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CHATS ON NEWS- PAPER HISTORY. r 3. The Days of Stamp To. Duties. FOR a hundred and one ^'sL0I'ia has computed eleven yeari Liver- tat in those days here was hard'y an editor of pool's oldest news- any note who had not paper has given to the t 1 escaped imprisonment or public the best and the Tu*' when Dr' Johnson was writing up the tltCst said and done m Parliamentary Debates for the world. In the earlier a newspaper in 1733, so day» newspapers were harshly punishable a crime fcw «nd comparatively it was w publa, ,„y „p„r, | vU,Pptr^^ J of u aebate in tne Commons expensive. To-day they that it could ouly be are many and they are 1691 .'3 attempted, in the first in- wonderfully cheap. 9*-fa- stance, by bribing the door- keepers at Westminster to smuggle in The first impression of the Liverpool reporters. Courier "—such as may still be seen framed and preserved in se\eral public places— Johnsons own Parliamentary Reports was printed at a period when all news-sheets we^ei a3 we know, ingeniousl) printed in were liable lo aa impost, avouched by a defiance oi «.he law, only by disguising the stamp upon the cover, of jjd., with an debater's names and ascribing the Debates additional tax of three shillings and sixpence t0 *^e Fictitious Proceedings of the upon every advertisement, payable by edict Ernpire of Liliiput, descriped by Captain of the King. The principle of this anti- Lemuel Gullivei. It was in that age that democratic li tax on knowledge dated from four newspaper printers were even forced Oueen A*ne's days. Many famous editors k0 apologise upon their knees at the Bar of had suffered under it from Daniel Defoe and the Commons for the printing of newspapers Addison and Steel to Fielding and those embodying an account of Parliamentary pro- little penny papers which Swift comments ceedings. As a general consequence of the on at the dawn of the Stamp impost in 1712 fi51-1' penalties upon newspapers the taxed were soon stamped out of existence. iournal of three and four generations ago was sold at sevenpence. Throughout the administrations of six When the Courier was first printed in English .monarchs until the Repeal of the 183. in the newly invented u Stanhope Newspaper Duties in Victoria's reign, the -Press," it could then be produced at the Press was battling for the freedom of speech amazing rate of approximately 100 complete and comment which it has bequeathed to papers an hour-a modern machine turns out' the entire nation in our own days. When papers several hundred times as fast-but by the -1 Courier was founded in the reign of 1S25 long before a Victorian Prime Minister George Ill. repression by taxation, by the had repealed the "taxes upon knowledge" pillory and by flagellation was the rik of its swift overnight tales were being printed most newspaper owners and printers, so that at the rate of l,eOJ in the hour. The dead and gone Liverpool folk who met in house and tavern to pass round the Courier" treasured it because it was dear and because it was the best of its age. To-day three-half-pence buys it. It is still quoted and talked about as in those olden days, only by infinitely greater multitudes of readers. Its news-all the news-its diplomatic information gleaned authoritively from the high places, its special articles by famous .publicists, its sound commercial intelligence and its brilliant literary writers, still circulate its fame wherever thinking men and women meet in study, workshop or mart. Jtwrjwol (Smarter FIRST in 1808 and FIRST in 1919. Sleepless, Nervous and Pain-worn. Severe Nervous Indigestion Cured by j Dr. Cassell's Tablets. Mr F. G. Baggaley, 105, Oldiield street, j -V.entor), Staffs., says:—"I lost all strength. mod became so nervous and depressed, that never wanted, to touch, and 1 was always in pain with indigestiun, I was very Ler- ,-vous, soon*;times all of a shake, and if Jr R • spoken to suddenly would fairly jump. f 'Now and thiesn there was wind after food, f and I was barriWy weak. In the end I be- i came so low tiiat I had to give up work, f 1 Another thing was I could not eleep. a 1 Night after night I used to lie awake, and I 1 of coarse I was no good in the morning. J t "I had a.<.h-i and took all eorts of medicines, but nothing did any I good. For about a year I had been ill and was fast losing hope, when at Ust 1 1 got some, and it quite surprised me to iind how soon they did me good. They onahled me to sleep soundly again—what a relief, that wa3—and my strength camo r.(j. BQQQQlCy back. Then the indigestion and pain went, and rapid! j r ined m h w v I^am back at work, strong and well, and I have only Dr. Cabell's Ablets to thaS Dr. Cassell's Home Prices. /\4> FREI 3/" Information !h!f The rnil'p-rial Home Remedy for as to the suit- tne «ore eco- ability of Dr. nomical). Seld Nerroni[Breakdown Kidney Troubla Cassell's Tablets y ChmuJU III Nerve Paralycia Indigestion in your case sent :n allparU»f the ISeuntis. Wasting Diseases «n request. Dr. world A^ for Neuraithen.a P^P^tion CWl'sCo.Ltd, Dr. Caisalls Sl«cpleMne« Vital Exhamtion Ckeiter Road Tablet* and re- Anaemia Nervous Debility Manchester fuae substitutes. •p«cl*lljr valuable for Nurtiny Moth art p 'i j and durfng th* Critical Periods of Lifo. c-ngiana.i CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS WINTER TRAIN SERVICE. THE QUICKEST ROUTES BETWEEN THE CAMBRIAN THE COAST GREAT STATIONS AND CENTRES. ARE A3 FOLLOWS:- To La-,eashire and the North of England-via Whilcliurch, I To the Midlands and London—via Welshool. To South Wales via Moat Lane and Talylirn. J VIA THE PICTURESQUE UPPER SEVERN and WYE VALLEYS. Tte Cardigan Bay Co-.ist iq.-tn Ideal Winter Resort, the temperature comparing e favourably with the South of France S. WILLIAMSON, Oswestry, Nov., 1919. General Manager. BEE HIVE, LLANGEFNI. New Autumn and Winter Goods. Ladies' & Children's Jackets, Trench & Oilskin Coats, Furs, Underclothing, Corsets, Hosiery. MILLINERY SMART VEL°UR AND FELT HATS v FOR LADIES & CHILDREN'S WEAR. Best and Cheapest Hottfso for Mournings. O.R.ROWLANDS. n VAUGHAN & JONES, (Diweddar HAMILTON & JONES), Apothecaries' Hall, BANGOR. Ein gwaith ni- Profi'r golwg a ffitio gwydrau. Eich dyledswydd chwi- Manteisio ar hyn heddyw.

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