gross annual value or rental, but according to the ratal per acre. At Lampeter, class A is open to all the members, but class B is limited to occupiers (whether owners or tenants), the ratable value of whose farms does not exceed seven shillings per acre. A great deal can be said for a division of this kind. The occupiers of poor land ought to have some allow- ance made to them, but at Aberystwyth a tenant who pays t200 a year for 1000 acres of poor land must compete with him who pays zC200 11 r about seventy or eighty acres of rich lane7. What the farmers feel is that the occupiers cf poor land ought not to be asked to compete with the occupiers of good land. If the five classes tt Aberystwyth were reduced to two on the Lam- peter plan, the whole difficulty that now presents itself would be got rid of and the new arrange- ment would be both equitable and simple. It is clear that the difference in the ability to compete successfully does not depend on whether one occupier pays £80 a year rent for eighty acres, and another C200 for two hundred acres as whether one pays zC80 for eighty acres and another pays £ 200 for a thousand acres. It is the man who pays zC200 and not he who pays XBO that should ask for allowances. The quality of the laud and not the gross amount of rental should be taken as a n basis. A change in the arrangement of the classes that recognized the difference in the quality of the land wottld fee popular with the farmers, and would enable them to fight on equal terms. The five classes at C, Aberystwyth aim at this object, but do not achieve it with anything like the success reached at Lampeter with two classes. Mr. FRYER said the sooner the occupiers of small holdings made up their minds to compete at the showf, the sooner their stock will improve. The least enterprizing class of farmers have discovered during the live or -six years the Society has been in existence that un- less they apply themselves diligently to their business, it is useless to exhibit stock at the shows. The agricultural societies in Car. i 1anshire have divided the tenant farmers into those who are striving to improve their position and those who are not. Shrewd landlords might do a good deal to stimulate tenants who have competed re- gularly at the shows by giving tliem leases, and in other ways making it known that thiy appreciate good tenants. The great need in Cardiganshire is a larger number of well-to-do tenant farmers, who take a pride in their business. The only way to obtain men of this kicd is to give tenants twenty- one year leases. The yearly tenant is very much afraid of showing signs of prosperity, for he knows, or, at any rate thinks, that well-to do yearly tenants are in a fair way to get their rents raised. A good deal of the apathy among farmers is due to the feeling that the appearance of poverty is the only safeguard they have. Landlords could easily alter this by resolving to get rid of tenants unworthy of long leases.
HORSE BREEDING IN CARDIGAN- SHIRE. THE establishment of the Cardiganshire Horse Show Association in 1872 was a direct and laudable effort made by the landowners of the county to improve the breed of horses. The first show was held in April of that year. Young Bobby Burns was the winner in the agricultural class, and Wild Charley in thoroughbreds. No award was made for roadsters. The total amount of the money offered was £90. At the luncheon after the exhibition it was evident from the tone of the speeches that the premiums had not brought into the ghowyard animals of the high class required. In 1873 premiums were offered for a thoroughbred, a roadster, and an agricultural horse. The money amounted to £ 100. On this occasion all the premiums were awarded but again there was some dissatisfac- tion as to the roadster class. Crown Prince was j the successful agricultural horse, Wild Charley in thoroughbreds, and Carnarvon Comet in road- ) sters. In 1874 it was decided to offer t200 in four premiums of C50 each. A heavy horse and a lighter one were sought for agricultural • purposes, in order to meet the requirements of the farmers, who argued that the sort of horse that did well enough for the flat country [ did not do at all for the billy dis- tricts. The show was an improvement on I previous years, but only one thoroughbred was | exhibited, and that was not deemed to be of suffi- j cient merit. Alonzo took the money in the road- j ster class in heavy agricultural horses Land- ( mark was the winner, and Gladstone in light agricultural horses. In 1875, f30 was offered 1 for a roadster, and £60 for an agricultural horse. Before these premiums were decided upon there was a good deal of discussion, and it was pretty generally admitted that the money offered, toge- f ther with the guarantee of mares, failed to attract I good horses out of the district. The experience obtained in 1874 was of a costly nature, the So- j ciety having lost a considerable sum owing to the i guaranteed number of mares not having been ? made up. Young Alonzo again took the prize is roadsters, and Tom Brown in agricultural horses, f It was understood that a thoroughbred would be obtained from a well known stud. In 1876, j premium of JE40 was offered for the best agricnl- f tural horse only, and when the show wus held l Young Gayman was the winner. In 1877,. 18 ( our readers know, Mr. YAUGHAN DAVIES went to Scotland for the Agricultural Society and encaged | Glasgow Laddie, a horse that excited a very con- siderable amount of criticism. Opinion was dr vided, but there can now be no doubt that GIM¡- gow Laddie was as fine a horse and as success*0 ] us any of his predecessors. Last ye*r f the cry for local horses was so strong that | Agricultural Society offered a first prize of jj and a second of £ 10, which were won by man and Young Champion. At the meeting Monday last a very sincerc wish was that this £ 30 had never been expended. great object in obtaining boraes from a distal