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Modern Electric Lighting in…
Modern Electric Lighting in the Factory. It is hardly possible nowadays to take up a. newspaper^ to study a review, to listen to a speech at* a lecture without coming across some reference to the necessity for increased production. The question of output has even crept! into sermons, as a. matter of almost re- ligious urgency. Statesmen, journalists. lawyers, shopkeepers, bankers, manufacturers, merchants: everybody cads upon everybody else in ail parts of tho world to produce more; and the increase of production is hold out as the panacea. for profiteering, depre- ciation in the value of money, high flaxes, and every kind of economic trouble and social dis- content. So much indeed, is heard about production that the very sound of the word has become depressing. There is some risk of adding to after-war weariness by suggesting that electric light is an agent of increased production. The workers, moreover, regard all the arguments for ncreased production as insidious efforts to make them work harder; and from that stand- point they are not interested in the value of electric light as a means of increasing the output of a factory. They would, however, have no objection to some method of increas- ing production which did not involve any in- crease of effort on tlieir part. And they would surely we come, in a posiil ve fashion, anything which made their work easier. Electric light is able to do both these things at one and the same time. Properly applied to factory purposes, it lightens the tesk of the worker, helping him to set about it in greater comfort and greater safety; and, n so doing, it enables him to increase his output without a corresponding increase in muscular or ner- vous strain. Light is a tool," and the worker in a well-lit factory is, as compared with one in a badly-lit factory, Ike a car- penter who has a good hammer as compared with one who has a bad hammer. The good hammfr aids production, but it may well make work easier. GOOD LIGHTING PAYS. In iJhe previous artic e three methods of illumination by electric lamps—the indirect, the semi-direct, and the direct were described. Each of these methods is a guarantee against the unscientific lighting condemned by Mr. Ram, but before indicating how they may be applied to industrial purposes we will bring forward the evidence which proves that good lighting pays." In 1913, the Home Office formed a Depart- mental Committee on lighting in factories and workshops. This Comm.ttce went very thor- oughly into the whole problem and as a re- sult of its investigations, the illumination of factories is now being treated on the same level of importance as heating, ventilation, safety, í1nd tho other "terns with which factory inspectors are concerned. The first report of the Committee, issued in 1915, states that "the effect of improved lighting in increasing both the quantity and the quality of the work is generally admitted, and specific instances are quoted n the evidence. In one inst-ancc the output was diminished twelve to twenty per cent. during the hours of artificial lighting, and in another the earnings cf ttle workers increased 11.4 per cent, sifter the installation of a. better system of lighting, and confirma- tory ev dcnce to that effect has been published in the United States of America." It is only natural that statements of this kind should be received with a. certain amount cf scepticism, even when are endorsed by an official committee of expert. So many considerations enter 'nto the question of production that there may be an error in attributing all the increase to improved light- ing. Far example electric light is frequently introduced at the same time as electric driv- ing in other cases the installation of new machines, or a re-arrangement of the method of operation, or the provision of a canteen (giving the hands better food and thus making them more efficient) may disturb the calcula- tion. Recently, however, an American electric supply company—the Commonwealth Edison Company—undertook a. series of tests in which the degree of lighting was the on13 var.b16 factor. The results of these tests clearly con- firm the claim that good lighting pays, and pays handsomely. INCREASED PRODUCTION PROVED. The first test was made in a machine shop J where iron pudcys of all sizes were finished. Here the original lighting was inadequate and badly distributed, being supplied by bar* lamps hung on cords, antL it was replaced by a better system in which the lamps were fitted with efficient reflectors and arranged so as to give much more light, well distributed. Care- ful records were kept of the output, and it was found to increase thirty-five per cent on tho average. Taking into account the cost of the new Jistallation and the greater con- sumption of electricity > the cost of this in- crease in output was equivalent to ony five and a. half per cent. of tho wages bill. In a machine shop, where soft metal bear- ings were manufactured, tho intensity of the lighting was doubled and gave an average in- crease output of fifteen per cent. The en- gineer engaged on this test wanted to confirm the results by reverting to the former in- tensity (which, by the way, was up to the standard generally regarded as quite adequate) but the management refused to make the change, considering that the higher produc- tion was of more importance than iihe en- gineer's desire to make assurance doubly sure. If the original illumination had been of tho usual low s £ andard, we may be sure that the increase in production would have been even greater than tho substantial figure of fifteen per cent. Another test was made in a machine shop handling heavy steel parts, and here the de- gree of illumination was altered between two standard^ at shorb intervals, careful records being again kept. An average increase of ten per cent. was secured at a cost of 1.2 percent, of the wages. The fourth test was in a car- burettor-assembling* shop where the operators handle small parts which require rather deli- cate adjustments. As the shop was a new one and the management progressive, arrange- ments had been made to provide what was considered to be plenty of light, uniformly dis- tributed. By increasing the number of lamps the intensity of tho illumination was multi- plied by six, and the test records showed an increase of twelve per cent., although the earlier records were taken before the armis- tice, when the management had been doing everything to speed up pfroduntion. In this case the. total cost of tiie increase was only 0.9 per ceni. of the wages. ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND SAFETY. Elaborate regulations are laid down for the fencing of machinery and for the provision of other means for preventing accidents. It must be obvious, however, that the protective value of all these devices, so carefully designed and so conscientiously inspected, depends large'y on the manner in whiclj a. factory is lighted. If the illumination is poor, if there is intense glare ab one point and gloom at another, and if the lights are so placed that they throw heavy shadows from shafts, belts and the machinery generally, the only way for oper- atives to avoid the risk of serious accident is to move wit-h extreme caution—which, cf course, they never do. The general common sonse argument on thig subject is reinforced by statistical study. In the report of the Home Office Committee it is pointed out that the percentage to total acci- dents (duo to "persons falling"—a cause 6pecialiy dependent on lighting conditions) is higher during the period of the year when artificial lighting is used than in the summer months. Other results indicate that the probable accident rate per hour is much higher —in some case; about forty per cent.—for arti- ficial light than for natural light. As daylight is almost invariably better than the systems of artificial light installed in the majority of fac- tories, these records confirm the safety of good lighting. In shipyards the number of acci- dents occurring at night is quite out of pro- portion to the small number of men employed and witnesses before the Committee gave evidonce of accidents duo to bad lighting in cotton mills, lace factories, foundries, and iron and steel works. In answer to an inquiry on this subject, the Accident Offices Association, which includes most of the insurance companies interested in workmen's compensat on, states that the rates of premium charged by its members are based upon the assumption that the lighting is normal; that if the lighting were, upon sur- vey, found nott to be normal, the Insurance Compajiy would specify its requirements or deal with the case by rating; and that the effect of deficient or bad lighting upon a risk is distinctly prejudicial in varying degrees from fhe accident point of view." There are two ways of regarding industrial accidents. They may be treated as inevit- able events which are fully met by workmen's compensation; or they may be considered as costly incidents which may he prevented by taking thought. The investigations of the ''Safety First" movement show that a. very large percentage of accidents are clearly pre- vontable; and in the programme of that move- ment the use of ample, well-distributed illum- J ination as factor of safety is emphasised. When some care is taken to arrange the light- ing so that the operatives can work at llieir maohines and move up and down stairs with a minimum of danger, not oniy does the insur- ance premium remain normal but the chances of interruption to work are greatly reduced. ELECTRIC LIGHTING AND HEALTH. Most of the increase in production noted as a result of improved lighting is probably due to the simple fact that the op?ratives are able to see their work more easi.y and more clearly. But something should also be allowed for the fact that bad lighting causes eye strain, head- aches, and a tendency to irritability. Insuf- ficient light, also, has a depressing effect on the nervous system—as we learned, only too well during the air Taid peirod-and ample light, if it is not too harsh and glaring, is a cheerful stimulus. While, therefore, the evidence that bad sighting causes any specifio form of eye disease is rather conflicting, gen- eral experience shows that the tone of the worker is improved when the standard of illumination is raised. The human eye is a very accommodating organ, but it cannot adjust itself beyond certain limits without causing disturbance to the nervous system. On these and other grounds the Home Office Committee came to the conclusion that good lighting is "one of the most important factors contributing to induatrial efficiency." Good lighting is defined as lighting which is adequate, reasonably constant and uniform over tho area of work, with the- lamps placed and shaded so that the sources of light do not fall directly in the eyes of those engaged on work or supervising, and so that extraneous shadows are not cast on tho work. All these conditions can be met in the readiest possible manner by using eleotoic light. Lamps are available from ten candle power up to 3,000, so that any standard of adequacy can be easily fulfilled. They give an absolutely steady light and their illuminating power is maintained within a close margin of the original throughout a long life. They can be placed in any position, from tho roof of a workshop down to within an inch or two of a cutting tool; and they can be fitted with re- flectors which while shading the lamp itself from view, diffuse the light in ,a.ny manner from the concentrated beam of a cinematograph lantern to the soft flow of light which seems to pervade the surrounding space rather than come from any definite source. Electric lamp and fittings makers have, in fact, worked the whole scheme out with so much scientific skill that they can supply, from stock, lamps, and refleators to supply ideal illumination for every type of factory. They have also estab- lished illuminating engineering departments which supply free information on ttha beat manner of lighting particular buildings. FACTORY LIGHTING BY ELECTRICITY. One or two examples of the mode of lighting different parts of an engineering shop may be given to illustrate the flexibility of electric lighting. In the foundry half-watr. electric lamps hung high up and fitted with diffusing reflec- tors provide the general illumination which if necessary for the safety of the workers. With this type of illumination there is no glare—a very important point where the surroundings are very dark. Over benches and moulding ma.chines a higher degree of illumination is secured by additional half-watt or ordinary electric lamps with reflectors giving uniform light. over the working planes. For floor moulding, core making, etc., a similar increase of illumination Ls needed but of a less local- ised character. Portable lamps, well shaded with efficient metal reflectors, are very useful in these operations. For machine shops, where stamping, assem- bling, and similar processes are carried out, a high degree of general illumination is re- quired and can be secured by haif-watt units placed high up and spaced so that every por- tion of the machinery and the floor area is uniformly lighted and free from heavy shadows. Local' lighting from "direct" fittings is best over lathes, drills, and other machines, the lamps being shrouded in metal reflectors which shield the eyes of the workers and concen- trate the light where it is most wanted. Small lamps in metal reflectors can be placed close to scales cutting tools, and other parts where close observation is necessary. Portable hand lamps in shock-proof fittings can also be sup- plied for the inspection of the machinery. For drawing officeg general illumination on the indirect system gives excellent results for ordinary work, and it can be reinforced by local direct lighting for very fine work and tracing. As a final argument for making good lighting an integral part of factory equipment, it may be pointed out that, with the latest electric lamps, the cost of electric lighting on the most liberal scale is only a fraction of the total running costs- Even a small increase in t'he total output, or a small reduction in the number of accidents, will pay the price of tne installation and the current several times over.
BOW STREET. MATRIMONIAL. On Monday, November 10th, at Orane, Oregon, U.S.A., M^is Neil Ho Jones and Mr Thomas Hughes wore married in tho Probate Court, by Judge D. T. M-Har. Thoy intend making thoir home in Oregon. Tho bridegroom is a son of Mr and Mrs Hughes, Llawrcrwnmawr, near Bontgoch, Talybont, and has been in the States for per- oral years. The bride is a native of Bow Street, and belongs to a wall-known family in Un nei ghbourhood- She is a sister of Mrs. Jones, Doiau, and Mrs BarzTa-i Jones, Bro- ginin, and a cousin to the Rev..1. T. Rees, M.A., Tabernacle, Aberystwyth. Until re- cently she was a toacher at Periygam Coun- cil School, and occupied that position for 20 yoars, and on loav'ng for th 1 States she W<1 p,*eson*ed with a handsome go!d watch. i-
LLANftM. „ INTERMENT. — Tho funeral of Capt. W, S'nnt. Jon a?, Carlton Villa, took place, on Wednesday week, when interment; was made at the Parish Churchyard. Deceased had lxien in failing health for some months, and died Dr Brook's Private Hospital, Swansea, whi'-lier he was taken P'-ft'* weeks ago to undergo an cperaSt-'o; He wns 67 years of age and was until last, summer liald and siroftg. He was an active Churchman, (l z ousi Conservative, and a constant attendant of the Church Sunday School, v.her> he took a leading part. The Rev. W. liar Edwards, vioar tjhs Rev. D. W. Da.vies, riaar 6f Llnn- rhysityd (cousin); the Rev. D. R. Mwgan, vicar of BryAgwran. Anglesey (brothev-ir-liw), a.nd tho Rev. tJ. Sinncftt Richards (nephew), offioiated. The service was choral, Miss Rich- ards, Marion Villa, organist. The eliief mourners were Miss Sf nnet Jones (daughter); the Rev. J. L. R. Jonert, Talybont, and Capt. D. M. Jones (sons); Capt. and Mrs Richards, Pauf-teg (brother-in-law and lister); the Rev. D. Sinnoti Richards (nephew); Mrs and Miss Williams, Glynperis (slsfccir-:n-law and niece); Mrs James, Pencaareg Vicarage (niece); Miss Morgan, Tho Green (sister-in-law); Mr. Mor- gan, The Green (brother-in-law); Rev. D. R. Morgan, Bryngwran Vicarage (brother-in- law) Rev. and Mrs Manley, Llanbqdrog Vic- arage (brother and sister-in-law); Mifcs Nesta Howell, Aberayron, and a large number of near relatives. Llansantffraid Church Cho'r sent a beautiful wreath in addition to those of the family; Alderman E. Lima Jones (cousin); Mrs Howell, Aberayron, a.nd M'ss Jenkins, Panteg. The funeral sermon was de- livered on Sunday afternoon at the Church by the Rev. W. liar Edwards, vicar, to a very large congrfjg&tien.—The remains of Mrs. Ann Lewis London House, were buried at Lfan- santffraid Churchyard on Friday, when the Rev. W: liar Eijwards officiated. Deceased was 87 years of age. The cliiflf mourners were Mr and Mjrs Edwards, Cefngwyn Hall (son-in- Jaw amd daughter); Mrs Lewis, Chanoory School Houso; the Misses Edwards. Cefngwyn HaH (grand-daughters); Capt. John Lewis (son); Mr Edwards, Cefngwyn BalJ (grand- son), and many other near relatives. 1
Mad-Wales Munition Tribunal.
Mad-Wales Munition Tribunal. SITTING AT ABERYSTWYTH. On Friday morning, Mr. Joseph Davieg, registrar,, presided over an adjourned meeting of the Mid-Wales Munition Tribunal which was held at the Town Hall, Aberystwvth, for the purpose of hearing complaints iaid before the Tribunal in respect to certain wages claimed by & number of workmen. Mr. D. C. Roberts was present as employers' representative, and Mr Miller, Llanbadarn, as workmen's repreaentat ve. The complainant was Mr. Wm. H. Edwards, Workers' Union (Trades Union official), Shrews- bury, and the defendants wore Messrs. Beys and Boden, Saw Mills, Welshpool, and the Centaur Tools Works, Ltd., Grove-street, Srpethwick, Birmingham. In the case of first- named defendants, the complsant wa., they had not paid a substituted rate of wages to sawyers and labourers under Grade 2 (527) of the Saw Milling Award. In the case of the Centaur Company there was a total c aim of £20 6s. 6d. I and the complaint was they did not pay 3s. 6d. I per week (Engineering Trades war advance), according to award. Mr. Hugh Hughes is e'erk to the Tr bunal and the meetings are called in accordance with the Wages Temporary Regulations Act of 1918. Mr Edwards wag sworn and produced a printed copy of f he wages award of the in- terim Court of Arbitration which award catno into operation after first wages week in May, 1919. By that awaird the wages of sawyers em- ployed at the British Saw Mills, Welshpool, should be Is. 4d. per hour and that of tb. labourers at Is. 2d. per hour, and his applica- tion was that th's rate should app!y to the men of his Union employed by Messrs. Boys and Boden at Welshpool Failing to come to terms there was no other course open than to bring it Before the Tribunal. The Chairman—What is the rate paid to them ? Mr. Edwards—Labour is paid lOd. per hour and some of the sawyers Is. 1(1. per hour. If there is am increase it has only been made recently and I have not been informed of it. The Chairman—Do yon claim wages now? Mr EdwardsWe cLYm retrospectively. The ChajrnVain thought the amount of the claim should he set out. How could they award wages unless they knew the amount claimed. Mr. Edwards—The employers could best answer that question, as they have the names .11 the books. Mr. Frank Albert Boys said he did not think he had anything to answer. The Minis- try of Labour having declined to make the } award compulsorily it could not be enforced. That was his answer and in proof of it pro- duced reports of cases dismissed in other courts and also dismissals of appeals by Mr. Justice Roch in the Appeal Court. Mr. Edwards claimed that Mr. Boys be- longed to an organisation which had accepted the award. He did not think Mr. Boys would deny it either. The Chairman (to Mr Boys)—Are you a member? Mr. Boys—No. Mr. Edwards—Since how long Mr. Boys-I belong to the Midland Coun- ties Homegrown Timber Merchants Associa- tion. Mr. Edwards—They are represented on the Industrial Council and as the Trade Union* abido by the award the masters should do so. We are in touch with the Minister of Labour in order to make the award compulsory. The Chairman—Mr. Boys says the Association to which he belongs is not t partv to the award. Mr. Edwards—I can prove the;- are. The Chairman—We must have proof of thnt. I do not see how wo can reach a. decision with this conflicting evidence. Mr Boys -I can prove that T am pay np considerably more wages than is bein? paid in the district. I pay according to ability and I paid one man 2s. 3d. an hour. Most of mT men do not belong to this Union and refused to divulge the wages they were being paid. Mr. Erhnrds-This has nothing to do with the 'claim. The Chairman—The point is are the defend- ants bound by that award ? Mr. Edwaris—I say they are. The Chairman—You do not prove it. Accord- ing to some decisions they are not bound. Mr. Edwards—What is the u=e of au award if it is not binding? The Ghairman- You must ask Mr. Justice Roch that question. Mr. Edwards—My point that the Asso- ciation to which Mr. Boys belongs was repre- sented on the Industrial Council, and I claim iliw «van( Is tjinomgr nfJOh them The Chairman—I understand Mr. Boys denies that his Association was represented. Mr. Edwards—Were thrJ ever members of the Industrial Council Mr. Boys—The answer is *n the negative. Mr. Edwards-I have seen a letter stating they were. The Chairman—It seems to me that up to the present you have not proved your case, and Mr. Boys says he is not bound. Mr. Edwards—My word is as good as his. How am I to get that proof. The Chairman—It is not far me to instruct you. You must take your own course. Mr. Edwards—My contention is that he is not paying the wages he is bound to pay The Ch&irma<n—Your contention is not proof. The judges have decided a certain course and we must follow them. The Tribunal adjourned until 2-30, and the Chairman announced the decision which in the meantime had been reached. He said in view of the decisions recently given hy Mr. Justice Roch in the King's Bench Division they had decided to dismtes the complaint. Mr. Edwards gave notice of apreal. The Chairman—I hope Vou, will. We only want to get the law decided. Mr. Edwards—It is necessary to have an appeal upon a matter of this kind. The Chairman—Personally, t am always glad to have an appeal. In the second case a letter was rend from the Centaur Company asking tor an adjourn- ment, as they agreed to the claim subject to a few details. Two of the men in respect of which claims were made were not in their employ. Mr. Edwards agreed to an adjournment, and added it was only since the case had been re- ported to the Trbunal that a settlement was suggested. The ease was therefore adjourned.
PONTERWYD. DEATH AND FUNBRAL.The remans or Mrs Ell cat Howelb, 59, Pantyffynion, were brought up from South Wales, on Friday. Tho rervro a'1 tho house was ocwductod by the Rev John Edwards, LIangwyryfon, and at the chapel and gravcys'ldo by the Revs. John Edwaivb and Humphrey R. Owen, Ysturntuen. Th-1 chief mourners included Mr Richard Ho wells (husband), son and da,ughtcr-in-law Mr. and Mrs. Howells (juniors), Miss Sarah HOWQ.IS and her brother.
Mrs. A. Southward (29, Heys St Thornton Blackpool)- Kept Well Sixteen Years. On 15th April, 1919, Mrs. Southward wrote So completely did Doan's Pills rid me of sciatica and rheumatism, sixteen years ago, that I have kept well to tlfs day." Mi's. Southward, seen on 12th August. 1903, said:— Mine was an extreme case of six months standing. Sciatica and rheumatism wracked me withpains--I thought I might lose my senses—every joint and muscle ached. I got so weak that I could not walk. Both legs were affectcd -by sciatica, which seemed to sting as toiling water would. All that my attendants did, proved futile. "Then I fcied Doan's Backache K dney Pills. The first few doses gave me more re- lief than I had known for months. I made progress each day. One month after starting to use Doan's Pills I was walking about with- out a sign of any rheumatic trouble. And very soon after, I felt that I was well and cured every way. Doan's Backache Kidney Pill" restored me thoroughly, and I hea/rtily recommend this kidney medicine. (Signed) Ann Southward." Don't ask for kidney piils or backache pilis. In?st upon DOAN'S Backache Kidney Pills— the kidney medicine Mrs. Southward recom- mends. All dealers, or 2s. 9d. a box from Foster-McClellan. Co.. 8, Weils-street, Oxford- street, London, W.I. Recommended by the People for (fie People
Public Meeting at í Aberystwyth.I
Public Meeting at í Aberystwyth. I CARDIGANSHIRE UNIONISTS. j A well-attended pub ic meeting, under the auspices of the Cardiganshire Unionist Asso- 0-»tion was held at the Parish Hall on Thurs- day evening, when Major Fossett Roberta, O.B.E., presided. The Chairman, in opening, said it was some time since be attended a pol tical meeting, therefore he was a bit out of touch with poli- tics. Six years ago political parties were fighting each other for all they were worth. Since then a great change had come over the country. When it became involved im the war all political str fe waa set aside. It be- came one united forca-nation and empire fighting for its very existence. The question of whether they as Unionists should still support the Coalition had now arrived after the conclusion of hostil ties. Personally, he thought they shou d and hoped his audience j were of the same opinion In support of this they had only to look at the state of Europe and Asia at the present moment—or to look across the Rhine. He was *of opinion that the time had not come to return to party politics. It was a question which allowed of no delay. It was necessary, ho thought, that the best men n all paHies should unite to legislate effectively. When the war broke out, Hr. Bonar Law placed himself and hit party at the disposal of Mr. Asquith. He did right in doing so, and this would be to his everlasting credit. If it were right then it was right to- day. Mrs. Usch, who appeared in her Russian peasamt dress, gave her experiences in Russia under the Czardom and Bol- shevio system. When she came away from Russia (she said) and arrived in this country in April she read conflicting state- ments in the press regarding Soviet Russia. She found that the British public were in a fo, as to the true state of the country. Press representatives from England had visited the, eountry and written about its people, and its Government. A good many gave roey accounts of Russia under Soviet rule; but what did they know about it? They were treated as guests and not as slaves, therefore they knew nothing of the suffer ng of the people. Both her husband and herself were British subjects; but had been in Russia for ten years M teachers of English, her husband being an English lecturer aft Moscow. Had life in Soviet Russia been at all endurable she would not have left Russia and her dear ones there to return to England, broken in health, ragged and homeless. She came away because of the suffering which she with her husband and children undeilwent. Hefr husband suffered compulsory labour and imprisonment for two months. She was now cut away from the people with whom she lived and worked for ten years and whan she came away she was determined, as far as possible, to tell the people ef her own country how unhappy Russian people suffered, so that if possible they may be delivered out of the horrors. When the word Bolshevic was born fifteen years ago it simply meant major ty. Since then it had been taken to mean a man who wanted the most changes at once—a revolu- tionary. The Bolshevic Party in Russia. was chiefly composed of political exiles, of Jewish and German origin, and fanatics of the worse type. The creed of the party ordained that all who were not with them should be swept 1 aside by annhilation. It was said that the of the Bolshevic was the rule of tho working classes, but this wa untrue, although some of the working classes were numbered amongst them. When they came into power, they set about destroying the old law and order; might became right and everything which limited the freedom of the proletariat waa abolished. The result was that every- thing became chaos and the poor unfortunate people of the country became subject to the hard rule of the Bolshevic which had lim ta- tions much worse than before. They said it waa liberty, equaJitv, fund fraternity; but there was so much liberty that the ordinary person was aTraid to venture into the street; so much equality that the Bolshevics got all and left the others to starve. Everything was nationalised, and this brought confusion and destruction in its train. Men' no longer took any notice of those in authority in the fac- tories and workshops. They simply took con- trol themselves and gave no thought to the men who owned the factory. Those were dis- possessed and they were either killed or man- aged to flee out of the country. In all indus- tries committees were set up to appoint, managers. The Bolshevics saw that the ex- tremists got the jobs, and owing to the in- competence of the men selected the produc- tion in the factories slackened. It was against Bolshevic policy to havo a large dnction, so the brakes were put en until it decreased to five per cent. of "1hat it form- erly was. With all industries almost at a standstill, unemployment became rife, food became scarce, and what could be bought could only be had at fabulous prices. She bad to pay M much as E20 for a pair of boots for her child, whilst it was impossible to buy any material for clothing. None except those who had actually suffered coul realise tine pjght of where panic, starvation, and death held its sway. After those times under the Bolshevics the Russian peasant was mak- ing an appeal for help to start life anew, but in this country there was a section of the public who took no heed of their appeal. The "Daily Herald" was bolstering up the Bol- shevics because, as they said. they were sup- ported by all tho unions. truth was that no trade union in Russia was allowed to unless it acknowledged the rule of the BØshevics, which had brought financial bankruptcy and industrial ruin. This policy, which Lenin amd his supporters spread in the nationalisation of industries, far from enrich- ing the working classes made only the Bol. shevics rieh and impoverished the poor. Mr. Fred Howard gave an address on What the Coalition has Done for the Nation."
LLANCYNFELYN. OBITUARY.—Interment of the Rev. David Thomas, retired Wesleyan minister. Dolgeiley, and a native of Tre'rddol, took place at IJsn- cynfelin Cemetery, on Friday, tho Rev. E. J. Davius offioiatitng. Others present were 'the Revs. J. Jones, Tro'rddoT; Dafvid Morgan, Llannerch; J. Rowlands, Eglwysfach; and R. Jones, Talieein. Deoeased had been ailing for somi* time during which ho lost his only son, a lieutenant in the army, who was killed in Franco. The rev. gentleman was often in de- mand as a special preacher at preaching mestingr, with the Wcsle.yans. Amongst many plaveos he had ministered Abergele, PlI- Ruthin, Denbigh and Dolgeiley. The chief mourners wore. Mrs Thomas and daugh- ter; Mr and Mrs J. Thomas, London House, Tr .'rdciol; Mr Thomas Thomaf, J.P., Leeds; Mr J. Clayton, Leeds; the liev. Lewis Thomas, W¡berrF<a, Yorkshire; Mr E. Thomas, Blackpool; Mr and Mrs L. Hughas, Abery."twytili; Dr. Williams; Mr and Mrs L. O. Wttams, FroEjgocli; Mr and Mrs J. T. Pritchard, Glanmorfa; Mr J. Thomas and Mrs Jones, Tre'rddol; Mr Edwards, Tynrae: and Mr. Thomas, Neuadd. I
COCINAN. I CONCERT.—A concert was given on Wci- r.e;iday week, tn welcome a olrlr who liad 00m0 homo, with a view or demobilisation. Tho programme, was compiled by Messrs. H. M. Evans and D. Herbert. The Rev. Mr. Morgnu presided. Solos were sung by Mr H. M. Evans. Post Officc; Mr R. L. Davies, bari- tones; Miss E. O. Lewis and Miss Morgan; du fs were given by Messrs H. t. Evans and I R. L. Davie- a.nd Mrs S. Davies and Mies Dfra Evans; and roct-at»'cns by M;- K. 1), J'Viies, T" Davie?, Mr D. iSjgh, and Miss K. addresses made by tho Chairman, Mepsrs W. Griffith^ nq W, U" Bebh.
LLAN-lHYSrYD. APPOINTMENT.—Mrs. Batters (former: j Mis? Kais Lew-•?,, Lois House) has been 3.p" pointed on tiie Executive Council of the A-so- ciation of Poor Lavr pnlous, lùt. a conference in London last monllh. Mrs Eall.cis is tl:3 only lady appoint d. Mrs. Batt'C'i is the of Mr Charles Batter?, J.P., tor Tany- Ian, Holywell, and has rendMet valuable ser- vices as a member for many years of Holy- well Board of Guardians, She has taken part as a. delegate at various important conferences In London and elsewhere aild is held in high esteem throughout North Wales', wb <rp fjie is very well known ;n conn ction wilh pODr Jaw administration
BERTH. nEATH AND FUNERAL.—'Tho death h;w occurred off Mrs Ellen Evans, daughter of Mr Thomas Lewis, Penrheo] Cottage, arid wife of Mr Evan Evans, of Ynysbwl, and lite of Blaenpcaii.)" Swyddffynon, Mrs Evans married less than a year ago. She was pre-1 vousiy service as a housekeeper at Pen- sarn, Swyddffynon, and was held in high esteem by a large number of fric-nds. Much sympathy is felt; with the husband and father and aJI relativefe. Tho funeral, wliicjj was largely attended, took place on Wednesday week at La-nbadam-Odwyn Gravryard, the Rev. 1. A. Davies, vics'r. officiating.
Wo have no (need to elaborately advertise our Goods. Quality Sipeaks o Itself. Give up a try at GEORGE FELLOWES, CENTRAL CAFE, NORTH PARADE, and 19, TERRACE ROAD. Whist Drives, Wedding Parties, etc., Catered for. Seating accommodation for over 150. Open on any but Wednesday evenings through- out the winter. Try our Famous Home-mado Bread, Cakes, and Confectionery. Made under Modern Hygienic Conditions by Ex- perienced Inkers. ( CJhfrcc&oXio Ir S-ec t/U name Gxd&tLfur cm wvtu MADE AT BOURNVILLE C35) R. ROBERTS & SONS, »K!n TREFECHAN, ABEKySTWYTH. GOOD STOCK OF TIMBER ■ • a571 MEITHRINFA PREPARATORY and SECONDARY SCHOOL j FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, j NORTH ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. Principals Miss Trotter and Miss Ballard Wi'liams, M.A., Boarders received. Prospectus on application. PEN ROCK DAY AND BOARDING SCHOOL. For Girls and Litt e Boys. TO BE OPENED SEPTEMBER 24th. For Particulars and Prospectus, apply MISS MURLESS, a78. 3, Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth. THE COUNTY SCHOOL DOLCELLEY- (THE DOLGELLEY GRAMMAR SCHOOL.) Dr. Ellis' Endowment, A.D. 1665. BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR BOYS. Excellent General Education and Training provided, with special preparation for the Universities, the Civil Service, and Commerce. Boarders received at the Headmaster a House For Prospectus, Fees, etc., apply to the Headmaster. Towyn County School. fTlHE SCHOOL BUILDINGS are large and commodious, and include the ordinary Class Rooms, Music Rooms, excellently-equipped Chemical and Physical Laboratories, Science Lecture Room, Workshop, K tchen, and Laun- dr*- The Headmaster's House is specially arranged for the accommodation of Boarders, also arrangements are made with one of the Masters for the accommodation of Girl Boarders. Pupils are prepared for the Universities, Profession, and Commercial Life. I SUCCESSES. London Inter B.Se. London Matriculation Wales Matriculation & College of Preceptors, Medical PreL 2 Central Welsh Board. Honours Certificate Higher Certificate Senior Certificate Junior Certificate Pitman's Shorthand, Advanced Grade 1 Pitman's Elementary H' *■ Associated Board of R.A.M. s>nd R.C.M Hifihur i>tv iuiva — ■—" ■»-»■ — Lower Division Trinity College of London. Junior Division H' Preparatory 9 Rondel Exh'bition, £ 10. County Exhibition, E10. Entrance Scholarship into Cardiff Univer- sity. £15. During the last thirteen years scholarships to the value of £3,645 have been gained by pupils direct from the School. For Prospectus, Boarding Fees, etc., apply to the Headmaster, or to E. J. EVANS, Clerk to the Governors. Barmouth Intermediate School. Headmaster: EDMUND D. JONES, M.A. Staff: Miss MARY DAVIES, B.A. Miss C. AUSTIN, B.A. Miss M. A. JONES. Miss E. C. OWEN. HAROLD SPEIGHT. B.Sc. ANEURIN OWEN, B.A Visiting Teachers: A. J. Hewins, R. Ll. Owen. Prospectus, etc., on application to R. LLEWELYN OWEN, Clerk. Dr. WILLIAMS' SCHOOL, DOLGELLE < ENDOWED HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (Boarders and Day Pupils). Preparation for the Centrl Welsll Board, Oxford Local Examinations, London and Welsh I Matriculation and University Scholarships. There arc three Leaving Exfabitions tenable at places of Higher Education, which are awarded annually upon the result of the year's work. The Buildings and Ground, are excellently adapted to secure the health and comfort of the girls. A larg-e wing wan erected in 1910 to meet the demand for increased accommodation. A Special House for Domestic Training will be opened in September. Fees: Boar dug, £35 per annum; Tuition, £5 5s. Tennis, Hockey. Nebbail, Badminton. For Prospectus apply to the Headmistress, or to Mr. R Barnett, Dolgeiley, Clerk to the Gevernors. Glenvyl House School, Pwllheli. BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR GllUA. Principal Miss PRENTICE. Prospectus on application. Da88 Oil Engines FOR AGRICULTURAL WORK. We are Agents for all Leading Makes.. Sole Agents in this district, for the HAM WORTHY PATENT OIL ENGINES. TYPBS-STATTONARY. SEMI-PORTABL SPEFIf.L FEATURES-Works on Paraffin* n SimP,e and Econom cal V, e' «T*leuteci Air-tight Bearings; Running Governor; Regular » Impulse every Revolution Carbufcters and Blowlamps eliminated. WOODWARD & SON, GENERAL MERCHANTS, New Bridge Stores, Llangwyryfon Near ABERYSTWYTH. The Ideal County Stores. James Morgan FRUITERER AND FLORIST FISH-MONGER AND POULTERER. 1 t Pier Street, Aberystwyth EGns. EGGS. EGGS. Bought in any quantity for cash FOR THE BEST PIANOS, PLAYER-PIANOS, ORGANS, &c. HIGH STREET, CARDIFF. Send for Catalogues. Tel.. i 103 I-Hi- CREAI WELSH RtMtOV RELIEF FROM COUGH IN 6 MINUTES HAITI AQ'Q for Coughs, for Colds, for Asthma. L/C* V iOO D for Bronchitis, for Hoarseness, for nnn«U Influenza, for Sore Throat. Most UOUgll Soothing, Warms the Chest, Di*- jr ?? ??? Phlegm. For Singers, fo mlYtllffi c. Speakers* Chemis IU1AIUIC everywhere,3d and3s. Postage. Proprietor: HUGH DAVIES Chemist, MACHYNLLETH M(JLRAT the Poison fQr Moles MOLRAT le Poison for floles I Put Earthworms in a pot and sprinkle PowHer over them, then place in the path of the Moles, In Packets, Is. 6d. each Proprietor- I I ugh Davies. Chemist. Macbynlleth. Aberystwyth Aflents- Wynne & Son. Chemist*. II J, (Scientific Sight-Testing and Frame Fitting I Qualified Sight-Testing Optician. I I I I I W. Miall Jones M.P.S., Pharmaceutical Chemist Fellow of the Worshipful Company of Spectacle Makers and of the Institute of Ophthalmic Opticians. ——— 33, Terrace Road, Aberystwyth. II. i|, porti-ait is of Mrs Trevisol 11, Liverpool Road Fratton, Portsmouth, who writes:- I feel I would like yOuttf know the good your Clarke's Blood Mixture has done me. I suffered with a Diseased Bone in the Cheek for neArly a year, and for which I had three operations in hospital all of which were absolutely useless. One day quite by accident I read in a newspaper of the wonderful cures 'Clarke's Blood Mix- ture* had done for others, so I at once decided to try it for my ca&e. I had been troubled a great deal with discharge from the bone. and all pre- vious remedies that I had tried failed to stop it. I am thankful to tell after taking 10 bottles I am completely cured, and Am now in the Best of Health. My one rsgret is that I did not hear of Clarke, a Bloed Mixture' before, for I f*el confident I should have been spared much suffering through operations." Mrs. Tr^Vis.. T Sure Signs of ibiotid Impurity Bad Legs, Abscesses, Ulcers, Glandular Swellings, Eczema, Boils Pimples; Sores and Eruptions. Piles, RheumSciatica, Gout. all these arje sure signs of Blood Impurity. calling i,)r ilnmediate treatment through ihte BIood. 11 .A- It ,I. t ._f-r. So <Ion t waste ypuf time and money Oil useless lotions and messy ointmenlv which cannot get below the sur- face of the skin. What you want and what "ou must have is a medicinc ftiat will thoroughly free the bleod of the prisonous matter which alone is the true cause of an your suffering. Clarke's Blood Mixture is just such a > to ftl'ingretuen's wiucn quicnj medicine. It is compos. impurities, and by ren attack overcome and exi p&r*' can be relied upon to deriog the blood clean am* b?*efit\ Pleasant to take give speedy renef and laatm. tol and sec that and free from a yanng n*iMru- you get Clarice's Blood Mixrture, Everybody's Blood Purifier/' u Of «11 'Chemifita and*Scores, 2/9 per bottle. 'Six tiros W)