Symud i'r prif gynnwys
Cuddio Rhestr Erthyglau

9 erthygl ar y dudalen hon

Whitlaiul Farmers' Club.j


Whitlaiul Farmers' Club. HALF-YEA]JLY MEETING AT THE YELVERTON ARMS. llio usual half-yearly meeting of the Whit- land Farmers' Club was held at the Yelverton -•^vins Hotel on Friday. All- John Beynon, a rowern, presided. There were also present ^Wr S. Bowers, Rev T. David, Llanddewi- eliroy Mr D. Griffiths, Llwyndewi Mr T. liov.-elJs, Cefncloch Mr W. Howells, Castle Mr T. H. Hughes, Great Pale; Mr George Hughes, Llwynpiner; Mr James Lew-js, Tynewydd; Dr Henry Lawrence, IWlgoway Mr Henry Lewis, Pengawse Mr Benjamin Llewelyn, Trewern Mr Thomas Lewis, Penybont Mr James Owen, Llanllue Mr John Owen, Llwynderw Mr P. N. Owen, V. hitland Mr John Phillips, Caerlleon Mr J. P. Prot-heroe, Dolwilym (vice-chairman); Mr David Thomas, CasteUdrainog Mr John Thomas, Llwyngwydd Mr John Thomas, hiynoncyll Mr W. A. Thomas, Forest Mr f. Thomas, Bwlchgwynt Dr R. L. Thomas, St. Clears Mr A. Williams, Lan Mill Mr John Williams, Cefnfarchen Mr David Walters, Trevaughan Dr Creswick Williams, Whitland and the Secretary (Mr John Scourfield, Blaenwernddu). After the splendid repast put on the table by Host Bowers had been done ample justice to, The Chairman proposed the health of the Queen, which was drunk with the usual aitiotint of enthusiasm. AXXUAL REPORT. The Secretary then prevented the annual statement of accounts. From this it appeared that they had begun the year with a balance of "7 19s 8d to the good and had finished with a balance of lOsTxl. The committee had also seen fit sincelthe^ last meeting to introduce a little alteration into the rules'. One of them was to this effect—that any member of the club who was unable to attend through indisposition should be allowed to send in a letter to that effect. It would be III let'c-c to well to have the letter backed up by a medical certificate as there were two doctors in the club, they would 'no doubt be able to get the certificate for nothing. Dr Thomas We do not promise that (laughter). The Secretary, continuing, said that any absent member fulfilling these conditions could send someone to represent him at the dinner—a son or a daughter (laughter) or a servantHjoy. Another alteration was that any member who absented himself from four consecutive meetings and allowed his sub- scription to fall into arrear should cease to be a member of the club. Another alteration the subscription should be paid at the beginning of the year—5s at once—instead of by two half-yearlyjnstalments. A NEW MEMBER, The Chairman then proposed that Mr Louilignac, Carmarthen, should be admitted to the membership of the club. Mr John Phillips, Caerlleon, seconded the motion, which was carried nem. con. The Chairman then called upon Mr L. J. Llewelyn, of the Pantycaws Board School, Clynderwen, to read his paper on layixghjowx LAND TO permanent PASTURE. Mr Llewelyn read his paper as follows During these years of agricultural depres-ion a Brent rnauy scheme* have been proposed to assist the farmer to make ends meet." Several of theee have been adopted, as is witnessed by the larger dumber of fanners who devote their attention to the production of cggs, poultry, fruit, vegetables, aDd dairy gOOdB. To farmers situated near populous towns, where these products are consumed, this echeme is a profitable source of income. But those unfortunate agriculturists who reside in districts remote from the great centres of ccn- Burnption are unable to compete with success on Account of the expenses of carriage. To meet the loag-stauding depression in the corn market, the rGinody generally proposed is to lay (Iown the land, reSaruiess of its quality, to grasj. At first blush this appears a very simple and effectual remedy. Nothing seems simpler than to sew good grass seed, to harrow and roll it in, and then to wait com- placently for the in-coming of the £ s d. Grass drains- is much cheaper than corn-growing, for the cost of hoi so keep and the labour bill are reduccd to a minimum. But, utifirtzi-natei y, the formation of psrtsanont grass land is beset with Jiiuny difficulties, which are fully appreciated by nooe few practico-scientilic men who set themselves Ti -tlisk of the details of the subject. -'lis history of a field laid down to grass ia generally Ths largest crop is yielded the first year, a ? good crop is obtained the second year, and then n hy far the largest number of cases the field will to deteriorate in value for perhaps several then, after a shorter or longer period, G°pendiug on the climate, the suitability of the soil for grass, and the treatment of the land, it cRiu3 to improve, and after it has been down for ??iBe ten or fifteen years, it will be getting into condition of old grass lands that have not been Un3er^the plough for centuries, Grass land of this a=e^if treated liberally, could certainly yield a Profit to its owner, but it must not be supposed that tle work of forming really permanent grass land ?*as heou completed at this stage. Sir J B Lawes, greatest English authority ou agricultural n«ati,ers, beiievea that after a good many years there fkiU remains much work underground to be done, ■thirty years will not produce that dense accumula- tion of root3 eo characteristic of old grass lands which constitutes a reservoir coutaining the elctllens of etored-up fertility in the shape of nitrogen aud potash. Time is, therefore, a most important factor in the formation of permanent grass land, and us "Lim is money," we see the appropriateness of the old adage, to make a pasture will break a man," A good turf once formed is a mine of wealth to its owner—a fact whidl has given birth to the converse of the adage referred to —" to break a pasture will make a man." Iu ths remainder of the paper I shall try to set forth the conditions under which a good turf may bj formal ia thj shortest time, not only without loss, but with some profit to the farmer. SUITABLE SOILS AD CLIMATE. The most suitalTe soils for permanent grass are strong loams and stiff clays. Sandy soils are un- suitable one?, because they are, as a rule, deficient :1 plant food, and are apt to become dried up. Peaty soils may also be laid down to grass with advantage. As glasses require much moisture for luxuriant growth, a cool moist climate is the most suica^lo. The climate of Wales except in years oi drought, like the present one, favours the growth of grastes. DRAINAGE, If land is not naturally drained and suffers from CXcees of moisture, it is of primary importance that the land should be artificially drained, before h is laid down to urass. If laud on which grass seeds have been sown is very wet in winter, the finer grasses will be destroyed by the frost and their places taken by rushes, sedges and other aquatic P;auts. tiras* lands should be drained at such a de,i)ttl that the bottoms of the hollows in the field tn,ly still be mots'; and jrrow grasses differing ehghtly in character from those on the general surface. Sometimes drains have been laid so deeply that shallow-rooted plants, like many grasses, have been unable to reach that stratum of thè Roil which is kept moist by capillary attraction, HnJ hive in consequence been killed by heat and Jack of moisture. P!tEP.ltATIOX OF THE LAXD. 1 To ensure success, it is essential that land should °'3 well pulverized, thoroughly cleaned, and be 111 sde rich in plant food. On account of the small- llcss of the seeds, any cloddinesa or irregularity of surface will cause a corresponding irregularity in tlie produce of the grass. It. is useless to now good seeds on n poor exhausted soil, foul with v''eeds. This mistake is equalled only by sowing Poor unsuitable seeds on rich well-cleaned land, Tha best, but most expensive mode of cleaning the i land, is by means of a bare fallow. During the summer the land is ploughed several times, and f JeP&atediy harrowed. In this way the couch grass [ and several crops of annual weeds are got rid of. t Tho gnUiS seeds can then be sown in the following ) Bering either by themselves or with a corn crop. If a bare fallow cannot be afforded, a root crop is Uw next best preparation. Unless the land ia in a condition to grow a first-class crop of swedes it wili Rot ba capable of producing even a fair pasture, l"ew farmers are disposed to manure a bare follow, í b'-U the maioritv of them will be quite rendv to r apply a good dressing of farmyard manure with two or three cwts. per aero to their swedes or P°tatorS. The land must be cleaned to receive swede or mangold seed, and the subsequent IDPerations of hoeiag and singling remove successive fenerations ot wcc !s The farmyard manure npplioc1 to the roots vvill have mellowed down by too time the grasses are sown and will have been thorou:;h'y incorporated with the soil Such ^aditioys strongly favour the growth of grasses, heir roots being often destroyed by contact with fresh raw manure. I am afraid that many farmers Consider the cleaning of land before laying it down Ograsi a matter of no moment. From personal observation I can safely pay that a few thoroughly ean their land, a few clean a small fraction of H, j aild that the great majority do not clean it at all. In districts well known to me the rotation generally p,.actiso,l is this Ley oats. Second year Mixed corn. Third year: Roots (in rare cases on the whole field. but ofceuest on about one- fitth of field). Fourth year Corn crop, with which graf s Reod* ar' sown. On many farms where no roots are g: o. i. three or even four corn crops are succc-si rely taken, followed by grass. The land is then allowed to lie in grass for periods, varying from 8 to 20 vears or more, according to theVz of die holding. The land intended for roots i- wo 1 cleaned, but in the other cases three or four corn crops are groA'n in succession without the slightest effort being made to C'CUil the land. Even when harrowing down the corn crop with which the grass seeds are to be sown, the cou = h grass and weeds which are collected by the harrow on the uucleaned p irt, are not removed. When the quantity of weeds bceomes oppressive to the horses, the farm-servaul, simply tilts the harrow to freo it from the mass of weeds and then drives oa. These collections of weeds are left on the field in the hope that the dry weather may withpr them, but after the first shower of rain they begin to grow again, forming beautiful rosettes amid the corn and grass seeds. °Often have I tried to persuade farmers that this is a penny-wise pound-foolish policy. Their usual reply is this—if we remove the weeds, the land is exhausted, but if we allow the:n to remain on the land they will rot and supply food to succeeding crops. In this practise lies a great mistake; for the worthless weeds rob the grass seeds of room, of moisture, and of food, and return no thanks to the farmer for his misplaced kindness. Much more ptofitable would it be to remove the weeds and to make them into a compost with lime and earth. Even farmers themselves testify that after a field partly cleaned has been down to grasi for ten years, it is easy to pick out the cleaned p irt by the character and appearance of the herbage. SELECTION OF SEEDS. Professor Parry, Director of Agricultural Education at the University College of Wales, Aberystwith, in a paper read in London last week, before the Honourable Cymmrodorion Society, on the "Development of Welsh Agiiculture," is reported to have made use of these words :—" Only a smull percentage of the cultivated area of Wales can be considered as anything but inferior pastures With this opinion I quite concur. One of the systems recommended by Professor Parry for improving the pastures of Wales is the sowing of permanent seeds instead of annual or biennial seeds which only impoverish the land. This is not a new- fangled notion, for it was a tenet in the agricultural creed of farmers of 50 or 60 years ago. Our fore- fathers believed this. and, acting in accordance with their belief, often allowed their land to tumble-down" to grass. This old system of allowing land to fall away to pasture is new practised only by those few old-fashioned farffiers who never loosen their purse string A except under circurastanccs of extreme compulsion. In the ,-ii P'd' selection of grass seeds farmers must be guided mainly by the grasses that are natural to their neighbourhood. These naturally growing grasses are those found by the roadside, on hedgerows, in tumble down pastures' and in seedcl gras lan Is of long standing. Of these indigenous grasses, the farmer must select the best. Thi3 is the only safe way of selecting seed, experience having proved that all lands have a tendency to reproduce those plants which are natural to a soil, and that after a few years varying, according to the care and attention that have been bestowed on the cultiva- tion, the natural grasses will drive out those which have been artilioaily sown. The best perennial grasses may be classified in two ways, their nutrniousuess in the one,, and their size in the other, forming the bases of the classifications. I shall not attempt to prescribe suitable mixtures for lay- ing land down to grass. So much depends on the soil and climate that it is well nigh impossible for a trust-worthy seedsman, who has made a special study of the subject, to prescribe mixtures of grass seeds suited to a particular district. Brst grasses. Grasses of Ind. Inferioi grasses, quality. Foxtail Tull fescue Yorkshire fog Cocksfoot Hard fescue Brome grass Timothy Sheep's fescue Barley grass Meadow Fescue Fine-leaved fescue Couch grass. Yellow oak graBs Crested D.)gstnit Rough-stalked meadow grass. Sweet vernal grass Perennial rye gr«83 Fiorin. Tall Grasses. Foxtail Cocksfoot Timothy Meadow fescue Yellow oat grass Tall fescue Rye grass Bottom grasses. Hard fescue Fine-leaved feacng Sheep's fescue Ilough-staltked meadow grass Crested dogstail Sweet vernal grass Fiorin. The clovers most suitable for use are White or Dutch Clover, Alsike, Perennial Red (Cowgrass), and Trefoil, The natural grasses of the best quality are so few in number that they can almost be couated ou the fingers of one hand. It is not prudent, however, to sow a mixture of the best grasses by themselves, fas no two plants of exactly the same kind should be side by side in an i;leal grass land. The farmer has, therefore, to resort to the grasses of second quality for the purpose of fill- ing up blaak spaces, as it is essential that the land should be fully covered by grasses in order to keep out weeds. Other points of importance are the q-iality and the quantity of the seed. Four far tors are involved in the idea of quantity (1) Germina- ting capacity (2) Freedom from impurities such as seeds of weeds and dead seeds (3) Suitability to the climate of district (4) Trueness to species. heeds should always be bought under a guarantee of germinating capacity and truenes? to species. According to the regulations of the Royal Agricul- tural Society of England, issued to its members, the germinating of Cereals, fodder crops, clovers, and Timothy grass, should not be less than 90 per cent. of Foxtail not less than 60 per cent. and of other grasses not less than 70 per cent. Often we hear farmers say that they sow so many bushels of this seed, and so many pounds of that one, Irrespective of their germinating power. Estima- tion by bulk or weight alone leads to misfortune. The real test of a seed is this-how many living seeds does a bushel or a pound of the sample contain ? With regard to freedom from impurities and truenees to species, it should be noted tlitit, seeds are often adulterated with seeds of weeds and of injurious parasites, such as dodder and with chaff, dert, dead saeda, and even paiuted stones. I believe that the farmers of this district have not been sufficiently scrupulous in their purity or quantity, and perrenial seed? arc not sown. The bulk of grass seeds used in Walas generally consists of rye grass and red clover. These in a few years become very weak, or die out altogether. After the second year the land is not half covered with plants of any kind, and it is at this time that the daisies, buttercups, plantains, orchids, bugles, docks, thistles, dandelions, and mosses in a murder- ous host obtain a footing on the land. It is true that two good crops of hay are obtained, but they are got at too great a cost. For several years the profits that the farmer reaps from ouch land is not sufficient to pay rates, taxes, and tithe, leaving the rent altogether out of the question. This treat- ment reminds me of the navvy who livts in the lap of luxury for two days in the week, and on pea- soup or nothing for the remainder. MODES OF SOWING. Grass seeds may be sown in several ways :— (1) By themselves in Spring, or in August or September. ( J) With a corn crop in Spring as is generally done. „ (3) With a few pounds of a forage crop such as rape in Spring. It is best that the seeds should be delivered in separate parcels, then tested, and afterwards mixed. Seeds arc best sown by means of a drill, it being very important that the whole surface should be covered evenly. Some men can in calm weather distribute graee seeds pretty satisfactorily by hand. To secure a regular distribution, the best results are obtained by sowing the light seeds in one direction with the harrow, and the heavy ones-the clovers and Timothy-in a direction at right angles to the former They should then be brush-harrowed in or covered with a light ordinary harrow, and then rolled, It is better to roll it U ice in directionp3 at right angles to each other with a light roder than ones with a heavy rollers. Tue double rolling is done with the object of covering the whole ground, for if a portion escapes the roller no p an s \\i found in that part. It shouW be noted that the Doajori'y of grass seeds owing to their smallness will not sprout at all if covered at a greater depth than half-an-inch. Often have I seen farmers using heavy drag harrows to cover grass seeds the lines of which penetrate the loose soil to a deptn of pt least four inches, dragging down many seede with them. Such seeds are simply buried, not rationally sown. Tnere is some consolation, how- ever, in the fact that the buried seeds will act as a manure to those which survive. TREATMENT OF GRASS LAND. After obtaining a heavy first crop of seed hay, l should expect the land to receive a good manuring, but this is seldom done. Thii appears economical but is really wasteful. One cannot eat the cake and keep the penny. What is the hiatory of the field? It has yielded 3 or 4 corn crops, a root crop, a crop of seed hay, and has received only a light dose of farmyard manure of average quality perhaps amounting to 20 tons per acre. This manure would contain about 220 lbs of potash, 220 lbs of potash, and 100 lbs of phosphoric acid. What has been the drain on the soil? A crop of bushels of oats removes in the straw »nd grain lbs of nitrogen, 4G lbs of potash, and 19 lbs of phosphoric acid. A thirty ton crop of swedes removes from the land, even if the leaves are left behind, 145 The of nitrogen. 130 lbs of potash, and 17 lbs of phoaphoriu acid. A crop of U tons of hay robs the soil of 50 log of nitrogen, 81 lba of potash, and 16 lbs of phosphoric acid. I shail not be far removed from the truth if I say that after the first crop of seed hay, 359 lbs of nitrogen, 350 lbs of potash, and lOFlbsof phosphoric acid have been removed, while 220 lbs of nitrogen, 220 lbs of potash, and 100 lbs of phosphoric acid have been added in the farmyard manure. This shows a deficit of 130 lbs of nitrogen, and 130 lbs of potash. The land is, therelore, in an exhausted sfate, and it causes littln wonder that the grass perish in a soil so poor that only the weeds can live. The best manure for grass is farmyard manure compost of good earth and farmyard manure and composts of lime and e nth, Waste matters removed from roads, ditches, and ponds, when composted "i;h lime are exjeliem dressings foe grass lands. These should be supplemented by superphosphate, dis- solved bone, basic slag, and kainit; and, if the farmyard manure is limited and poor in quality, by nitrate of soda. sulphate of ammonia, and othyr nitrogenous manures. Little and often" should be the rule of manuring. Heavy dressings en- courage the c.>arser varieties of grasses. To main- tain a mixed herbage there is nothing oqnat to farmyard manure, for experience has proved, that manuring succes-ively with nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia favours the growth of the grasses at the expsasa of the more nutritious clovers. To thicken and strengthen the herbage, the feeding of cattle or shaep with concentrated food, such as cotton or linseed cake on the land, is exceedingly helpfui. Professor Parry, in the paper already referred to, states "that the most economical method of restoring fertility to sadly neglects 1 pastures would be a liberal allowance of purchased foods to weil-hred and properly selected stock. Cowslips, primroses, daisies, &e, are an evil in themselves, and show that the land is being starved, just as rushes and sedges prove the need of drainage. Hustles, docks, and coltsfoot may also be trouble- some, and they cannot be destroyed wi hout constant use of scythe and spade. A heavy dressing of common salt after weeds are cut will destroy a large number of them. Gas lime is another good weed killer. In Wales moss is often very plentiful, and is difficult to remove. One of the best antidotes for moss is to give the grass a good dragging with heavy harrows, and then to apply 10 tons per acre of a mixture of lime and good earth, in the propor- tion of 1 ton of the formet to I tons of the latter. The harrow ing the rougher the better—removes the :r.ess, breaks up the hardened surface, allows a,*Ir to iea,.Ii til- roots and thus promotes healthy growth. It also allows manures and composts to tuier the S, il instead of being washed off from the surface. If manures are not applied the raoss will quick y return. After two crops of hay have been remaned the land is as a rule grazed for the remainder of the period during which it is allowed to recu; crate itself after the scourge of crops which it has yielded. Lan 1 cannot become richer if it anI) receive the droppings of the animab feeding upon it It is true that the plants will pump up food trum the subsoil, and during their doeay will leave this food in a slowly available state in the surface soil. The,land may also receive Nitrogen from the vast stores of the atmos'pheie in virtue of the power possessed by leguminous plants of making use of free Nitrogn. The elements of plant food taken from the soil will in part be returned to it in the dung and urine of the animals feeding upon it. Thit a considerable amount of plant food becomes locked up in the fljsh and bones of the animals and is lost t the farm when the animals are sold, will be proved by the following statistics. Reference is only n.ade to the more impoitant plant foods. Phosuhoric Nitrogen. Potash. Acid. Bullock (700 18 )ive weight) 17 1.} 10 Sheep (1000 Iba live weight) 20 1:3 12 Pig. (1000 lbs live weight) is 1-j 6 Wool (1K00 lbe) 51 56 1 Milk (1000 lbs) 6 2 2 It is thciefore clear that a large amount of plant food M removed from the land during the grRzirg period nnd very seldom is any manure applied After tome time the effects of this constant drain becomes evident. This is especially true of Phosphoiic Acid. Take the case of milk. Twenty milking ct!Nvs yielding on an average 600 gallons each per annum would remove in their milk 720 Ib. of Nitrog r, 210 lbs of Potash, and 210 lbs of Phosphoric AciJ, The Phosphoric Acid, because none in this case is got from the atmostphere, becomes scarce and the grass as a consequence becarms poor in quality. Note the words of Professor Parry half a ton per acre of basic slag applied in November to poor land will in the course ot 10 or 12 months have converted the harsh, woody, dingy, yellow-green htrbage, into early tender, nutritious grass of a dark green colour, and the effect will last for six or eight years if the land is only grazed." Two or three more points of importance and I have done. It is essential that the droppings of the animals during the grazing period should be spread evenly over the field. It this is not done the grass underneath is destroyed, and around each hpap of excreta springs up rank grass. These tufts the animals will not eat unless pressed hy hunger on account of the nearness of the manure Food and manure are thus wasted. If the droppings had been spread the whole field would have befn benefited. In the autumn we find on grazing land large number of grasses which have not been eaten by stock, and have, therefore, been allowed to run to seed. These wooden ripened grasses are indigestible and ccntaiu very littla nutriment. Besides, the grasses not grazed are the inferior ones. By allowing these to seed the farmer simply assists in their propagation, and they multiply in vast numbers in the pasturei. A much better plan would be to mow them down before they drop their seeds- The good grasses on the contrary are eagerly eaten by stock, hive no opportunity to develop seeds, and have, therefore, to d-pend upon any provision for reproduction, which Nature has placed in their roots or stolons. To those farmers who are prevented bv want of means from using the best seed and cleaning their land I offer my sympathy, but to those who shirk their work through negligence, laziness, or prejudice, I extend no sympathy whatever. It is true that Providence is lavish of her favours to all, but we must not expect Her to do everything for '.18. for true it also is that God help those who help themselves." Dr. R L. Thomas said that as far as this subject was concerned he considered himself a very young farmer indeed but he had 11 zn been long enough farming to agree with the n el lecturer in one thing, and that was the im- portance of cleaning grass land thoroughly before laying it down to permanent pasture. Last year at Parke lie laid down one of the largest fields in permanent pasture the year previous he had half of it under potatoes and green crops and the following year he put half of what remained under the same crop, with a liberal supply of farmyard manure. He covered the remainder of the field with superphosphate the following year he had a very good crop of corn, followed by a very regular crop of grass seeds on the ground where lie had grown the green crop. On the other part of the field, however—he did not know whether it was due to their having been in too much of a hurry to get the land set or what it might have been—the seeds did not come up quite so regular. He found a large number of thistles in it; he took it that the ground was not worked thoroughly. After harrowing the last time he used to send round a man with a pick and a rake to cut the "couch grass," and to bury it. That entailed some additional expense, but he found that it paid in the long run. There was one idea lie had picked up from Professor Parry's lecture—and that was the trying of the effects of different sorts of manure on the same field. In one field he had, he noticed that the cows did not grass the lattermath as lie should have liked. 0 He, therefore, gave it a dressing of lime and earth, and to part of it he gave a good supply of farmyard manure. The upper part of the field he did not touch at the time, because he had not enough manure to go over it ? He afterwards, how- ever, dressed the latter part with a mixture of nitrate of soda aud superphosphate. He found that in less than a month the growth of the grass thus treated had caught up with the rest of the field and in another fortnight it was actually higher People told him that he had forced all the good out of the land, and that lie would never get anything out of field again; but he had not noticed that it had been anything the worse of such treat- ment. When one spoke to farmers about the necessity of cleaning the land, their answer always was We all know that." Why then didn't they do it 1 Many farnqiers did pay attention to the cleaning of the land, but the great majority did not, As regarded the selection of seeds, he was afraid too that the farmers very often were not sufficiently care- ful. Some classes of seeds gave an excellent crop for a year or two, but they were no good after that. The light grasses were the curse of the country, for they choked up everything else. The farmers should not take the seeds- man's word for everytning. When they were buying seeds the merchant would sav Let me mix them for you 7" Instead of that they ought to buy the seed in separate packets, and do the mixing themselves. If they did that they would find the grass growing up in patches—one kind here and 41 another sort there. He paid Ri per acre for his seeds, and found it economy to do so. Those who thought lie had paid too much lie would I advise to look in his field next the road. Dry as the season has been, it would compare favourably with any in the district. Mr Thomas, CasteIIdrainog, said he did not know very much about the science and the theory to which Mr Llewellyn had referred but he had had any amount of practice. However, there were often great difficulties in the way of carrying out the theory altogether. As Mr Llewellyn had pointed out, before they did anything they should understand the quality of the land. Super- phosphate was the right thing for some fields others again required lime; and others, required something else. It was, therefore, their duty to find out what particular kind of manure the land was in need of. He also agreed that it was very important to have the land well cleaned they could not expect a good crop of grass except it had been well broken in a good rotation before letting it out to grass. When the land was being laid out, it ought to be well dressed with farmyard manure—not 20 tons an acre, but 40. He considered it best to make it fallow one year, and to lay it out next year. They could not afford to give earth and lime to every field they had, but he found that an application of four or five loads of earth to a ton of lime was always sure to pay. Of course it would not do to talk of doing things oil the same lines as they did in England. The English talked of three acres and a cow (laughter) but if they came to Wales they would want six acres before they could keep a cow. Mr John Phillips, Caerlleon, said that the remarks in the paper did not apply to Wales at all; but would do very well for England. Some of the best pasture in that district had been growing for the last hundred years the see(is had been in the ground for ages, and n splendid grass crops were taken off it in its natural state. These systems of sowing seeds might apply well enough to those parts of England where the soil had been utterly exhausted by growing crops of wheat, and where no grass would grow naturally. He did not see that there would be much economy in adopting Mr Llewellyn's ideas. Farmers did not use their best land for corn and as they were rearing young horses, they were only exercising them at the work, and really improving them by giving them some- to do. They, therefore, when they let out the land to grass, only did it for three years or so; there was, therefore, no necessity tor them to go in for expensive seeds. Mr Lewis, Tynewydd, thought it would be a very good thing if the Club would buy manure on the co-operative principle. The farmers would then be able to have it much cheaper and they could have analyses made, and when they found out which was the best, they could always procure what they wanted from that firm. Mr Thomas, Ffynoncyll, said he thought Mr Llewelyn's advice very good but it was very hard for the farmers to carry it out now that they found it so difficult to make both ends meet. Mr Houffignac said that now when there were so many different kinds of seeds in the market, it was very necessary to be careful in making a selection. Seeds should practically be'bought under the microscope—so careful should the buyer be that he was getting what he asked for. It might also assist the farmers if they were to read the agricultural papers, by which means they would be able to read the lectures of eminent authorities on agricul- tural subjects, and so keep themselves informed of any new ideas that came out. Mr Williams, Lan Mill, said that the whole science of manuring resolved itself into a question of give and take. They could not expect to take away any element in the form of crops without returning it in the shape of manure. It was Just like a man doing a day's work he could not do anything except he got his meals. In the same way, they could not take anything out of the land with- out putting something into it. Dr Williams said he believed, from what he had heard, that the best thing to do was to find out what particular crop each field was best suited to and, as far as possible, to grow that crop upon it. Mr Griffiths, Llwyndewi, said it would undoubtedly be a fine thing if they could do as "Mr Llewellyn had said but the evil of it was that they had neither the time nor the money to do so. He instanced the particular method of laying out land to grass which he should like to adopt himself; but which he did not adopt. He agreed that it was best, as a rule, not to harrow in grass seeds but there were exceptions. When the seeds were too lightly covered, they sprouted up with the first shower of rain—only to be killed by the sun. He did not think they would see much clover or Timothy" this year. He had sown some Lucerne some three or four years ago, and none of it had come up he top-dressed the field this year with two or three tons of basic slag and some farmyard manure, and the Lucerne was to be seen there now. Mr Llewelyn, in responding, said that the criticisms passed upon his paper had been mostly of a friendly character. He sympathised with those farmers who were unable to clean their land on account of the deficiency of means when the land, however, was not cleaned in consequence of the negligence or laziness of the farmer, he had no sympathy whatever (laughter). There was, however, one gentleman who thought the paper altogether unsuitable to Wales. A black sheep would be found in every flock. lIe considered that gentleman's ideas the most marvellous he had ever heard. The latter seemed to contend that the Almighty sowed the seeds at the time of the creation and that they had retained their vitality uni^l i l,resf?nt day. He (Mr Llewelyn) held that Providence came in after man had done his work if they left too much to providence they would become bankrupts. Providence required to be assisted they J I10!" ^eave too much to Providence. God helps those who help themselves." Mr John Phillips said that Mr Llewelyn had misrepresented what he had said. What he said was that the seed was in the ground for a hundred years or more j and that the Hc4ure, waf ln°i'e suitable for the barren land of England which had been exhaused by the growing of corn and wheat for years. He ••rl \er.y J'luch like Mr Llewelyn to pay a visit to his farm and see if it was neglected. n He challenged Mr Llewelyn to take a farm, and, after paying the rent, to show a balance on the right side. That was the best test of all. THE RAFFLE then took place with the following results Tarpaulin, Dr Williams breaking tackle, Mr Howell, Cefncloch sheep trough, Mr John Beynon, Trewern cart bridle, Mr S. Bowers cart jack, Mr Hughes, Llwvnpiner pair of machine straps, Dr Thomas carriage rug, Mr Thomas, Ffynoncyll cart rope, Mr Owen, Llanllue; watering-can, Dr Lawrence pair of machine straps, Mr John Scourfield sheep shears, Rev T. David and Mr P. N. Owen hay forks, Mr Williams, Lan, and Mr Thomas, Bwlchgwynt sheep shears, Mr Thomas, Llwyngwydd whips, Mr Owen, Llwynderw, and Mr Llewelyn, Trewern,

-_n'. Indigestion.

ICarmarthen County Police…

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!Carmarthen Board of Guardians.


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