f THE The deciding test of an electric lamp is the service it gives. Osram lamps have proved their merits under most exacting conditions. Extensive use for the lighting of Mills, Factories. Warehouses, etc.. bears testimony to their strength and durability- two essential factors in works lighting owing to the constant vibration and strain of jolts and jars inevitable where machinery is employed. Osram lamp are in general use for the lighting of shops. offices, and the home—the predominant features of durability and strength, coupled with other well- 1 known qualities, having caused the name Osram to become the hall-mark of lamp excellence. Obtainable from all Leading II Electricians, Ironmongers & Stores. "'K- Advert of The General Electric CIl. Ltd.. 67, Queen Victotia Street, London, E. C. 4. I t t The healthy light no fumes—no smoke The filament of an electric lamp is cotv fflffjlglobe and it cannot ill J iI'' vitiate the atmosphere in AntNation »/ Great Britain, Limited. ————————————————————————— F CJjlcVuc Mqht means a healthy home H Is} IsstiiiiffifuiiitiiiK The Lam for the Home money on Hxhting USI Hlr W.fti r/jra|itL ELECTRIC LAMPS in the Royal Palaces, ffivP/ Homes of Parliament, and all */V Government Departments fi From Electrical Contractors t BrHi h mad. » Ironmongers and Store, Rugby, England Tile BRITISH THOMSOHOeSTON. Co Ud ROYAL CHAMBERS PARK PLACE. CARDIFF. ABERYSIWYTH ELEGTRICITY SUPPLY Co. THE PERFECT LIGHT is Electricity. Houses and business premises filled throughout by skilled workmen. I FOR POWERSnothing compares with Electricity. You touch a button—we do the rest. INQUIRIES INVITED. ESTIMATES AND ADVICE FREE. Address: Mill Street, Aberystwyth. Why buy Matches? Why Not use a Flash Lamp? Electric Flash Lamps, Cases, Accumulators, COMPLETE LAMPS. ) The FAMOUS TEC and other Makes. All Sizes and Prices. CAMBRIAN NEWS STORES, ABERYSTWYTH. ¡
Electricity for Light and Power, HISTORY OF THE ELECTRIC LAMP. THE CLEANEST AND HEALTHIEST LIGHT, Twenty or thirty years ago, when central electric stations were being established up and down the country, it was a pleasant custom to arrange an inaugural ceremony at which the Mayoress switched on the current and the Mayor delivered an oration. Invariably this oration contained the phrase that "electricity is in its infancy." Electrical engineers who were present always feit annoyed at this stereotyped remark, which seemed to them a reflection an achievements which were in those days magnificent. Nevertheless, the Mayors were right; and their successors who, greatly daring, repeat the same phrase to-day are also .right. Compared with its present developments, electricity in tlif- early nine- ties was only an infant, and in all probability the observer of 1950 will regard the stage of eleclrical progress which we have now reached ae characteristic of early childhood. Progress—sometimes in steady streams, sometimes in waves, but always progress-is the law of the electrical industry. It is like the phenomenon famil.ar to climbers of We sli mountains; there is a continuous ascent which leads one to what is apparently the summit, but is in reality a place from which other sum- mits unfold themselves. When, in the year 1880, the first successful incandescent electric lamp was produced, many people believed that electric fighting had reached the veritable summit. The arc lamp was the only other farm of electric light, and it dated back, as a discovery, to the time when Humphrey Davy found that an electric circuit completed by two pieces of carbon gave rise to an "arc" of intense light at the point of junction. This discovery had waited through long years for the invention of the dynamo to make it a commercial proposition by enab, ing electricity to be produced in (then) large quantities by mechanical power. The arc lamp, giving a light of several hundred candle power, was used for the illumination of large spaces, such as railway stations, sbreeta, halls, docks, factories, and so on. Being unsuitab'e for domestic use, and so on. Being unsuitab e for domestic use, the arc lamp was unable to do more than touch the fringe of the lighting world. Tnven- tora saw clearly that the next wave of pro- gress would come only when the sub-division of the electric "light" was achieved. The first approach to success was made by using glass bulbs with a filament of p atinum in a vacuum. The filament, owing to its re- sistance to electric current, became white that when electricity was passed through it. Platinum, however, has the disadvantage of melting when the pressure of the electric cur- rent rises, and it was to carbon that experi- men ten next turned their attention. Edison searched the world for vegetable fibre which would serve his purpose, and chose bamboo. Swan worked on the more scientific system of makin? a carbon filament. an,i the two pion- eers reached their goal at about the same time The carbon filament lamp made electric lighting possible in houses, shops. restaurants, and other places where powerful units of lipht were not apprjjpriate. To-day, comparatively, few carbon lamps are made, and these only for special purposes. The general field of use- fulness occupied by the carbon lamp was captured about ten years ago by the metal filament lamp which, as we ghall p-esrntly see, has ousted the arc lamp as well from its cen- tury-old heritage. Even the early inventcs of carbon lamps regarded carbon as a faute de mieux" and included in their patenta a numbwr of meta's which, by their physical properties, promised to give belter regu'ts. Tantalum and tunpsten were the most attractive, as they had high melting points and the high resistance to electricity required to make them glow b-il- liantly when traversed by a current. Tan- talum was the first to become a commcrcial IUCCes.. It could be readily drawn into ex- tremely fino- wires with the strength of steel. Tungsten presented a more difficult problem, bocause it was obtainable on^ in the form of a fine powder, and it seemed hopeless to attempt to work it up into a tough filament. The attempt, however, was well worth mak- ing because whilo. tantalum lamps were twice as efficient as carbon lamps, tungsten lamps would be three times m efficient The first plan adopted was to mix the tungsten powder into a paste with a binding material, squirt the paste through a diamond die, and burn out the binding material, leaving a more or less coherent thread of tungston. Lamps made on this plan were very economical, but they were fragile, and a great improvement took place when, after prolonged and costly research, a way was found foir actually drawing tungsten into wire. By compression, by extreme heat, and by vigorous hammering, the powder is made to cohere into a solid man which can be drawn into filaments of almost invisible fine- ness. The rate of advance was almost embarrassing to the p-actical man-in this case the maker of lamps. He had first to scrap his plant for making carbon lamps and install plant for squirted filaments. Within a few years he ha" to scrap the new plant and replace it with machinery for drawing tungsten wire and building it up into tungsten lamps of the modern ty. The net effect of this rapid progress was that the user of electric light got a lamp which was at least three times more efficient than the od carbon lamp. in point of fact, the nominal efficiency of the carbon lamp was seldom reached in average practice. As Mr. Scott Ram. the electrical inspector to the Home Office, points out in a receat report, carbon tamps absorbed something like five watts of electricity per candle power, instead of between three and four as the rating usually went. Tungsten lamps take a little over one watt per candle. making the real saving nearer five than three. The secret of this higher efficiency is the high temperature at which the tungsten fila- ment can be run. Realising this fact, the makers of tungsten lamps had no sooner per- fected them as a commercial article than they set inventors to work on the task of securing conditions under which filaments could be kept I at higher and still higher temperatures with- out rapid disintegration. The limit having already been reached with filaments in a vacuum, the plan was adopted of introducing a little inert gas into the bulb. The efficiency of the gas-filled lamp is about twice that of the vacuum type of lamp. There- fore, as the vacuum type takes about one watt per candle power, the gas-filled type is some- limes called the "half-watt." It is at present available in sizes ranging from 1,500 watts to 10 watts for ordinary electric lighting circuits, and still lower powers are made for circuits of lower voltage. In practice this means that gas-fllied lamps are suitable for lighting any- thing from a large room upwards They have almost superseded the arc lamp, because they arc less costly, are very efficient, and do not entail renewal of carbons and the oiller periodi- cal attentions demanded by the arc lamp. Thus we see that recent invention has re- duced the cost of incandescent electric lighting to something like one-tenth of what it used to be. As the whole of this improvement has occurred within the last decade or so it repre- sents an almost unexampled triumph of scientific and manufacturing skill. Nevertheless, it does Hot represent the full range of improved economy in lighting by electricity. The effi- eiency of the lamp itself is of course a most important item, but one has to consider also the cost of electricity and the advances made in the efficient use of the light given off by the lamp. Until the war electricity was hecoming steadily cheaper. The early central stations ware amall affairs—-v most ludicrously small compared with the huge stations now existing in progressive cities. They supplied electric light within a comparatively limited area, and the price was correspondingly high. As the business progreesed in magnitude, the increase in. output was reflected by a decrease in the cost per unit. To electric light, moreover, the public supply undertakings added the industrial power load, the tramway load, and other do- nurnds which, coming upon the electric supply mains chiefly during daylight, kept the gon- erating.plant more fully occupied throughout the day and thus secured the economies of what is now more or less familar to all of us as a "high load factor." The advent of the steam turbine marked an- other g rfse in economy, as it meant the chaap production of large quantities of electricity in relatively compact power statioins. All these changes, accompanied by a rapid improvemeat in every detail of elcetrical equipment, led to a continuous fall in the price of electricity. The maximum prices embodied in the original Bldric Light Provisional Orders (the Parlia- mentary powers under which Corporations and Companies are enabled to supply e-'pefcrieity to the public) were left high and dry, and from rates like sixpence or eightpence per unit supply undertakings came down to threepence per uait-a truly democratic price. It may be useful to remark, at thit stage, that the rise in the cost of electricity since 1914 must be considered as part of the general k I riae in prices. Plant and coal are tlte two main iitemg in the expeaise of making e«ectricity, and all industries have suffered from their abnor- mally high cost. On the whole, however, olectricity tariffs have not 'risen so high im pro- mally high cost. On the whole, however. olectricity tariffs have not risen so high im pro- portion as other costa. The capacity of public g stations more than doubled during the war, and the resulting increase in output enabled the war-time and post-war tariffs to be kept lower than they otherwise would have been. With the developments foreshadowed in the Electricity (Supply) Bill no v before Parliament '~tjw e,cction of huge super-stations and the linking up of existing stations so that th»y form parts of a co-operative system of electric supply for all purposea-ti.e cost of electricity to the public should resume its downward tend- cy. There is also the possibility-if not the probability-of some new and more efficient method of generating electricity from coal. Electrical science never has stood still and it aaver will. The increased efficiency of electric lamps and the progressive decrease in the cost of electricity are items of which the user of .Iectric light becomes readily aware. He sees their effect in his quarterly bills for electricity. But it is not so easy to bring home to him the *alue of improved illumination, secured by a better treatment of the light given off by the lamp. We ar". all helmed to judge a light by the effect which it has on the eye. If it appears briliant we say it is a good light, although a lamp with a low intrinsic brilliance may actually provide more IIseful illumination than one with high intrinsic brilliance. Lamps, however not made to be looked at, but to provide the proper quantity and distribution of light which will enabe us to road, write, sew, or operate machinery with comfort and elefJ. In this problem thore is material for scientific atudy-the study known as illumin- ating engineering. Since the appearance of the tungsten lamp, a great advance has taken place In this science. In the vacuum type of lamp the filaments, as has already been noted, are vertical, so that they throw most of the light outwards, not downwards where it is most needed. «Tn the gas-fillej lamp we get quite another distribution of light. The practical question for the illuminating engineer is to diffuse all the light in a useful direction; and, in answering the question for all sorts of domes- tic, industrial, and public lighting he has materia ly raised the practical efficiency of electric lighting. Adding together the hro-her efficiency of the electric lamp, the reduction in the cost of electricity, and the improvement in methods of i'lumination, it becomes clear that electric light costs only a fraction of what it did in the days of the real infancy of the industry. Over the same period, however, there has been • nsr JH me Standard or illumination. People demand better iglit. They used to be eocitent with the carbon lamps of eight or six- teen cLnrlJ. power each. Now they use the well-diffused light from lamps of thirty candle power and upwards. The higher standard re- sults In more cheerfulness and comfort wherever artificial light is needed. It also make* for inc-eased wel -beinP and efficiency in the industrial worker, leading to increased production. But. that in another story which deserves to be told at greater length at a sub- set] llont date.
Aberystwyth Guardians. INCREASING EXPENDITURE. Aberystwyth Guardians met on Monday, Ca-pt Edward LlewelUn presiding. The Clerk presented the estimated expendi- ture and contribution orders for th haJf year ending March 1920. The total. expenditure was estimated at 212,219 as compared with Bll,275 for the corresponding half of last year. Deducting 21,105 total of balances due to the parishes in September 1919 the contributions for this half year are based on a total of 911,107 or a total increase of E823, of the total Aberystwyth parish has to contribute £ 5,525 )r more by £443 than that parish contributed in the corresponding half of last year, and practically half of the. total ( £ 10,284) eqntri- buted by all the other parishes in the Union aombined.Tlie Chairman said the main cause of increase was the increased charge for pauper unatics, which was £1,656 as compared with 2806 in 1914. The weekly charge in 1900 was 18 7d., and in 1919, 24s 6d. The cost of main- taining inmates in t.he Workhouse was E550,1 and £390 in March 1914, which meant Cjn in- i urease of C160 in the maintenance of the inmates. Every person who visited the Work- houso was satisfied as to the comforts supplied to the inmates and that they got every kind- ness from the officials. Everything was txcellenfc inside the building, but it was the duty of the Guardians not to lose sight of the poor who lived outside. The estimate for out.relief was £1,810 and it was £1,720 in the corresponding half year of 1914 which meant <90 only increase since 1914. The number of paupers in 1914 was 247 adults, and 141 children. At present UJere were 183 adults; and 101 children, a total of 284 against 388 in 1914. The Board was dealing very badly with the out-re!ievod poor. In 1914 an average of 38. ld. each per week was given. At present it was 4s. 10d., which ho did not tTaink anything like sufficient. More would have to be given in fairness to those who received it; but the Guardians must deal with ail alike. He sug- gested that a special meeting should be held to consider an increase all round. He proposed a meeting in two weeks time. Some -niall f sacrifice could bo madez as a penny rate pro- duced 2400 and if necessary a rate of lid or 2d. could be called for, as every person seemed to have done well, especially the country people^—(Hear hear and laughter)— and could afford to be gemerous in so deserving a causa — Mr Griffith Ell-is seconded the proposition to call a special meeting, and the proposition was carried, the meeting to be held in two weeks time.—Mr. W. T. Lewis endorsed Mr. Llew- ellin's statements and said the granting of the increase would encourage tfir.ift. The Guar, dians ought not to punish the poor as they had been punished enough during the past few years.-Mr. E. J. Evans, proposed the grantillg of 4s. extra Christmas relief for adulfs and 2s. for boarded-out children as it was the duty of the Guardians to make the paupers happy as it was a notab'e Christmas, the first after Peace.—Mr. John Morgan seconded, and the proposition to give 4s. extra relief to adults and 2s. to children was carried.
After Thirty Years! "Sorrento," 16, Calmeron Road, West Croydon Surrey. March 21st, 1910. "Dear Sir% I have been subject to lumbago for thirty years—laid up eacn winter for two to four months The paina were frghtfuL—I daiei not move a limb. When attacks came on 1 had to keep to bed for weeks together. My legs and arms, too, were sitiff with effects of rheumatism, amd there were urinary pigns of kidney weakness. "Two years ago I was advised to try your Doan's Backache Kidney Pills. I did so, and found them to be suited to my case:. After a thorough course of the pills, I felt almost sure I had cured myself. Now I am quite con- vinced. All through tb;s trying winter I have kept first-rate—no sign at all of my old com- plaint. "Though 62 year3 of agar I am still remark- ably wefi, thanksi to Doan's Backache Kidney Pills. I consider it a. duty to recommend them. Yours truly, (Signed) Chas. Spencer." cCTen Years Cured." On 16th January, 1919. Mr. Spencer said:— "I am 72 next birthday, but am able to truth- fully say that I still enjoy the excollent health Doan'a Fills restored to me ten years ago." Don't task for kidney pills or backache pills. Insist upon DOAN'S Backache Kidney Pill& the kidney medicine Mr. Spencer recommends. All dfealers), or 2s. 9d. a box from Foster McClellan Co.. 8, Wells Street, Oxford Street, London, W.I. Recommended by the People for the People >
The Housing Problem. In a recent issue of the "Cambrian News" (writes "Primrose") the editor called atten- tion to the contents of my letter on the housing question which appeared in an issue of a week or two previously. Nothing but good can come of ventilating this big question through the columns of a paper of standing in the Principality likei the "Cambrian News." As many others besides the editor may have the impression thxt my conclusions now based on serious misapprehensions pertaining to myself only, the following quotations will at least show that those who are directly con. cerned in this vital question, and labouring under the same misapprehension as myself, and will show what a source of trouble and misunderstanding the aodministraticna of the Act in reality is.Colonel E. R. Kenison at a conference of the councils of Rural Norfolk, Ea.id-It has been impossible to get from the I Local Government Board any direct answer to the question as to whom the new houses were to be built for, i.e., to be lot to cultural labourers at £10 a year, or about 4s. a week, or to be l^t to anyone who comes along and offers 18s. a week. What really matters is that the Rural Councils are ready to find a penny rate to house their own la- bourers if they can be quite certain that the I Government will contribute by way of sub- sidy more than they have to find them- selves, But this is not in the Bill. In the "Contract Journal" of the 22nd October I find it is not intended by the Goernmoot "that any permanent system of stibsidising rents shajl be established," but that local authorities are to use every cn- devour "tio obtain as eunly as possible a rent equivalent to a fair economic return on two thirds of their present outlay." "The Ironmonger"—"The certainty of a heavy demand -on the local rates even for three years, however, is a powerful deterrent against embarking on extensive scheiihes." A member of the Carnarvon Town Coun- cil:—"The housing scheme is going to throw a hea.vy fin&nciall burden on the ratepayers." Pwllheli, Coiyici1—"They weirei quite ignor- ant as to their liability to make up the difference between the JH2 exiting basis, and the C40 basne of the new houses." Bacup Council has already discussed the scheme, as owing to the low-existing rentals the new houses would place too heavy a financial responsibility on fihe Council The r?a,I £ MaiI" nf last week-"Evidence accumulates from all sources that the Govern- ment scheme of housing is more than totter- ing. It hrg practically collapsed. Many schemes aTe approved. but no houses are be- ing built." The gist of the wiho.le question comes to this A good many existing houses in the rural areas are rented at about 2s. 6d. a week. A municipal house costs at presents about E800 or more. The economic rent (or the no-Lsa rent.) of that would be 24s. a week, or more, without rates; amd two-thirds of it would be 16s. It is not intended by the Government" that, any permanent system of subsidising rents shall be established." Hence 110 wonder to me that those who have to administer these schemes foresee on whom in reality the burdens in the end falls. i I think, therefore, I had "some shadow of argument when stating., "Thus there appears to be an impression abroad that these houses apart from the penny rate, will be U\u C0S* Government, and let at, the usuai rent of £ 4 to £ 6 a year, as the bulk of existing houses are," for which "there was never a greater fallacy," and those who are pressing for Government houses would do 1 well to Msure the conditions beforehand." j
HENLLAN. DEBA.TE.-At Gwernllwyn, on Friday, the subject of the debate was "MonaTCliial Gov- ernment versus Republic Government." Papers were read by Mr. David Jones, Wwyncelyn, and Mr. John Jones, Brynffynon. Several members took part in the debate and a suc- cessful meeting resulted. The Rev. R. H. Williams, pastor, presided. DEATH.-Last week, after brief illness, Mrs Jones, wife of Mr. Ben Jones, Pencnwc, passed away at the age of sixty. The funeral on. rid ay was largely attended, interment being made at Gwernllwyn. The Revs. J. G. Owen, Soar, E. S. Davies, Capel Drindod, R. H. Williams, Gwernllwyn, and D. Jones, Bryn- derw, officiated. The chief mourners were Mr Ben Jones (husband), Messrs David, Evan Joaes and John Jones (sons), Misses Sarah Anne Jones antl May Jones (daughters), and Mr. Evan Jones (brother).
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE Of WALES ABERYSTWYTH. Ale of the Constituent Colleges of the atversity of Wales). Opened 1872 President SIR JOHN WILLIAMS Bart. M.D. D.Se G.C.V.O. Principal: JOHN HUMPHREYS DAVIES, M.A. (Oxon). THE SESSION BEGINS in September Lectures commence early in Octobei Entrance, Scholarships and Exhibitions, open to both male and fèrmle candidates above the age of sixteen are offered for competition at the commencement of the session. Students are prepared for Degrees In Art, Science (in eluding the Applied Science of Agricultural law, and Music. Sessional composition fees In K-rta, £12, in Science, £18. Sessional regis tration fee 21. Men students reside in regis tered lodgings in the town, or at the Men's Hostel, Warden H. H. Paine, M.A., B.Se. Wolhen Students reside in the Alexandra Hall of Residence for Women; Warden, Miss C. P. Tremain, B.A. For full particulars respecting the General Arts and Science Department, the Law Department, the Agricultural Department the Department for the Training of Element- ary and Secondary School Teachers, and the Hostels apply to— THE REGISTRAR. James Morgan FRUITERER AND FLORIST, FISHMONGER AND POULTERER, 11, Pier Street, Aberystwyth EGOS. EGGS. EGGS. Bought in nny quantity for cash FOR THE BEST PIANOS, PLAYER-PIANOS, ORGANS, &c- Dale, Forty (4 Co., Ltd. HIGH STREET, CARDIFF. Scud for Catalogues. Tel. 1103 ————————-——————<————————————————————————! I I Oil Engines FOR AGRICULTURAL WORK. We are Agents for all Leading Makes. Sole Agents in this dlstricl for the HAM WORTHY PATf-NT OIL ENGINES. TYPES-STATIONARY. SEMI-PORTA DL PORTABLE. ELECTRIC LIGHTING. SPECIAL FEATURES-Works on Paraffin Easily Started Simple and Ecouom cAl Long Life Patentea Air-tight Bearings; Powerful Patent Governor; Regular Ruiininiz; Impulse every K<-volui.iou Garbutters and Blowlaitips eliminated. I WOODWARD .& SON, GENERAL MERCHANTS, New Bridge Stores, Liangwyryfon Near ABERYSTWYTH. The Ideal County Stores. CLOTHING For Boys, Youths, and Men, made to measure and ready to wear. !Y Latest Designs, Fit, Style, and Finish Guaranteed. inspection respectullv invited by Daniel Thomas, 22, & 24, Little Darkgate St., ABERYSTWYTH Established 1875. mr Glf". UUMI fU/UIDV: BELIEF KROM COUGH 1 IN 6 MT^UTKS ( DaTnflCl'c Coughs, for CaMs, for Asthma, L/OVlOa S for Bronchitis, for Hourseness, for r :"| I Influenza, for Sore Throat, Most fc uOt'SD Soothing, Warms the Chest. Dl»- j a solves the Phlegm. For Singers, fo S MlTtlirO Public Speakers. By Chemis lA l» U i t? everywhere, 1« 3d aod 3s. Pbstage. » Proprietor HUGH D/*VI&'S f Chero 1st. MAOHYNLLgT H I M' l^K AT the Poison fer Moles Put Bar i h worm8 in a pot and sprinkle Pow er ovt-rthem. then p ace in the pa-b | of 'he Mole*. In Parke's, Is.61. rich j Proprietoi—Hugh Davies. Chemist. Machynlleth. I Aberystwyth Agents—Wynne & Son. Chemises, I Scientific Sight-Test ing and Frame Pitting Qualified Sight-Testing Optician. ( W. Miall Jones M.P.S., Pharmaceutical Chemist Fellow of t,he Worshipful Company of I' Spectacle Makers m nii of the Institute of Ophthalmic Opticians. 33, Terrace Road, Aberystwyth. .=- We h ive no need to elabolately advertize our goods. Quality speaks for itself. Give us a try at GEORGE FELLOWES, CSNrR^LOAFB. NORfEl PARADE, & 19, TERRACE ROAD, Whiat Drives W«dding Parties &c., Catered for. Seating accommodation for over 150 Open I on any but Wednesday evenings throughout the winter. Try our famous home-made Bread. Cakes, and Confectionery. Made under model hygeinic conditions by experienced bakers. .r. h, ¥:j I MEITHRINF A PREPARATORY and SECONDARY SCHOOL v FOR BOYS AND GIRLS. IORTII ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. Principals: Mas Trotter aad Min Ballard William*. M.A. Boarders received. Prt apnlicatioel PEN ROCK DAY AND BOARDING SCHOOL Fo (iirls and V. tIe Bov TO BE OPENED SEPTEMBER 24th. Fur particular* aid fro. pe tti- apply *7R o » M*SS MURL 1CSS, a78 3, Marine Terrace, a be. v»t wvf h. THE COUNTY SCHOOL DOLCELLEY. (THE DOLGELLEY GRAMMAR SCHOULJ. « Dr. Ellis' Endowment, A.D. 1665 BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR BOYB. Excellent General Education and Trainimg provided, with special preparation for tbdt Universities, the Civil Service, and Commerce. ooErdfiru received at the Headmaster's Houee. For Prospectus Fees, etc., apply to the Headmaster. -q- — ■ ■' || ,T. Towyn County School. fTIHE SCHOOL BUILDINGS are Hrm mm* x coramodiou, and include the ordinary Class Rooms, Music Rooms, excellently-equipped Chemical and Physical Laboratories E Lecture Room Workshop, Kite he* and Laundry. The Headmaster's House is speciaHy arrange for the accommodation of Boarders, &180 arrangements are made with one of the Master* for the accommodation of Girl Boarders. Pupils are prepared for the Universities, Pro- fession, and Commercial Life SUCCESSES. London Inter B.Se. London Matriculation 4 Wales Matriculation 9 College of Preceptors, Medical Prel. Central Welsh Board. Honours Certificate } Higher Certificate i Senior Certificate 1 H Junior Certificnte 19 Pitman's Shorthand, Advanced Grade I Pitman's Elemental* 1 Associated Board of R.A.M. and R.C.M. Higher Division L. 2 Lower Division 3 1 Trinity College ef Load on. Junior Division Preparatory t ¡, Rendel Exhibition, £10. Couaty Exhibition, £10, Entrance Scholarship into Card ff Univer- sity, £15.. During the last thirteen years scholarships to the value of P,3,645 havi been gained by pupil* direct from the School. For Prospectus, Boarding Fees, etc., apply to the Headmaster, or to E. J. EV ANB, Clerk to the Go Barmouth Intermediate School. I Hdadmastei: EDMUND D. JONES. MwJu Stall: Miss MARY DAVIES, B.A. Mass O. AUSTIN, B.A. Miss M. A. JONES. Miss E. C. OWEN. HAROLD SPEIGHT, B.Se. ANEURIN OWEN, B.A. Visiting- Teachers: A. J. Hewins, R. L. I. Of Prospectuses, etc., on application to B. LLEWELYN OWEN, Clerk. w Glenvyl House School, Pwllheli. BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR GIRLS. Principal Miss PRENTICE- Prospectus on ,application. Dr. WILLIAMS' SCHOOL, DOLGELLEY, ENDOWED HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (Boarders and Day Pupils) Preparation for the Central Welsh Board, Oxford Local Examinations, London and Webb Matriculation, and University Scholarships. There are three Leaving Exhibitions tenable at places of higher Educalion, which are awarded annually upon the result of the yeaeo work, The Buildings and Grounds are excellently adapted to secare the health and com for- of th* girls. A large wing wa« erected in 1910 to meet the demand for increased accommodation. A special House for Domestic Training will be opened in September. ^ees: Boarding, £ 35 per annum; Tuition, £ 5 5*. — Tennis, Hockey, Netball, Badminton. —— For Prospectus apply to the Headmistress, or Mr. R. Barnett, Dolgelley, Clerk to Km Gc ernors. TUK FURNISHING WAREHOUSE, Grwat Darkwitte Street. BEST VALUE IN FURNITURE. J. LEWIS EVANS, 'ABINET MANUFACTURER. UPHOLSTERER, AND UNDERTAKER Begs to inform the public that he ha.s always a targe Stock of Furniture, Ae., made on lbe premises. =-=-==;I- LLOYDS BANK LIMITED, with which is amalgamated THE CAPITAL & COUNTIES BANK, LD. HEAD OFFICE: 71, LOMBARD STREET, E.C. 3. COLONIAL & FOREIGN DEPARTMENTS. 17. CORNHILL, LG.3,1 and at .• BIRMINGHAM, BRADFORD, UVERPOIGL. MANCHESTER, NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. • ) Foreign Bills and Cheques are collected, and approved Bills purchased. Letters of Credit and Circular Notes are inued, and Foreign Currency Drafts, Telegraphic Transfers, and Letter Payments, available in all parts of the world, can be obtaUi from the principal Branches. ■ J The Agency of Colonial and Foreign Banks is undertaken. S TIMBER R. ROBERTS & SONS,, mSSKTT TREFECHAN, ABERYSTWYTH. GOOD STOCK <*F TJMPWR. aBTS "r:f'L.Nó.'I:5.r.o.LJí. Ik Mrs. Dembamn, Brynhfryd, Penydarr^n, Merthyr TydYU. Wales. 1 suffered for six months with a terrible ULCERATED WOUND in my knee about two inches in depth. I was attended to by doctors and had a nurse, but did not get well. The doctors thought I had a diseased bone- so I had an operation, having a piece taken away from my knee about the size of a five shilling piece, but still did not improve. Hearing so much aboat "Clarke's Blood Mixture 1 at last resolved to give it a trial, and after a few days the im- provement in my knee was great. The first bottle eased my pain, and by the time I had taken a few bottles (three. I believe) my knee was com- pletely cured. All my friends were surprised at euch a wonder ful cure, especially after being laid op in bed for six months." (Signed) Mrs. Denham of £ 9, If you Suffer from any such Disease as Bad Legs. Abscesses. Ulcers, Glandular Swellings, Eczema, Boils Pimples, Sores and Eruptions, Piles, Rheumatism, Sciatica, Gout, Don't watte your time and money on useless lotions and messy ointments which cannot get below the surface of the skin.^ What you want and what you must have is a medicine that will thoroughly free the blood of rbe poisonous matter which alone is the true cause of all your suffering. Clarices Blood Mix- ture is just such a medicine. It is composed af ingredients which quickly attack overcomeand expelthe impurities, and by rendering the blood clean andpuro can be relied upon to give speedy relief and lasting benefit. Pleasant to take and free froat anything in.iurious. Ask for and see that yon get Clarke s Blood Mixture, "Everybody's Blood Purifier." i Of all Chemists and Stores, 2/9 per bottle (Six times the quantitylif-) I
LAMPETER. PROTEST.At a meeting of the representa- tives of tlie locai Free Churciies, at Shiloh C.M. Chapel, on Wednesday week, a reso-ution was passed protesting against the introduction of premium bouds. The (secretary was directed to send copies of the resolution to the Prime Minister, Mr. Vaughan Davies, M.P., and Mr. John Hinds, M.P. A programme of meetings for the winter session was arranged. The Rev D. Jones, Noddfa (Baptist) presided RAM DEBATING SOCIETY.-The Society meb at Coedmore School on Friday, Mr Edwan J. Edwards, B.Se., Lletheicoch, pr-siuing. It was decided to add to the vo umcs in the Society's library and to provide an additional bookcase. Arrangements were made for the lecture on "Race History of Britain" by Dr. Fleurc, U.C.W., Abeiys wy.h. KHASSI MISSIONS.-At Shiloh C.M. Chapel, on Wednesday week, Miss Jones of Denbigh, mi.-siona y in India, gave an inteiesting address on the work in the Indian miasloa field. She said that Welsh missionaries were the first to reduce the Khassi language to writing. It is now eighty years since the first Welsh C.M. missionaries setied in Khassia and during that time there has been established schools and centres of learning. From fifteen to twenty per cent of the whole population are now Christians. Previously the natives were Animists or demon worshippers. The mission- aries taught them methods of agriculture and systoma,tised their labour. DEBATING SOCIETY.-Members of Noddfa Baptist Chapel have started a debating society of which the Pastor (the Rev. D. Jones) is president; Mr. Lewis, Garth, hon. treasurer; and Mr WLliams, Rhuddlan, hon. secretary. Brondoifi Literary and Debating Society held a successful soiree on Friday week. The Rev. Oswald Williams, B.A., presided. UNIONISTS.—On Wednesday week, at Vic- toria Memorial Hall, the Unionists of Lam- peter and district were addressed by Mr Howard and Mr. Littlejohn. The meeting was presided over by Major Bertie Davies-Evans of Peterwell. The two speakers upheld the tradi- tions of the party and pointed out the need of supporting the present Government. Mr. Littlejohns oiearly defined the difference be- tween a constitutional monarchy and a re- public. Mr. Harries, Conservative agent for Cardiganshire, also spoke of the need of united effort. In the afternoon previous to the meet- ing Mr. Littlejohns and Miss West addressed the women mombers of the party who were entertained to tea by the local Unionist branch. DiijATH. The death took place at the Laying-in Hospital, London, on November 14 of Mrs Sarah Davies. wife of Mr R. Davies, 6, China Walk, Lambeth, and formerly of Lampeter. Interment took place on Novem- ber 19Ui at Lampeter, when the Revs. E. Evans (Soar) and D. Jones (Cellan) officiated. A large number of friends and sympathisers attended to pay their last tribute of respect. WOMEN IN POLITICS. Major Bertia Davies Evans, presiding over a well-att(,nde(i meeting of Lampeter Women Unionists in sup- prt of the Coalition Government, said there had been great changes in tin: political feeling of the country as the result of the war, ana it would bo well for women to realise that they were entering the arena of politics at a time when the defence of all that was best in connection with the Empire demanded the assistance of every man and woman. Mr' Fred Howard dealt with the reconstruc- tive policy of the Government, and said that, during the ten months it had been in power it had introduced more real social reform than any previous Government in an equal number of years. Mr Littlejohns, Pontypridd, said reconstruction to be effective must be based on moral ideal. In the afternoon tea was given to the members of the branch, at which Mrs Hughes, M.F.H., presided. Mr Little- johns said the great function of women voters was to bring their moral influence to bear on political life in the country. Miss West, tho South Wales women's organiser, urged the women of Lampcter to make their organisation effective. Mr A. G. Harries referred to the excellent work done by Miss Roese, secretary of the branch.
CAIO. MEMORIALS.—At Saron, Cwmtwrch, a com- mittee has been formed to set up a war memorial at Abor, near Saron. It is hoped that final arrangements wilh -be completed about Christmas. Many of the inhabitants of Upper Caio have expressed a feeling that a suitable memorial should be set up at Farmers' Village. A village has been suggested which might also contain a library and reading room. OBITUARY.—The death of Mrs. Rachel Jones, widow of M?. David Jones, carpenter, of Pantycrug, Farmers, occurred on Thursday. Deceased was eighty years of age and leaves six children three sons (Mr. David Kellan Jones. Llane'ly, Mr. John Jones, Ystradgyn- lais, Mr. William Jones, Tynllwyn, estate car- penter, DolaucoFSi), and thre daughters (Mrs Elizabeth Evans. Gower-Street, Swansea, Mrs. Mary Nicolas, Cynhordy, Mrs Thomas. Erw- wen). Interment was made at. Bethel Chapel on Monday, the Rev. Rogers. Baptist minister, officiating. GRADING.—A meeting of fanners of Llan. ycrwys and Upper Caio- has been convened by Mr Owen Bowen Harries, Talyresgair, secretary of the National Farmers' Union. The question of grading at Lampeter Mart will be consid- ered. J,
PENCADER. EISTEDDFOD-A successful eisteddfod was hold at the Old C.M. ChapeJ on Friday- The building was crowded and all the items were keenly-contested. The champion solo competition was of high order and was the special attraction whidh brought entries from places as far distant as Llanelly, Pontyberem. Aberayron, Carmarthen, and other pjfaces. The -officials were—Chairman the Rev. D. A. Thomas, Pencader; music adjudicator, Mr. J. C:ement, Foresfach, Swan sea; recitations, and conductor, the Rev. E. Davies, B.A., Gwaencaegurwen; accomp- anists, Miss H. Saunders, Pencader, and Mr S J Mundy, F.R.C.O., L.R.A.M., Carmarthen. The Hon. Secretaries were Messrs T. Daniels, Gwen Coblage, and D. J. Jones, London House. The Treasurer was Mr J. Davies, Owmgwen. The proceeds will be devoted to St. Mary's Church Funds. The awards were:Sblo for girls under 10 years, 1st, Gwyneth Davies, Cwmgwen, 2nd divided between Jane Rees, GJantalog, and Rachel Evans, Davies-strect, Pencader; solo boys under 10, Master Gerallt Daniels, Gwen Cott- age, 2nd Evan Rees, Glantalog; pianoforte Bolo under 16, 1st, P. H. Bvans, Police Station, 2nd Gwyneth Jones, Abamant; recitation for children under 12, Maggie Evans, Police Station, Pcncader; solo for girls under 14, 1st Rachel Rees, Glantalog, 2nd, Annie Rees, Glantalog; solo for .boys under 14, 1st and 2nd, divided between Master Gerallt Daniels, Gwen Ottage, and Sidney Jones, Marshiaad, Pancader; solb open to 60 years of age and uver, Evan Thomas, Preswylfa, Pencader; novice solo own seleoi-ion for those who had not won over 5s, Mr Tom Rees Williams, Allt. fochan-terrace, Pencader; tenor solo, Mr. Bryn Jones, Lammas-street, Carmarthen; baritone solo, 1st, ,Mr. Tudor Beynon, Pont- henri, Pontyberem; mixed choir, 3 choirs com- peted, "Tyssul Cho.ir" Madco Jones, "Cor y Bryniau," J. Davies, "Cor y Cwm" T. Daniels, prize awarded to Llandyssul Choir, the Rev. T. MBldoc Jones, vicar; open recitation, Mr. Morris Evans, Mitnciau; champion solo, any voice, own selection, 1st Mr. Tudor Boynon, Ponthenri, 2nd Mr. Bryn Jones, Lammasl street, Carmarthen; soprano solo, no entry; contralto solo, Miss H. Jones, Lammas street, Carmarthen; quartette, prize divided betweem Ponca.der party, J. Davies, Cwmgwen, and Carmarthen party, J. Thomas; duet, tenor and bass, or soprano and contralto, Misses M. H. and A. Jones, 7, Davies-street, Pen- cader; peniilion singing, Mr. Gwilym Jone3, Gwastad Bach, Llanpumsaint (Gwilym Bowy.)
LLANON. FUNERAL.—The funeral of 'Mrs Margaret Davies, wife of the late Mr E. Davies, Waun fawr, took placo on Friday at Llansantffraid Churchyard. Deceased had reached the age of 83 years. The Rev. Evan Jones and the Rev. W. liar Edwards officiated at the church and graveside. The chief mourners were Miss Davies (daughter), and Mr Richard Morgan Davies. DEMOBILISATION.—The last batch of .our men have now been demobilised among whom are Capt. D. Jones-Evans, Ceylon, and the Rev. W. S. Davies, M.M., Rose Hill.
RHEIOQl VALLEY. IMPROVEMENT.—Improvement has been effected in the district road, which until re- cently we a source of danger to pedestriana ter dark.
LLANDYSSUL. NURSING ASSOCIATION. A general meeting of Llandypsul and District Nursing .Association was held on Tuesday week, Mr T Thomas, solicitor, presiding, when it was re. soh-ed to iform an infant weJfaro maternity contra. Fortnightly lectures will bo given by Dr A. T. Evans, M.B., M.O.H., and free advuee givcm to mothers FOOTBALL.—A football match was played on tJhe C-nmty School grounds on Wednesday week I between the town and OJunty School teams, resulting in a win for the latter, the score being: County School 1, town, nil. Mr T. Young refend. The town team went to Llanybyther on Saturday to play Llanybyther town toam. The score was-Llandyssul; 2; Llanybyther, 0. On the same day the County ocnool footbau and hockey teams went to Aberayrom and defeated the home teams, both at football and hockey, the score being-foot.- ball, Llandyssul 4, Aberayron 0; hockey, Llan dyssul 8, Abcrayron 0. CONCERT.—A presentation concert organ- ised by the inhabitants of Talgareg and dis- trict was given at the Council School, when Mr Herbert Jones, for 17 years mounted post- man between Llandyssul and Talgareg was presented with a sum of money in appreciation for duty well done. The chair was occupied by the Vicar of Talgareg (the Rev. T. I*'oyd). PREACHING.—Special preaching services were held at Tabernacle cihapel on Saturday evening, Sunday morning, afternoon and Even- ing. AU Nonconformist places of worship in the town suspended services and held a united service at Penybont Baptist Chapel. Eloquent sermons were delivered at a41 the services by the Revs. T. Lloyd, Llechryd, and Joseph Jen- kins, Llandovery. OBITUARY.-The death took place at Pant- dofaid on. Tuesday week of Mrs Mary Thomas at the ago of 73. Interment was made on tho Saturday following at Tyisaf, Pantydefaid Bur- ial Ground, when the Revs. T. A. Thomas, pastor, officiated at the house, T. Davies, Horeb, at the cihapel, and E. O. Jenkins, Llwynrhydowen, at the graveside. The de- ceased leaves a husband (Mr Rhys Thome-S) and ten children, all of whom attended th-e funeral. The deceased had been married over 50 years and was a member at Pantydefaid (U.) Chapel.