BREECHES, SPORTS COATS AND SUITS. Ready to Wear & Bespoke LATEST STYLE. BEST FINISH, AT DANIEL THOMAS, I ABERYSTWYTH. QUALITY GOODS, QUALITY HOUSE. CRITERION BAKERY. DOLGELLEY. "Health Profit Here." DA VIES' BREAD (UNEQUALLED). RESULT OF A NEW PROCESS OF BREAD-MAKING. NON E SO PUKB. PLEASE TRY A LOAF AND CONVINCE YOURSELF. .warded Medal and Diploma at London and Birmingham Exhibitions. Special Lines for Xmas. MINCE MEAT and XMAS CAKES WELSH SHORTBREAD, MINCE PIES, ICED, SULTANAS, Now Ready. Own Make. CUT-PEEL. Currants, lid. per lb. (Cleaned). Wedding Cakes Made to Order in our Own Bakery at Short Notice. four kind orders will be appreciated by ERNEST DAVIES. n844 CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. "RAINS ON CHRISTMAS DAY WILL RUN AS ON SUNDAYS. ITH THE FOLLOWING EXCEPTIONS:— .0 a.m Mail Train from Whitchurch to Aberystwyth (with nnections from Moat Lane to Brecon and Machynlleth to armouth) will run AS ON WEEK DAYS. ther Trains will run as under:— Leave Pwllheli at 9 a.m. for Barmouth and Intermediate Stations. Leave Pwllheli at 6-40 p.m. for Afon Wen f, Afon Wen 8-40 a.m. Afon Wen „ Barmouth 5-10 p.m. „ Pwllheli and Intermediate Stations. 'or further particulars, also Train Service on 26th & 27th December, see small bills at Stations. swestry, Dec., 1919 S. WILLIAMSON. General Manage — Sorct III THE Ford One Ton Truck I is a profitable" beast of burden" and has the right of way" in every line of business activity. For all trucking pur- poses in the city and for all heavy work on the farm, the the Ford One Ton Truck r with its manganese bronze I worm-drive and every other Ford merit of simplicity in design, strength in construc- tion, economy in operation, low purchase price, stands head and shoulders above any other truck on the market. II I I Authorised Dealers for those portions of the Carnarvon district of Boroughs and that I I portion of the Carnarvon Parliamentary division beyond a radius of eleven miles from Llandudno Railway Station. but excepting any portion thereof lying east of a straight line diawn due north aø4 seud. through Dolwyddelen. Charles Hughes 61 Soms, I Portmadoc. This U the Model*TTOne Ton 'Truck Chassis just a» we deliver to the purchaser. t The cquip ,ji meat includes front fenilers, stepping boards- two side lights. two head lights, one tail Ufibt. horn and set of tools. Price £ 200—at ^forks, Manchester—Subject to refund of isiport duty. r'O i They will go to bed happy —if you send Santa Claus to them on Christmas morning. Save yourself all the difficulty of choosing their presents by a visit to the toy saloon of the Cambrian News Stores. Tiny Tots' Tastes are our speciality- but we do not fail to suit the desires of those who have left their childhood behind. Cambrian News Stores, ABERYSTWYTH.
BRONCHIAL TROUBLE IN CHILDREN Veno's Lightning Cough Cure Suit's Children because thero Is no Opium in it. Nothing Harmful. Ev^ry mother should know how good Vem.o's Lightning Cough Cure is for children. Venoms cures every kind of cough or cold tq which children are subject and cures so quickly and so thoroughly that the trouble is soon over. Even whooping cough yields to Veno's It -suits children because there are no narcot cs in it, and being pleasant they like it and take it quite willingly. VENO'S LIGHNING COUGH CURE. is tbtt world's supreme remedy for Coughs and Colds, Lung Troubles, Asthma, Bronchitis, Na8&l Catarrh, Hoarseness, Difficult Breathing, Influenza, and for Whooping Cough and other Bronchial Troubles in Chldren. Prices: Is. 3d. and 31., the 3s. size being the more econ- omical. Of Cbtmists and MedioiQe Vendors everywhere. Insist on having Veno's, and re- fuse all substitutes,
Comrades- Column. (By F. S. Tmf&nt, Hon. Secretary, Abersrth Branch). Gio :t tr dee u.ie bUng ma e tc-war..s t..e anul gamation of the Welsh National Federation of ex-Service Men and the. Comrades of the Great War, and no doubt it will come about final y at the beginning of the new year. As I have pointed out before, it is the only wa,, we can get unity—and what good can be done with two separate associations working for the same objects. Sir L. Worth.ngton Evans stated in Par- liament that the total number of pension bene- ficiaries of one kind or another was now 2,621,313 officers, and nurses numbered 33,376, men of other ranks 1,023,460, widows of officers, 9,775, widows of oiher ranks 179;712, parents and other dependents of officers 5,680, and other ranks 327,820, children of officers and officers' widows, 9,112, and other ranks 1,029,878. The number of bencficiari had very la, gelv increas i in t e last few months owing to the rapid demobdization. The total staff, both at headquarters and regional head- quarters was 19,759. Of these 6,121 were men, eighty-six per cent of them being ex-service men and 10,024 were women. Mr. T. M. Hogge pointed out that the tota. cost of the department was £104, 899,000, or a little more than half what the nation required to raise in April, 1914. Mr. Churchn stated in the Commons that 445 soldiers had been sentenced to penal servi- tude during the war for inil tary offences. Since the armistice all these cases had been re- viewed and a second inquiry was now being he'd. There had been forty complete remis- sions and ninety-six mitigations to lesser pun- ishments. Cases of imprisonment numbering 918 had been reviewed, of wh'ch 521 had been totally remitted and 330 committed to the lesser punishment of detention. Further, about 950 soldiers had been tI (ascd from detention, and the weekly releases from deten- tion averaged about forty. The Ministry of Pension circular numbe- 195, detailing the arrangements which have now been completed for the estab ishment of medical appeal beard at each regional office of the Ministry of Pen- sions. Each board consists of a deputy com- missioner of mpdical service as chairman, onE: appropriate medical specialist, and one medical assessor. The chairman is fully acquainted with administrative requirements, whilst the medical assessor s experienced in the assess- ment of degrees of disab ement, and the medical specialist will be an approved snecial- ist in the class ol disability, from whieh the appellant is suffering. The Board will deal with applications which are based on d'ssatis- faction with the assessment of disablement by a previous medical boa-d. The7 will examine the appel ant and will have before them all the relevant documents, including those i-elat;n>r to tho proceedings of the previous meclicnl board, along with medical 'taformntton which the appelant himself mny furnish. They will ba in a nition tl) give nn '11!1t,11o":ht.ive opinion. Ther decision will be hinninry the cur'-eney of tho previous awa d1, though the assessment may be reviewed during that period if the matn chims that hi<; condition has become substantially worse t1,t Board's i!pni.in.n. Tt w'11 11(' o^°n H th!" Medical Appeal Board to raise or lower an assessment, and in every case the appellant will be nformcd of the decision at the t-rne of hearing. Notijce of intention CJ appeal must be given in the first instance to the local war pensions committee. It should be under- stood that this procedure docs not in any way interfere with the specly dca ing a man's case by the medical referee and the local war pensions committee, when it can hn ,,1-1 Q':1t the man's health has become defin tely worse so- e 1i 'a.st B' d. The United Stntes Federal Boa d for tional training has received up to 26th April, 1919, 81.741 applications; had pllt into train- ing 2,079; 5,439 had been placed in o- obtained emri oyment. The fi"»res u" to A^nr-yst were respectively 170.405; 7,812: and 16,443. A new decree has been issued in Franc. providing that confirmed pulmonarv tuberculous is to be reckoned at 100 per cent, d^abilj+y. t P:l' has been introduced in the French Chamber proposing that, whe-e a disabled man cannot get thp necessa*v insurance on c"- lir" fo- security against a; loan on an agricultural holding, it may be effected in th "Ke of his wife or a th rd party. Among the many forms of assistance, financial and ot.h«»rwi«<e. o- vV-i for by the new Soldier Settlement Act, 1919, the Canadian Government will givo t-aining in home economics to the wives and other female dependents of settlers. The King's fund had given the following grants up to 50th June. 1919:—Tn En-'and, lq(1? land, 2,600; 1r Wales, 1,088; in Ire and, 1,192— we do not appear to ha-ve done ..el y weii in Wales; with the nvimbor of grants a. lowed. The Pensions Minister deserves con^vat-Ja- tion for many little concessions recently con- ceded with a willing and sympathetic spirit. For once we have a Government department in which the head is greater than the system, a.nd administration far bob nd intention. For instance, it would hardly be possible to exag- gerate the real decision and sympathy with which he has met Colone Ashley (of the Com- rades) in the subiect of forfeiture of disability rensvMis. The. latter havi" begun by \askin? whether seeing that disability pensions are similar in nature to payments made under the Workmen's Compensation Act, the Government wïl free such pensions from liability to for- feiture On the recipient being convicted of a serious offence. The reply to this was that pensioners were liable to such forfeiture under an Act passed in 1870, but by a later Act Lhey might 00 restored as a reward for good conduct. That not being quite satisfactory, Colonel Ashley pursued the question, and has now had the satisfaction of being informed by the Pensions Minister that directions have been given which will ensure that, the pen- sion of a man will be suspended during im- prisonment the wifo and children shall con- tinue to draw their allowances. In addition, except in the extreme case of conviction for treason, the pension w I' in future be restored immediately the man is released from prison. Such wise and humane decision is a matter for congratulation and reflects credit on all con- cerned in the framing and answering of it. May I wish all Comrades a. happy Chrstmaa, and may tho new year bring unity to our forces, and may it tru'y be a year of lecon- struction.
LLANON OBITUARY.—On December 6th the death occurred of Mr. John R. Rees-Jones, in his seventy-fifth year. Ho was brother of Messrs David Jones, Carpentaria, and of William Jones, Birmingham House, Llanon. His sur- viving widow is sister of the lato Rector of New Quay a.nd Llanerchayron. It was the in- tention of the family to have the body taken to Aberystwyth for interment at Llansant- ffraid, but the deceased, who resided at Vicar- age, Yardley Wood. des;red to be laid at rest in the quiet Churchyard adjoining the Vicar- age. Canon Tredennck of Sparkbrook, Bir- mingham, an old friend of many years stand- ing, conducted the service. The chief mourners were Mrs. Rees-Jones and her three sons, the Rev. Stephen C. Rees-Jones, vicar of Barns- bury, London; Isa Rees-Jones, vicar of Yard- ley Wood; and J. P. Rees-Jones, vicar of St. Jameg the Less,. Bethnal Green. The cortege was led by the Verger with his historic verge choir in cassocks and cottas, cruci- far with processional cross, servers, oi erp. bearers, mourners, and friends. Whilst pass- ing through the grounds of the Vicarage, along the road and through the lych gate, the hymn "Throughout the night of doubt and sorrow" was sung. The prefaces were recited by the Canon on entering the Church, and the coffin was borne to the foot of chancel and laid be- tween four great candlestiscks with their lights burning. Mozart's "Gloria" was played as an opening voluntary to signify the joy of the communion of saints, and its triumphant stra;n> WH(4 certainly s gnificant.. Then fol- lowed Psalms 91 and 23, specially chosen as an expression of faith. Before the lesson, a Welsh hymn was sung in Welsh, "0 Fryniau Caersalem Ceir Gweled," to the tune "Crugy- bar," followed by the English hymn "Give Us the Wings of Faith to Rise Within the VEil and See." Chopin's Funeral March was played at the conclusion. The march to tha grave was relieved with the singing, in pro- cession, of "How Bright these Glorious Spirits Shine." The coffin, which was panelled with a full-size Cross bearing the "nscription on a brass inlaid with Requiescat in Pace at the foot. The grave was lined with evergreens and flowers. After the committal, "Bydd Myrdd o Ityfeddodau" was sung, aa well as the English hymn, "Nearer My God to Thee." A brief address was given at the graveside by the Canon who spoke of the retiring disposi- tion of the deceased, whose silent, consistent ways and patient faith had won the hearts of those with whom he had come into contact and of how he had influenced the members of his own household to become servants of the Church. He also laid stress on the key- noto of the burial service, a note of confident victory over death and of assured hope in the communion of saints. Floral tributes were ra- eeived from Sunday rSchools, G.F.S., etc., Yardley Wood, Barnsbtfry and staff, choir, Men's Service, Women's Service, etc., Bethnal Green, addition to many individual wreethg A memorial service was held at the same time at S. James the Less, Bethnal Green. j
_T I R. ROBERTS & SONS, METR'S!!AESTS t IltEFECHAN, ABERYSTWYTH. —- GaUl) STOCK OF TIMBER. —— 5. j MEITHRINFA PREPARATORY and SECONDARY SCHOOL FOR BOYS AND GIRLS, NORTH ROAD, ABERYSTWYTH. Principals: Miss Trotter and Miss Ballard Wi.liams, M.A., Boarders received. Prospectus on application. PEN ROCK DAY AND BOARDING SCHOOL. For Girls aad Liti; a Boys. TO BE OPENED SEPTEMBER 24th. For Particulars and Prospectus, apply MISS MURLESS, a78. 3, Marine Terrace, Aberystwyth. THE COUNTY SCHOOL DOLGELLEY. (THE DOLGELLEY GRAMMAR SCHOOL.) Dr. Ellis' Endowment, A.D. 1665. BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR BOYS. Excellent General Education and Training provided, with special preparation for the Universities, the Civil Service, and Commerce. Boarders received at the Headmaster's House For Prospectus, Fees, etc., apply to the ¡ Headmaster. I Towyn County School. THE SCHOOL BUILDINGS are large and commodious, and include the ordinary Class Rooms, Music Rooms, excel ently-equipped Chemical and Physical Laboratories, Science Lecture Room, Workshop, K tchen, and Laun- dry. The Headmaster's House is specia ly arranged for the accommodation of Boarders, also arrangements are made with one of the Masters for the accommodation of Girl Boarders. Pupils are prepared for the Universities, Profession, and Commercial Life. SUCCESSES. London Inter B.Sc. London Matriculation 4 Wales Matrieu ation 5 College of Precepto s, Medical Prel 2 Central We sh Board. Honours Certificate 1 H gher Certificate S»»tor Certificate 11 Junior Certificate 19 Pitman's Shorthand, Advanced Grade 1 Pitman's Elementary 1 Associated Board of R.A.M. and R.C.M Higher Division 1 Lower Division 3 Trinity College of London. Junior Division 8 Preparatory 9 Remdel Exhibition. £10. County Exhibition, £10. Entrance Scholarship into Cardiff Univer- sity, £ 15. During the last thirteen years scholarships to the value of 23.645 have been gained by pupils direct from the School. For Prospectus, Boarding Fees, etc., apply to the Headmaster, or to E. J. EVANS, Clerk to the Governors. Barmouth Intermediate School. Headmaster: EDMUND D. JONES, M.A. Staff: Miss MARY DAVIES, B.A. Miss C. AUSTIN, B.A. Miss M. A. JONES. Miss E. C. OWEN. HAROLD SPEIGHT, B.Sc. ANEURIN OWEN, B.A Visiting Teachers: A. J. Hewins, R. LJ. Owea. Prospectus, etc., on application to R. LLEWELYN OWEN, Clerk. Dr. WILLIAMS' SCHOOL, DOLGELLEY, ENDOWED HIGH SCHOOL FOR GIRLS (Boarders and Day Pupils). Preparation foj- the n ¡ r1 Welsh Board, Oxford Local Examinations, London ?.nri Welsh Matriculation and University Scholarships. There are three Leaving Exhibitions tenable at places of Higher Education, which are awarded annual!y upon the result of the year's work. The Buildings and Grounds are excellently adapted to secure the health and comfort of I tho girls. A large wing was erected in 1910 to meet the demand for increased accommodation. A Special House for Domestic Training will be opened in September. Fees: Board-ng, E35 per annum; Tuition, E5 Ss. Tennis, Hockey, Net/ball, Badminton. For Prospectus apply to the Headmistress, or t. Mr. R Bamett, Dolgelley, Clerk to the ••vermors. -d_- _0 Glenvyl House School I Pwllheli. BOARDING and DAY SCHOOL FOR GlRIa Principal. Miss PRENTICE. Prospectus on application. nas- Oil Engines qmmov FOR AGRICULTURAL WORK. We are Agents for all Leading Makes. Sole Agents in this district for the HAM WORTHY PATKNT OIL ENGINES. TYpES-STATIONARY. SEMI-PORTABI, PORTABLE, ELECTRIC LIGHTING. SPECIAL FEATURES-Works on Paraffin iVvsily Started; Simple and Economcal Long Life; Patented Air-tight Bearings; Powerful Patent Governor; Regular Running; Impulse every Revolution Oarbutters and Blowlamps eliminated. WOODWARD & SON, GENERAL MERCHANTS, New Bridge Stores, Llangwyryfon Near ABERYSTWYTH. The Ideil County Stores. LitJ James Morgan FRUITERKR AND FLORIST FISHMONGER AND POULTERER, 11, Pier Street, Aberystwyth I' EG' s. EGGS. EGGS. I Bought in any quantity for cash FOR THE BEST PIANOS, PLAYER-PIANOS, ORGANS, &c. Dale, Forty Co., Ltd. HIGH STREET, CARDIFF. Send for Catalogues. Tel. HO3 l'ilt CKM* &rt§HKL*UDV RELIEF FITOM COUGH TN 5 tUNUTES nOTTIqq'c For Couffhs. for C»Ms, for Asthma, L»i*VlDO b for Bronchitis, for Hoarseness, for ~l. Influenza, for Sob Throat. Most OOUsO Soothins, Warms the Chest. DU- solves the Phlegm. -or Singers. fo tVMYtll 1'A Public Speakers. By Chemis LSfllAwllI U every where. i»3d an|Js. Postage. 1.. Proprietor HUGH DftVIES I Chemist, MACHYNLLETH M' >LR AT the Poison B Put Earthworms in a pot and sprinkle I Powder ovi rthem. rben place ir^he pa«,b I of the Moles, In Packets, lsjH. each I Proprietoi—Hugh Davies. Chemist, M £ hynlleth. I Aberystwyth Agents—Wynne & Son.CbemisU, I of the Moles. In Packets, lsjH. each I Proprietor-Hugh Davies. Chemist. M £ hynlleth. I Aberystwyth Agents—Wynne & Son.CbemisU, I T—l*rm~rr"~iH~—imr-TTmHTin»'rnt.ii 11 <» Scientific Sight-Testing and Frani Fitting Qualified Sight-Testing Optician. W. Miall Jores M.P.S., Pharmaceutical Chenist Fellow of the Worshipful Compari of Spectacle Makets and of the Instate of Ophthalmic Opticians. 33, Teprace Road, Aberystwyfl. 8 — -n_ Ill P III. ■■ GET IT AT, D. R. Evans, Lampeter Just Received a large assortment of CHRISTMAS CARDS, CHRISTMAS TOYS, GAMES, CELLULOID CARDS, CHRISTMAS STATIONERY, Large Assortment LEATHER GOODS & STORY BOOKS. i SEE WINDOW. I The Biggest, Brightest and Best Stock in the town and district. I D. R. EVANS, Bridge Press, LAMPETER. If r h "flramiiiiiiair Mi '• ••••• I™1BHBW§J<W-S>-X" A »L 4 Aground Athlete's Great care C).f Ulcerated Knee- Now as wlll as ever, and still holding my ow. I as an athlete" Our portrait i> °f Mr, Walter S- W/4 te, of 4/. B/ -Lane, ChiswUir Ui/ia writls :— Some threa Years ago I bad I swelling in knee cap and I suffered a lit with itisonnis through ail night. One- night I kne^d my knee which caused a lr'e nicer which in time, no n*r what I did, dt> veloped ai*°98 the Whole knee. I had onv'trRe gaping wound, and with iX1 *he care and atten~ tion that WOUnd was open for over 16 InOtitlls,. Being an all- round aniete, holder of many cups ant Prizes, I began to give up all 100e of ever taking my place ai4ln among the athletes* I was turned down from the Army and placed at the Royal Army (Nothing Department, and one day one of my fellow workmen enquired how my leg was andtold me it was Clarke's Blood Mixture" I wanted. That day I took his word and bough* & 2/9 bottle, and when I had finished it was not only surprised myself but all my workmat/s could see improvement. I could bend my knee a little and thftt gave me encouragement. P I persevered wtth it and I am glad to say seven bottles completely cured me. I am now As Well as ever and am still holding my own as an athlete. Sulfofofc from Bad Legs, Abscesses, XJleeif Glandular Swellings, x*j tllici K^JL o piles, Eezema, Boils, Pimples, Eruptions, Rheumatism, Gout, should realise that lotions, ointments, &c„ can but give temp/^ry relief—to be sure of a cure, complete and lasting, the blood must be thoroughly closed of the impure waste matter, the true cause of all such troubles. Clarke's Blood quickly attacks, over- comes, and expels the impurities, that iB why so many remark^e cures stand to its credit. Pleasant to take and free from injurious ingredients Ask fofft&d see that you get Clarke's Blood Mixture 44 Everybody's Blood Putifier." Of all ChemitU and Stores, 2/9 per Bottle. (Six timet the quantity, /)
Can Britain Feed Her Population? I ADDRESS BY SiR 1 HOMAS U.C.W. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. On Frifilav afternoon, S r Thomas Midd:P:on, K.B.E.. C.B., secretary to the Development Commissioner* gave an important addr 1S at t'le rev ved arm al meeting of the Ag icuituri.l Society of the Un.versity of Wales at Ab rystl wyth on "Farming of the United Kingdom in Peace and War—F.crUgh Policy and its I Results." Mr. Abel Jones preside d and said Sir Thomas Middlefcon needed no introduction to Thomas Middlefcon needed no introduction to a meeting of agriculturalists nor was he a. stranger to Aberystwyth and tht* College. He ho'd a position on the College prof tsso~iai staff and before leaving Aberystwyth about 20 years ago found d the Col'ege Agricultural Socety and had continued his membership ever s ncc. (Hear, hear.). Sir Thomas Middieton, who vu received •wrth oheen, divided his subject into "The feeding of nations," the "chiief pre-war farm production of the United Kingdom," "Food production during the war," and Could the Uriited Kingdom provide '*8 own food 8uppl.JH Whit;, races, and especially the peoples of the h Empire, Central Europe and the United States large1 y increased the^r consump- tion of meat in the period b tween the Napol- eonic and the Great Wars, and from the stand- point of economy in food this has been an ex- pensive change, since the quantity of human food that may be produced from the so") in the form cf meat is much las than the quan- tity that may be produced in the form of grain and vegetables. It follows that for peoples who during war are compelled to live on a meagre diet, or who, in reap ng war's after- math, are r yjuilred to restore cvlisation and to study economy in personal expend ture, thero is no better food policy than to return to the sufficient, if t a" attractive diet, of their forefathers. During- tho period of recon- structs ad poverty that must foilow war, as well as throughout the struggle itself, a prud tat nation should as consumer- adopt the motto "DoWn Horn Up Corn," i.e., they sh;>uid roJuoe expenditure on too products of live stock and increase expenditure on tEe direct products of the soil. may seem to be a strange motto for a year, characterised so far as British agriculture is concerned, by h'^her prices for catte than have ever b':et1 known before, and 't mtst n particular appear sta,ge to the farmer, whose xper emce in tha past century has taught him that the converse motto "Down Corn up Horn" has saved him from financial ruin. It wou d PI become me to condemn thr. farming policy which has been adopted by Britsh agricultur- ists since tc: "seventies." It was a system of husbandry w fl adapted for a rich country ready to pay for all the beef a.nd mutton that could be produced, well adapted too for a people that took cheapnes3 as its only gauge of ai succ'i-sfui food policy, and regarded the soil purely as raw material for the creat/on of wea'th. nit as raw material for the supply of food. Moreov our recent system of farm management fitted in the com- mercial poicy of the nation; during the past fi.iöty years Britain cultivated the resources of th i sea. as steadly as she neglected the re- souraes of her home land. When after the disastrous harvests of the late "seventies" 8tock-farg bogui to supplant corn growing, gram waa a oommod ty which cou.d ».-atsily be oarr-ed 'n ships; but meat could not, and were indifferent occupa.nts of cargo space. By transferrin^ our corn fields to other tends we w re not only saved the necessity of tilling our own, but we provded valuable merchandise for sea transport and a conven- ient oomm-d,ty for which our manufactured goods cou'd be bartered. Th Ire were, there- fore, rensens which appealed to others than farmers for abandoning tillage, for :mportug bread com, and for producing meat a.t home. It is true, that before the outbeak of war the early positon had beem modified by the devel- opment of the trade 1 ch led and frozen moat; but be f production had secured a strong hold' on the British farmer and the quality of heme-fed beef on the British pub- fcc. Thus when war boke out stock-farm Tig was universal !y adm.teed to b i' not only the paramount Brflsh induttry, but to be the only type cf farming worth -erious consideration in mcst parts of the country. I shall presClDt!y contrast the impoptanoe of stock-farmaig and O-JITI growing as it ex/Sted b<fore the war; but let me first attend to the methods used fci esfcmat'ng fool-requiremeint am-d food-produc- tion. The policy 8any associat id with the Food Production Department came- as a shock to the average agriculturalt. he cou'd not understand the actions of those whom he term d the ''plough marine." To h'm it seemed as :1' the em! tsarietj of the Department wera bent on destroying a sure Dnd eertain supply of food' in search of problematical advantages. "Am not beef aDl1 mutton, 11.. asked, "as necessary foods for men and women wheat and onits?" "When our children cry for mrlk cam we offer them potat-ces?" In adcfubng a pough poiicy, it may be < xplanod, the Food Production Department were not for- getful Off the commercial advantages of stock- farming on grass land; but in facing- the con- ditions imposed by war, their problem was to secure the largest possible amount of human food, from the of the country. In g-Ting effect. to this policy they were limited by scarcity of labour and manure, and it was, therefore necessary to adapt their methods to the special circumstances of the time and to neglect the £ important quest. on of farming profited In ascertaining the food needs of a whole country:, the total requirements may be astimatid by different mcithodf*. In normal pre-war times when the country could import what it wanted, -it was merely necessary to purchase the number of tons of beef, mutton, wheat, sugar, butter, etc., for which there was effective demxnd; but, with the onset of war things not be secured in unlimited quantities, and, as the war progressed, shipo could not be provided to carry all that could be purchased in other countries. Wo had, for example. to substitute margar'mct mad. from West African palm nut kernels for Danish but- ter, an American maize for Australian wheat. In feeding the human population, we had th erefore, to adopt the methods famÚar to agriculturists in connection with the prepar- ation of rations for live stock, and to ascer- tain the best anilable sources of the neceesaiy protein, fti; and carbohydrate. In practice in doafcng with a large mixed population, so lonjf as a sufficiency of bread, margarine and miik can be assured, the best means of com- paring the value of our food stuff with another is to determine what is known as be "Energy I value." Mot of the food is eatxn is burnt up just as fuel is burnt in the furnace of a boiler and yields eaergy to maintain snob vital processes as the movement of muself, the curouia,fjioo of the bibod, digestion, ato. Work is done as the result of bo food eaten, I tn the same way that work is done by a loco- motcve the result of the coal consumed in the furnace. Tha unit employed to measure "energy vaiue" is the caloric, or quantity of heat needed to raise 1 kilo. of water from 15 degrctee to 16 degress c. The number of calor- ies which much be supplied in food depencb ctrefly on the natture of a man's work. When resting in bed, and it is only necessary to main- tain the vital functions, it is found that a man of average weight uses up 1,850 o. per diem. If engaged in sed tatary work, e.g., listening, to lectures arrf reading at home, not less than 2,500 e. would be required; assuming a normal amount of exewaso 3,000 c. to 3.500 c. would be necessary. (Laughter.) About 4,500 c. would be required by the soldier on active seT- ried. In hard athlete training the potential "blue" may need 5,000 c., or more if the weather is cold and he is much in the open. Before the war the average supply per man was about 3,400 c. per day, and including women and children about 1,130000 o. per bead per annum for the of the! United Kingdom. For the purposes of calcula-1 turn, and an a round figure we may take 1,000,000 o. per person per annum aa represen- ting the noeds of a mixed population in the United Kingdom. We may now pro- ceed to study the farming of the United Kingdom as it existed before the war, with the object of ascertaining the rela- tive money values and food values of thf) crops and live stock which we produced. In the following tab'e I have brought together the nec r«ary data. The figures are the annual averages for the five years period 1909-13 Prices are given per customary unit, i.e., per quartet of wheat, per cwt. of meait, butter, etc., and per gallon of milk; the weight sold is shown in thousands of tons; the money value in thousands of pounds, and the energy vaJue in millions of eateries. The upper part of the tabl- gives details, the lower a summary. It is apparent at a glance that in the United Kinudbm I've-stook farmings 's paramot 36.000.000 acres are devoted to producing meat ■and milk an against 2,950,000 growing" wheat aild potatoes. The sales of live-stock and of stock products totalled some £151,000,000 per annum, while wheat and potatoes amounted to £26,750,000 only. The entire output of live- stock is not produced from the farms of the country. We import feeding stuffs for which tarmers paid some £32,000,000 per annum ia 1909-13. These feeding stuffs have consider- ably manuraf, value, and WC1 may jwrite off as the sum due for manure by 15 to 6 rail/ion acres used for raising ether saleable products than live-stock. This would make the yaiuj of the live-stock and live-stock products of the Uiy.ted Kingdom £125,000,000 per annum in the period 1909-13. It weU be remarked that the trade in exporting cattln ajid sheep, though valuable to those engaged in it, is rclativey very small. Let us now tmm our attention to the returns per acre I in money and food which we get from the land of the United Kingdom. Where for total value we take value per a.cre there is 1e831 reason for the complacency with which we have hitherto regarded the resists of our Lye-stock farming. When a deduction for imported feeding stuffs has been made wc, find thait the roaai pte from live-stocl come out at about 89s 5d per cultivated acre (the value of tllif stock gracing some 15,000,000 acres of moun- tain and heaJth laud is thrown in) as against 182s. 9d. per acre realised from wheat and potatoes. And when wo examine the energy value the relative importance of ;tock and of crop farming takes an entirely new aspect, for it will b'i seem that whereas the energy value of tha former is .but 22 miil'on caorics per acre, the energy value of the latter amounts to 2.57 milLon ea.ories. In oth or words the energy derived from the stock and stock pro- ducts resulting from one hundred wouid supply 22 persons for a. year, 100 acres cropped with wheat and potatoes in the pro- portions indicated in Table 1 would supply 257 persons. Some further figure; ind eating the. production cf energy by common crops may be of interest. If the average yield of our crops be tak <n. it may be shown that 1001 aore;3 undfer crop "auld provide food (n1ergy) for the foliow-ng numbers of persons— Wheat about 200, potatoes 400, oats 150, man- folds converted into meat 40, meadow hay oonv Med into meat 12 to 14. If we assume a farm to be worked on a, six-course rotation— wheat, potatoes, oats, roots, barley axid it may be shown by the above methods that from 100 seres, food for about 150 persons could be produc d; whereas on grass land of ave age qua.:ty half producing meat and half m'lk the corresponding figure would lie between 15 and 20. PRODUCTION OF PLOUGHED LAND AND GRASS LAND. 8cm tome ago in goring ev denee bftforp Lord Melbourne's Reconstruction Committee, I esti- mated tha.t before the war the ploughed land of the country was fefd ng 84 persons per 100 acres, while the grass land was prohab y feed- nr about 20. From the figure, in Table 1 abovei, it would seem tha.t this estmato of the prcduwtffon of grass laud was too high. At that time I caLulated the yield from grass by three method; which gave the figures 17, 20 and 21 respectively. 1 indkat s that the joint produce of some 14 milfon of acres of arable land and some 22 midion. acres of grass, provde energy for 22 pen on. per 100 acres. I hava not actually calculated the shares of (.ach, but if this wera done it would be found that the figure for done it would be found that the figure for the number of persons maintained by 100 acres I of grass land was nearer 17 than 20. In this conn otion I should' expla in that the figures snowing meat production in the period 1909-13 are the officii figures adopted by the Board of Agrjcu-ture and the Board of Trade. The ex. pe: IDee of the Ministry of Food points to the conclusion that we ha.ve much over-estimated our pre-war homo meat supply. THE POPULATION MAINTAINED BY BRITISH SOIL. The changes in our system of farming in the past 50 years hs-ve had ono result which I beuove that few among u, have massed It k « Vf sPlto of the erea-t advances made by Br tsh farmjrs between the close cf Napoleonic wa s and tho d^re.^orv of -ate seventies, the population we were feeding from our own soil in the period 1903-13 was 1 ttle greater than it was a cmtury before, and it was substantially le s than it wag seventv- hve years ago. In the period 1801-10 soil of the United Kingdom fed about 16-! miV'ions i^no nl F.enod 183140 ehout 2H, while in 1909-13 tno number is est mated at 17i miL- lions. The standard of I.v'iig hjL<i; of coup' a, much advanced by the beginning- of tho century, beef and mutton wePQ mcr. p'e t fsl,' oatmeal and potatoes we e s In emiloiicc^ but in sp te of change Br tish agr^culture has no rexson, to be proud of t'e ro ulls of ^er •fffrs >uPP y « B t'.si pe ple w th food. It is tru 4 at the British people di* not ask to be suppl ed f om t eir own .and an4 mora and mori reJ;edl on rmports, with t e) rflsult that in 1909-13 our home food sufficed U8 only for the week-end. THE PLOUGH POLICY. It waa generally known that the greater rart of Britain s food supply came from ov irseas. but 1914 it was not generally realised that, we were feed ng a population not much larger than a century before the products of our own soil. Nor waf; it realised that tllJa stata of affairs was caused by the system husbandry which our farmers wer* forced to adopt because of t.ho depression of the late of the XIXth Century. In September, 1915, in a paper read before the Manchester meeting of the British .As.o-. oiatKm I contrasted the affects which tho adoption of different systems of farming had upon the nation's food supply, and from t mo' to time thereafter I urged the importance of breaking up grass land; but, though a plough policy was widJly advocated in the autumn of 1915, no active steps to secure the ploughing up of grass land were taken. In 1916 in a memorandum on "The Recent Development of U aro&n Agriculture" I contrasted the farm- ing system of Brit a'n and Germany in their effect on food supply, and indicated that our enemy was able to feed about twice as many people per 100 acre as we were, and that this was not due to the larger crops grown in Germany but to the gresiter a ea under tillage. The contrast in the system of the two coun- tries is shown in Table. Tho year 1916 waa a disastrous one from the standpoint of the AlW food supr-ly. The wheat crops of North America &nd( the potato crops of Europe wern very poor. It was clear by the autumn of the year tha.t there would be n great s-hortage of bocli bread stuffs and potatoes in thr, following season. Potatoes indeed were very scarce as early as November, 191S. THE FOOD PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT. Immediately after the change of Govern- ment in December, 1916 the new Minister of Agriculture; (Mr. Prothero) decided to set up a special Department of the Board of Agri- culture to promote the, interests of Food Pro- duction, and directed ntc to get a staff together and suture a building. In January 1917 the Food Production Department started its existence in 72, Victoria-street, and the new Agricultural Executive Comm'tt' es began work in respective counties. During the month the food out'ook grew stead!ly wor;-e, and grea.t public interest in food-production was thoroughly a.roused. In the end of Feb- ruary, the Cabinet decided to enlarge the sphere and powtfrs of the new Department, and Sir Arthur Lee (now Lord Lee, Pres'dent of the Board of Agriculture) was made Director-Gem Iral. Thereafter progress was very rapid, with the rerult that even in 1917 substantial additions were made to the area under corn and potato^ in England and Wales. But by; the spring of 1917 farmers had ai- ready, for tho most part, settled their cropp- ing for the year, and it was recognised that no great increase in production would b'* possible until the following se¡¡;"011. Attention was, therefore, conceratrajted on preparation for the harvest of 1918. First of all (fetimatos were made of the maximum possible area whiCh could be got. under tillage assuming &11 conditions to be favourab'e-, a programme for each county was drawn up; a survc was ar- ranged and estimates were made of the men, horses, and machinery that would he required to carry out the programme. Needless to say there were very great difficulties to be sur- mounted, both by the Agricultural Executivo Committee! in finding thij land and by the central Department in securing labour, machinery and supplies. I do not, however, propose to dwell on our methods or our diffi- culties, but to pass on to the results. Tabla shows the change in the cropping of E. and W. in 1918 at? compared with the pre-war periods 1905-14; figures for 1871-75 are aljo given. From this Table it will be that whereas tho "average 100. acre farm" of E. and W. had 44 acres under crops other than grass and fodders, in the seventies, and 33 only before the war, in 1918 the average farm had 38 acres under tillage. The area under corn was only 1 prr cent less in 1918 than it was before the depression, and the area under potatoes was 1 per cent, greater. If we take the crops chiefly grown for human food —wheat and potatoes—wo find on tho average 100 acre farm of 1918, namely, 12 acres, as compared with 8 acres before the war and 14 acres in tho period 1871-75. But in the early part of 1918 no criticism of tho work of the Food Production Department wa3 more familiar than that acres were being sought after at the expense of bushels, and quite a number of our critics prophesied that when after harvest the, au< £ losses were reckoned up, tho net result would betrilling. Let us, therefore, compare the harvest figures of 1918 with those of the pre-war period 1905- 14. These are given in Table. From tho figures in this TIDbie it will be seen that in the last year of the war (favoured, 't should he remarked, by a serson betrr than average) England and Wales produced 52 per cent more wheat, 41 per cent more oalls, 31 per cent more gravn crops of all kinds, and 57 per cent more potatoes than on the average of the period 1905-14. Reckoning potatoes as equal to oiie-fifth of the weight of grain, the jn. crease in grain crops and potatoes equalled k some 1,733,000 tons. The root and hay crops 1 of 1918 were both 'ess in area and lower in yield than the average, and I est, mate that .because of this we may have iost beef and I mutton equal to 100,000 tons of meat; but after making an ailowance for this loss the real gain represented 1,633,000 tons of fcod-stuffs which would have requred the servic i of some 2,300,000 tons of hipping to bring it into th's country. These changes, it will readily be understood, were not secured without a Vlf\:Y great deal of work which fell not only on farm- ers themselves and their men,but a'so on mem- bers and officers of the Agricultural Executive Committees, and on the: taff of the Food Production Department. Tho foUowing fi- gures will give an idea of the scale on which the Central Departmnet was organised. Startr ing with some 30 permanent officers oi the Board of Agriculture, a staff of about 1,000 was employed in 1918. Before the end oi 1918 the controlled labour supplied to Agri- cultural Executive Committees through th- Department included 118,000 person"; of whom 72,000 were soldiers, 30,000 prisoners of war 4,000 war volunteers, and 11,500 land army women. By this time too the Department owned 4,200 tractors and 10,000 horses with many thousands of implement) and sets of harness. In addition a great d tal of work was de in supplying fertilisers, distributing seeds, and providing such necei saries as bin- der twine. The cost of all this work was r. foossarily high, but there was much more than a direct return in the value of the extra- crops secured; crops which but for the action of the Depairtm nt would never have been growjij; and, needle s to say, it was not for a pecuniary profit, but as an insurance against the irisk of starvation that the Department was established. COULD THE UNITED KINGDOM BECOME SELF SUPPORTING? It has rec ntly been stated that given suit- able onouragement by the State, and an amplo supply of machinery and manure' the soil of this country m'ght provide us with all th-j bread tuffs we require, and a.t the same time ma ntain the present production ot m'lk, beef, and mutton. Let us examine the view, first as a per-ice time preposition. Assum- ing that by good farming w-, could very largely extend the area under corn, ar.d at the same time maintain tlje existing average pro- duction of the soils of the United Kingdom the figures in Table V. show th.. actual area that cou d be required to provide all the cereal gram (except nee and c i-tain millet) m"1 in the period 1909-13. In the Table I show the weight of wheat, barl jy, oat,O, imported in the average year of the period 1909-13. As we cainnot grow maize our- selves we should have to replace iv by other cereals. I have assumed that 1th would be rep <r>ed by wheat I by baney and gths by oati. I have then added the quantity of sed a. wou.d be required co oroduce the imputed f™' 1 arrive at a total requirem nt of II.476,000 tons. It would take 13,727,000 acres to grow this quantity of grain and add- ing the 7,837,000 acres a'recdy under whito c-ops we arrive at a figure of 21,564,000 aaes as b/ng the total a. res that would be wanted if the United Kingdom were required to grvw all the corn needed. In fact the average pro- duction could not be maintain d on so large an area, if we had to depend on the var etes of wheat etc., now avai able. But as um ng that the difficulty of maintaining the. ave ag: y;eld were overcome, we shcu'd stiU have to hunt for 1 a.nd. Cont^n.ious corn growing may put out of considerat on except in certain parts of the Eastern Counties, and if I were ordered to grow 21 mi lion acres of corn in the Un-ted Kingdom I would demand for the purpoc some 46000,000 acres cf arable land: othor-w-so it would be impossibly however great were my resources in labou-- and caiptai, tv put the land :n reasonably good condition. But thero aro less than 47 mulion acr b of cultivated -'and available altogether. So thai the task of finding 46 mli-on for the pur- pose is clearty impo.ssib e. But 'et us examine a more imt- r(rtitig question. Assuming that the United Kingdom were engaged in anoth Ir great war, that stocks in hand a.nd imports could supply breadstuffs unfed a.iter the second war harvest and that profiting by the ex- per.er*if» of 1914-18, immediate steps were taken to increase production, could th country bo starved into surrender? There may never agrin be such -4 war as that which we have fxperienced, and :f there were we cannot predict .which population the soil would be called to suppor.; but the answer is It 1 worth attempting while the experience of 1918 is fresh in our mmor To provide the rations of bread that would be required to ma ntain tho pro eint population of the country in health, and in ad-lit on to provide grain for work liors n, cows and acher es ential live stock, it would be n Iessary to grow almost 14 million acres of corn v-z:—5,000,0u0 acres of wheat 2,500.000 acres of barley, 3 000,000 acres of oats, for human breadstuffs, meal etc. 3,000 000 acres of oats, for live stock; 500,000 aciMs of barley for brewing or munitions, Duririg 1918 Ireland grew 1,933,000 acres of corn and as the Lvc stock and potato in- dustries in any future war as in 1914-18, would be likely to receive c'osest attent, on 'in that lo" country, we m'gbt put the Irish contribution to the total grain area at 2,000,000 acres. This would eave 12000,000 to be found within Great Britain. The actual area grown in 191b was England and Wales 7.080,000 acr IS, Scot- la-id 1,370,000 acres or 8 450,000 in all. Thrs t would leave the. authorities the formidable task of securing 3 million ncres more corn than the country grew in 1918; but in my judgment, it would be no impossible task, if the first month of the war gave concentration on a earnful survey of gra. s land, the pro- duction and organisation of heavy trc.ctors or tractor ploughs for breaking grass land and the accumulation of paraffin, petrol, roads, binder tw'nes and other things certain to be- come scarce as war progres-ed. The ma'n work of breaking up grass land would start in thc| February after the outbreak of war, would continue until August, start again in December and continue until April. Proftssor Bryner Jones, proposing thanks to Sir Thomas Middlotgn for his instructive ad- dress thought Wales d d its part during tho war in supplying the needs of the nat'on and the question was, what wns Wales going to takfi for the future in increasing food produc- tion. Climatic and other conditions did not permit Wales doing what East Angiia f.nd the South of Scotland did; but that did not mean tha.t it was not possible for Waleo to increase produotion in her own way. While farmers must look forward to increase he felt sure that /Wales would still have to depend very largely upon its grass land, or, rather, upon increased production from grass land. (Hear, hear.) Mr. Stapledon seconded tht1 proportion, and remarked that tho fact of Sir Thomas Midd'c- ton's being an expert in regard to grass land gave an additional value to h-'s remarks. The! Principal, supporting the propos:t;on, said it must be a pleasure to Sir Thomas to know that tho College with which he wa". onco j associated had held its own durng the war perhaps to a greater d-gree than any other colicge. It provided a large number of men to do war agricultural work and there were prospects of its do;n6" still greater work in agricultural resoarch. ° (Cheers.) Mr D. D. Wll.iams, live stock officer, who succeeded Sir Thomas MidlJetob at the College, said ho was one of those who believed that if in the past the produce of corn bad been made more profitable and more roots were gre>wn Wales would have been able to pii'pduce more and better stock. Replying, Sir Thomas acknowledged the assistance the collegiate institutions of the country as member of the food production staff. As Mr. Stapledon said, k. was dooplv I interested in grass land and because of that he advocated more ploughing, for the condi- tion of much grass land at present, wa- simply shocking. Grass farming, in fact, was very much behind Wlago farming. It was not be- cause he wanted grass land to disappear that he advocated ploughing; but it would be an exceedingly good thir^ for tliei country and for farmers themselves if much grass land was ploughed and re'ard with duo regard to suit- able herbage. (Cheers.)