THE BISHOP OF EXETER. IIENRicus-so the prelate signed his name- Was Lord High Chancellor in things religious; With him church militant in truth became (Nam cedant anna toga)) church litigioui • He kept his deacons notably in awe By flowers epistolar perfumed with law. No man more stern, more fortiter in re, No man more mild, more suaviter in )njclr, When knots grew tough, it was sub'^e to see Such polished sheers go clipping in nodo: A hand so supple, pliant, glib a-"ld quick, Ne'er smooth'd a band or bn-aed a heretic. He seem'd to turn to you his willing cheek, And beg you 11"t to smite too hard the other He seized his victims witil a smile so meek, And wept so fondly o'er his erring brother, No wolf more righteous on a lamb could sup, You vexed his stream—he grieved—and eat you up. King Arthur. --MM7:=
@ lraning.5. WHY is a schoolmistress like the letter C 'Because she forms lasses into classes. WHY is a man who carries a watch invariably too late in his appointments ?—Because he is always BEHIND his time. WHEN is a butler like a mountain ?- \Vhen he looks down on a VALLEY (valet). WHY is a tight shoe like a fine summer ?—Because it makes the corn grow. A IIINT TO FORGETFUL SUBSCRIBERS.-—" Father, what does the printer live on?" Why, child?" Because you said you hadn't paid him for two years, and you still take the paper."— American Paper. WOODEN BrpAii.-Dr. Percy does not specify distinctly the class of cases for which this new article of belly timber is suitable but we should think it especially adapted to parties on board wages.—Punch. IN the County Court at Runcorn, a verdict having been given against the defendant in a cause, his wife observed to the plaintiff, You may as well take his body, as he's no good tome." A FRENCH YANKEE.—A Frenchman was recently seen bar- gaining for half-a-dozen sheep. What are you about ? said a friend. I have heard say," replied Monsieur, you must buy sheep and sell dear. I shall buy de sheep and sell de venison No BAD SUBSTITUTE.—" What makes the milk so warm ?" said Betty to the milk-woman when she brought her pails to the door one morning. H Please, mum, the pump-handle's broke, and missus took the water from the biler." DemIED ALIVE.—Near the baptismal font in St. Andrew's church, Plymouth, is a monument with this inscription:— ■ "Here lies the body of James Vernon, Esq., only surviving son of Admiral Vernon. Died 25th July, 1753." AN absurd poet of modern days has made the remark, "Bright things will never die. This is utterly false. A friend of ours, who lately had a bright red head of hair, made an attempt to transform it into a rich brown with the greatest success. It was found to dye beautifully.—Man in the Moon. A TRAVELLER who ascended Snowdon to see the sun rise, found the mountain envoloped in fog. On his descent, being asked what he thought of the view, he replied that he did not know, for by some accident it had been entirely mist, but that he felt great sympathy with the Welsh mountain, as he himself had been snoxced on all the way down." MARRIAGEABLE You are the very person I wanted," said a lady, at a ball recently given in this neigh- bourhood, to an officer of the 9th. You must dance with Miss Come, I'll introduce you to her." "Excuse me, I am no dancer." Oh, but you can't refuse now-she is a pretty girl, and has thirty thousand pounds." Why, really, I am not a marrying man myself, but, if your ladyship pleases, I'll mention her to our mess." WHAT IS LAW LIKE ?—Law is like a country dance people are led up and down in it till they are tired out.—Law is like a book of surgery—there are a great many terrible cases in it.- It is like physic, too, they that take the least of it are the best C)ff.-It is like a homely gentleman, very well to follow," and a scolding wife, very bad when it follows us.—Law is like a new fashion, people are bewitched to get into it; and "like bad weather," most people are glad to get out of it. A GOOD WIFE.—When a daughter remarks—" Mother, I would not hire help, for I can assist you to do all the work of the kitchen," set it down that she will make somebody a good wife.- Uncle Sam. I SAY, Dick, don't you think that if the women had to do the fighting instead of men, they would make cruel work of it? "No; why do you ask?" "Because I think they would, they have such an ENGAGING way with them." "That's very true; but then they have such CAPTIVATING ways, that there doubtless would be more prisoners than killed." SCRUPULOUSLY MODEST.—A young lady reprimanded her shoemaker for not following her directions respecting a pair of Shoes which she had ordered and, among other things, insisted that they were not fellows. Crispin replied, that he purposely made them so, in order to oblige her, well knowing the chastity of her disposition, that she was not fond of felloics. CHILDREN'S "INWARD NATURE.—Writers on education, in treating of children, have much to say about appealing to their inward nature." The doctrine was practically illustrated in School-street. A lady, finding some difficulty in making a couple of children walk from church in a becoming manner, said :—" If you behave so, see if you don't have to take some castor oil as soon as you get home." The children immedi- ately drew up demurely by her side, and moved along as gravely as mutes.—Boston Post. A DutTY HAND.—Dr. Wall, once at a dinner party, very unwisely persisted in playing with a cork in such a manner as displayed a hand long divorced from the lavatory. One guest happened to express his surprise to another, and in too loud a whisper exclaimed, "Heavens, what a dirty hand!" The doctor overheard, and turning sharply round, said, Sir, I'll bet you a guinea, there is a dirtier in the company." Done," replied the first, sure of winning. The guineas were staked, and the doctor showed his other hand. He was judged to have won without a dissentient voice, A FAIR OFFER.—It was Rowland Hill's habit to ride to chapel in an old family carriage, a practice too aristocratic in the judgment of one of his flock, who determined to rebuke it. It was customary in his chapel for notes to be sent to the pulpit, requesting prayers for various objects. One Sunday Mr. Hill was proceeding with the reading of these requests as usual, when he found himself in the midst of one of the following z, purport li-ityera are requested for the Hev. Mr. Hill, that he may be more humble, and like his Divine Master, who, instead of riding in a carriage, was content to be borne on an ass." Having read the notice, he lifted his spectacles to his forehead, and, looking round the chapel, observed that it was true he had been guilty of the fault alleged but if the writer would, step round to the vestry door after service, saddled and bridled, he would have no objection to try to rille home, after his Master's example, on the back of an ass. OTTER HUNTING.—Since the sale of the celebrated Brecon Otter Hounds to the Marquis of Worcester, some three years ago, these great enemies to the finny tribe" have, in the neighbourhood of Brecon, had comparative quiet but now their reign of repose is again disturbed, old Tom Martin, the huntsman to theBreeonshire harriers, having set about training some of the latter for otter hounds, and most effectually does he seem to have done it, for on Monday morning last, about five o'clock, old Tom, with three sons, and two or three lookers-on, sallied forth in search of one; and at the top of Newton Pool came upon the drag, which the hounds hunted well as far as Penant, in the direction of Colonel Watkin's lake and here the otter had turned down again to the Usk (unless, indeed, we came upon a fresh one) we followed the hounds, with a good drag, to Aberyskir Pool, where from a "cold blow" we got to a "hot" one; and in Aberbran Pool the hounds came to a in a very celebrated hold, which extends for some distance under the Bradow. And here, after a good deal of fighting and poking" with sticks, two fine otters were unken- neled, and afforded about two hours' capital hunting, till, being hard pushed, they again tried the "hold," when one of Tom's sons was placed with a spear, who secured one (the bitch), the other effecting its object and getting beyond our reach. The one we secured was carried on a spear to the mill, at Aberbran (we not having a sack), where she contrived to get off the spear. Much to the annoyance of the females there, she got out of the mill site, and under the wheel, from whence we had some diffi- culty in getting her. She was, however, at last "bagged," brought to Brecon, and in the afternoon turned out in the Ilonddu, and afforded an hour's excellent sport to about 300 or 400 spectators. She was killed under the Old Castle, having been let off in the Priory Groves. Her weight was 221bs. This is the first,, and we wish old Martin much success.—Correspon- dent of the Silurian.
"rural iNfISS EDGL-,VORTII.-DITBLIN, MAY 23.—Itis stated ^^Mders's News Letter of this morning that an illustrious A'lshwoman, Maria Edgeworth, is no more. She died after a few hours' illness, at Edgeworths-town, on the morning of Monday. Up to a very recent period she had been in the pos- session of excellent spirits and health. MR. THOMAS DUNCOMBE-.—We are happy to announce that Mr. Duncombe took his seat in the House this evening, shortly after Mr. Berkeley had commenced his speech on the ballot. The hon. representative for Finsbury, who had not been in the House since the swearing in of the new Parliament, ap- peared in excellent spirits, though he bore about him the traces of ill-health and coughed a little. He was shaken most cordially by the hand by several members of her Majesty's government, and by all the well-known Reformers and Radicals in the IIouse.-Sun, 25th May. SERIOUS ACCIDENT TO DR. CANDLISH.—We regret to learn that as Dr. Candlish was descending the stair in his house in Charlotte-street, on Saturday, he unfortunately missed his footing and fell, by which he sustained a severe fracture in one of his arms, and received other injuries. The rev. doctor was, of course, unable to attend to his pulpit ministrations on Sun- day, but we are glad to learn that he is progressing favourably. -Edinburgh Courant. r, Y. WHOLESALE POISONING IN BELGIUM.—We read the following in the C'hronique de Courtrai:—" Sad rumours are afloat re- specting the seminary at Bruges. It appears that at the com- mencement of the Easter holydays at that seminary, about 150 pupils quitted their studies to visit their families, On arriving at their homes the next day a great number of them were seized with severe pains all over the body and in thi chest, and were obliged to keep their beds. The bishop being in- formed of this circumstance immediately appointed a commis- sion to visit all the patients, in order that the cause of this malady might be known. The commission commenced the inquiry, and unfortunately learned that about 80 of the students had been poisoned. On this account only 50 were present at the consecration of Dr. Malou, at Bruges. Four have since died, amongst them M. Marquet, who died at the residence of one of his relations, at Palinchove. M. Marquet was the laureat at the College of Courtrai two years ago, and was one of the most distinguished pupils of the seminary at Bruges. The authorities at Furnes on being made acquainted with the sud- den decease of M. Marquet, repaired to Palinchove, and after a post mortem examination of che body, proved that he died from the effects of poison. This occurrence is attributed to the negligence or want of care on the part of the cook of the semi- nary at Bruges." THE WESLUYAN METHODISTS.—Although the Conference will not meet until the end of July, the appointment of President begins to agitate the Wesleyans. The Rev. Thomas Jackson, Theological Tutor at Richmond, is the Tory candidate; and the Rev. Joseph Fowler, the present Secretary, is the Liberal one. As Dr. Newton, now President, declines any further official ap- pointment, Dr. Hannah, Theological Tutor at Didsbury, will probably be chosen Secretary. DEPRECIATION OF RAIL WAYPROPERTY.—Itis estimated, on the authority of witnesses connected with railways, who have been examined before the House of Lords, that the alarm lately oc- casioned by recent disclosures has had the effect, taking the aggregate of railways, of depressing that species of property to the extent of £ 10,000,000 or E12,000,000 sterling during the last three months. BRITANNIA-BRIDGE.—On Friday, 18th ult., a concert was held in one of the gigantic tubes intended to form the Britannia- bridge, about to be erected over the Henai. Candles placed by couples in four alternate tiers (two and two), about 500 in number, illuminated the scene. The music, vocal and instru- mental, was excellent, and traversed the immense length of tubing with scarcely diminished volume. The whole effect, i to the eye as well as the. ear, was most pleasing—the brilliantly- lighted perspective being at least 157 yards long. The breadth z, of the tube is nearly 15 feet, and its height about 30 feet. Up- wards of GOO of the elite of the neighbourhood occupied the front of the orchestra, and the other end of the tube was crowded with working people. All appeared delighted with the pro- ceedings.- Globe. THE MANCHESTER EXeHANGE.-On May 21st the Manchester Exchange, which has been partially closed for some time past in consequence of an extension of the south end, at a cost of nearly ;C 18,000, was re-opened to the subscribers, and the interior is now one of the largest rooms in the kingdom. The new portion is an erection of Derbyshire stone, in blocks of immense size, with a portico fronting to the south, and abutting upon St. Anne's square, in the Grecian-Doric style, from designs by Mr. Alexander Mills, and the building will have an exceedingly noble and imposing appearance when completed but at present the proprietors have postponed the reconstruction of the north end till their funds are in a more flourishing condition, or, at least, until they can form an idea how far the subscribers are likely to meet the increased demands which will be necessary in the shape of subscriptions. The total area of the floor is 1,628 square yards, being nearly 300 yards larger than that of Exeter-hall, and 600 larger than that of the Birmingham Town- 11 9 hall The completion of the extension buildings was celebrated on Friday night by a ball in aid of the baths and washhouses funds.-Globe.. IN London, on Saturday, the customs officers detected 100 tin cases, each containing a roll of tobacco, concealed in as many rolls of Dutch butter. A PEOPLE'S COLLEGE," where the working classes may re- ceive a university education at a cheap rate, on the plan of that established at Sheffield by the Rev. R. S. Bayley, is about to be established in Norwich at the expense of a gentleman of fortune. SIR JAMES GRAHAM has withdrawn his name from the Carlton Club, and upon this hint it is proposed to expel the rest of the Peelites. GOOD EXAMPLE.—Mr. Morritt, of Rokeby, has intimated his intention of reducing all his rents in conformity with free- trade prices. RAVAGES OF RATS.—The Norwich Mercury says that in the neighbourhood of Lynn there are many acres of land completely barren, owing to the ravages of the rats, which are this season more numerous than they were ever before known to be. The farmers have been severe sufferers from these destructive ver- min, and notwithstanding every precaution, the crops are ma- terially injured. THE EFFECTS or FEAR.—As a young woman was passing Weymouth churchyard a few days since, in the dusk of the evening, i young dog jumped through the rails suddenly as she passed. She immediately walked to her father's house, about one hundred yards from the spot, and had seven fits; she ex- pired on the day follolviii,Bi-istol ONE MISSING.—-The Rev. F. Coyles, in a lecture on memory, delivered at Adelaide (reported in the South Australian Register), instanced stage-drivers, whose memory of the orders and direc- tions given them is remarkable. He once rode outside with the owner and driver of a stage from Troy to the land of the Knickerbocker the driver could not have had less than fifty parcels and messages to deliver by the way but he was at a loss, he knew he had forgotten one parcel, but "ding him if he could remember what it was." At length the stage arrived at his own door, when his children came running out with a NVelcoiiie home, Pa; but, oil, where did you leave Ma?" May I be teetotally scorched (said he) if I hain't forgot Sail. That was the missing parcel. MELANCHOLY DEATH BY DROWNING.—Mr. Thos. Williams, of Blaengwin, Llangendeirne, was found drowned in the Towy near Rhydygorse, on Sunday morning the 13th ult. Deceased, on the previous day, Saturday, carne to Carmarthen, whence he returned late at night towards home. Being at the time much intoxicated tie fell off his horse. He walked back to town and endeavoured to procure admission to the house at which he usually put up. Failing in this object, it is supposed that he wandered about, and in getting on the quav fell into the river. An inquest was held on the body. Verdict, "Accidental Death." MR. II. NORRINGTON states (in the Hants Independent) that out of 167 criminals hung, 164 had been spectators of hangings."—It seems that they followed the" moral example." MR. JOSEPH HUIB, M.P.Ve regret to learn that our member, Mr. Iltune, has been for some time past labouring under severe indisposition, arising from an attack of water in the chest. We observe he has been unable to attend to his duties in Parliament during the last week—a circumstance which, from his usual regularity in the House, we fear, indicates that the disease is rather serious.—Montrose Standard.—The Daily News says there is no truth iu the paragraph which has been extensively circulated that the hon. member for Montrose has had a serious attack of water on the chest. This report has caused much anxiety, and many inquiries from Mr. Hume's large circle of friends; and we are requested to state that he has so far recovered from the attack of influenza under which he has been suffering, that the hon. gentleman has gone to Norfolk to recruit his strength, and will, it is believed, resume z, his place in Parliament in about a week.
fatto m liguru. 4*. BANKRUPTCY.—It is calculated that the loss inflicted annually on creditors by carelessly, improvident, reckless, and bankrupt tradesmen, is upwards of E50,000,000 sterling. REPORTING alone costs each paper from JE60 to £100 a week and it is much doubted whether such expense and such space are at all repaid by the interest which the public take in reading these debates at length.-Daily Neics. EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND.—From a Parliamentary document just printed it appears that, in 1848-49, the sum of £ 16,434 3s. 8d. was granted for educational purposes in Scotland, of which £3,291 2s. 3d. was given to the established church, L 12,521 1 ls. 5d. to the Free Church, and £ 328 10s. to other denomina- tions. EXCISE DUTIES. REPEALED.-A return obtained by Mr. Hodges, MP., shows that since the year 1800 certain Excise duties have been repealed, which duties were formerly levied on auctions (repealed in 1845), beer (repealed in 1830), til,s- -(in 1833), candles (in 1832), cyder and perry (in 1830), glass (in 1845), hides and skins (in 1830), printed goods (in 1831), salt (in 1825), starch (in 1834), sweets and mead (in 1834), vinegar (in 1844), and wire (in 1826). BRITISH SHIPPING.-The tonnage last year was 3,817,112, manned by 229,275 seamen; the capital is estimated at £ 38,171,120, besides a further capital, involved in the several trades connected with it, of £ 15,983,607, making an aggregate of £ 54,154,727- In construction and equipment, employment is given to 79,517 artisans and labourers, and XIO,722,538 is annually expended in building and repairs, of which E-1,968,104 is .paid in wages to workmen; and the yearly amount paid for wages and victualling of seamen is k9,218,806, while the freights earned are £ 28,628,290. POPULATION OF GREECE,—From a census recently taken by order of the Greek government, it appears that the total popu- lation of Greece, including the Peloponnesus, continental Greece, and the Cyclades, is 993,351. SLAVERY IN AMERICA.—The value of men enslaved in the United States has been estimated by an American senator at 1,000,000,000 dollars; or in sterling, about £ 200,000,000. THE COLONIES.-It appears from a parliamentary return, that the North-American possessions of Great Britain, which in- clude Canada, Nova Seotia, Prince Edward's Island, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and Bermuda, entailed a total e x- pense, for the live years ended the 31st March, 1847, of £ 2,646,094, for the pay of troops and commissariat expenses our West Indian possessions cost £ 1,779,337; our Mediter- ranean and African possessions, including Gibraltar, Malta, the Ionian Islands, the Cape Colony, Sierra Leone, Gambia, the settlements on the Gold Coast, and St. Helena, £ 3,170,988, and the Australian and miscellaneous possessions an expense of £ 2,052,235. It follows, that the colonial empire of Great Britain entailed upon the mother country, for the five years ended the 31st of March, 1847, a gross total cost of £ 9,742,354 solely for the pay of her Majesty's troops and the commissariat expenses, being, on an average, nearly E2,000,000 per annum. ACCIDENTS IN MINES.—From a paper in the Mining Almanac for the current year we learn that, during the year 1843, no fewer than 256 persons lost their lives in consequence of explo- sions of fire damp in various mines of this country. The total number of accidents in mines from various causes was 403, oc- casioning death to 567 individuals, and injury to 237. Nor is this an isolated excess of disaster: for we find by another table that in 1847 there were 488 accidents, 623 deaths, and 106 in- juries totalcasualties, 819. It is to be hoped that the attention of the legislature and of scientific men recently drawn to this subject by these appalling statistics, will ultimately lessen the number of these accidents. REPORT OP TJIE IRISH INSPECTORS OF PRISONS FOR 1S48.— The 27th report of the Inspectors-General on the general state of the prisons in Ireland in the year 1848 has been lately issued in the shape of a blue-book of some 110 pages. It states that the annals of that unhappy country never before exhibited such a numerical array of criminal cases as appears in the returns for the year, which exceed the preceding by 34,105 cases. The inspectors observe that this startling fact would almost induce them to acquiesce in the opinion so generally and so confidently stated that a general demoralization had begun to manifest itself amongst the population of the country. They do not, however, feel constrained to arrive at so disheart- ening a result. The excess in the number of offenders is mainly attributable to the increase of larcenies and petty thefts during the late severe pressure of distress in Ireland. Lar- cenies have multiplied," says the report, because, ordinarily, men will steal food rather than die but to such as have made criminal compliance with necessity must be added vast numbers who, without the means of earning a subsistence, and unable to procure charitable aid, notoriously appropriated articles of trilling value that they might obtain the shelter of a prison under the guise of commitment for a criminal offence. Mailing just abatements for these two classes, giving to actual larceny its extenuation, and to that which was less morally than technically such its valid excuse, we shall find such diminution in the ostensible amount of crime as will induce reflecting minds to pause before they pronounce unmeasured invective on the Irish people. The inspectors urge the expediency of making the earliest possible provision for separating reclaimable from incorrigible, or what may be classified as professional criminals, and so avoiding the consequences of the moral contamination consequent upon their promiscuous inter- course. The total number of persons confined in the prisons of Ireland during the year amounted, inclusive of debtors, to 9,795. TrtADE RETURNS.—The accounts issued by the Board of Trade for the first quarter in the present year, show that the exports for the three months amount to £ 12,338,871, against £ 11,065,297 in 1848, and EII,343,117 in 1S47. The imports during the quarter have proportionately augmented. In cotton, sheep's wool, and flax, they show a large increase, though in hemp and silk there is a slight falling off. The quantity of grain entered for consumption has been immense—viz. wheat, 1,677,801 quarters, against 254,248 quarters in 1848, and 394,418 quarters in 1847 wdiile of flour the quantity entered has been 1,424,642 cwts. against 228,008, in 1848, and 1,476,789 in 1847. The quantity of wheat and flour thus entered for consumption is equal to about 2,200,000 quarters, and flour and meal to 1,524,551 ewts. We are told that a large portion of the inferior grain imported is used for feeding cattle. There has been a considerable augmentation of the exports of cotton manufactures and twists, as well as of silk, woollen, and linen fabrics. In metals we observe no great alteration—except as regards articles of copper, including sheathing and tin plates, the exports of which have considerably increased. We may add that the tonnage employed in the foreign trade has experi- enced a proportionate advance. STATISTICS OF CRIME IN IRELAND.—A blue-book has lately been published, containing tables of the number of criminal offenders committed for trial in Ireland, or bailed for appear- ance at the assizes in each county during the year 1818, which gives some details worth quoting. It shows that the grand total number of criminals tried at assizes and quarter sessions er se amounted to 38 552, and the number of suti-iii-i: i-y convictions at petty sessions and police-offices to 49,717. The number of persons committed for drunkenness was 12,302. The report fuither shows that the great scarcity of food and general dis- tress that have lately prevailed in Ireland, together with the evils arising from recent political agitation, have operated upon the criminal returns in a deplorable manner, and produced a state of social prostration but faintly indicated even by the statistics adduced. The results of this state of things have been greatly aggravated by the deficiency of gaol accommodation in Ireland, and the consequent accumulation of offenders in a small compass. In all the most serious offences a large increase has occurred. The committals for the year (38,552) exhibit an increase of 7,313, or 23.43 per cent. In class No. 1, "offences against the parson with violence," the increase is 31.12 per cent. j in class No. 2, offences against property with vio- lence," the increase is nearly 15 per cent. in class No. 3. "offences against property without violence," the increase is 12 per cent. and in class No. 4, "malicious offences against property," the increase is in the fearful ratio of 188.47 per cent. The total number of persons convicted last year was 18,206, of whom 60 were sentenced to death 2,698 to transportation 12,968 to imprisonment and 2,235 to be fined, whipped, or discharged. The total number of persons acquitted and dis- charged amounted to 20,316. Of the. 60 capital offenders only 23 were executed the include the four sentences of death for high treason just affirmed by the House of Lords against Mr. William S. O'Brien and his confederates. The proportion of convictions to acquittals was in the ratio of 47.26 to 52.74 per cent. The returns relative to the state of instruction continue to show a decrease in the number of instructed offenders," but the number of unascertained cases, namely, 28.43 per cent., is too large to render them of much value. Of the number com- mitted in 1848, 17.88 per cent. could read and write 11.43 per cent, could read only 42,25 per cent. could neither read nor write and of 21.13 per cent. the qualifications were not ascer- tained. Such are the most salient points noticeable in this me'ancholy report.
Emigrants eolmnn. EMIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA.—The following is an extract of a letter from New South Wales, dated December 10, 1S48 :— We have this. year a fine harvest and plenty of raiii--iiatureis as liberal of her smiles as she was last year of-her frowns but the want of labour is severely felt. I have at this moment wheat spoiling on the field, and such reapers as I have beelt able to procure receive each 10s. per acre, as much meat, breadi tea, and sugar as they require, and three pints of wine per diem! The newly arrived immigrants are astounded at such profusion, and, with starvation iii the mother-country, we are unable to save a rich harvest in her colonies. Here the word gleaner' is obsolete. The great depression in the price of wool has affected us all—many have to refund thousands to the merchants, and, from comparative wealth, can scarcely obtain the next year's supplies. Rapid immigration, by lowering the scale of wages, would in a great measure remedy these fluctua- tions in the price of our principal commodity. Though not prejudiced in favour of this colony, my observation and experi- ence here, as in many parts of the world, point out this country as the spot for a man of small, ay; or of large eapital to com- mence operations in. With every variety of soil, embracing every climate—with the rapidly increasing population of the neighbouring islands rendering this ere long the great mart of the south, here is a field adapted to the pursuits, energies, and capacities of ail." A FORTUNATE EMIGRANT.—We learn from an emigrant's letter to his friends, at Coate, Oxfordshire, that he (the emi- grant) left home in March, 1848, and is now in Australia hired as an agricultural labourer, at L22 a year, and rations of lOlbs. of beef,, flour in proportion, 2ibs. of sugar, and a quarter of a pound of tea weekly. At the harvest which was (at the date of his letter) nearly at hand, he would have an increase of wages. His companions, who had emigrated with him, were hired immediately upon landing at corresponding good wages. FARMING IN SOUTlf AUSTRALIA.—The mode of farming is as simple as any townsman need wish. In the first place the land is cleared, if iieccssary if not, the plough is at once put into the ground, and dragged on by a team of six good strong bullocks; one man drives, another holds the plough, and. between them they break up one acre a day. The ploughing docs not commence until the laud has been softened by the ram, which commences in May. The rainy season is called the winter but this name gives but a poor idea of that season to persons who have been accustomed to the frost and snow of a winter in England. Then; is no frost or snow, or, more strictly speaking, it is so rare an occurrence, that I only once remember having seen ice, and that was in a cold hilly district, When the wet season has commenced ploughing begins, and as many acres as are required are broken up. Ouce ploughing is all the laud generally gels. Seed is then sown broad-cast, and well scratched in by heavy harrows the wheat .beius; covered over, the work is cone. By the time the blade appears above the soil the fencing should be completed, to prevent the cattle from intruding. This is all that is done until the orairi has lipened and needs cutting. The whole process is most simple, "either dressing nor fallowing the land is required. Wheat is sown one year; and wheat the next; and this has been carried on for some years oil the same land, without appearing to diminish the fertility of the soil. On this account persons who have not before been accustomed to who, when they arrived, scarcely knew the end by which to draw the plough, sailors or soldiers, weavers or town mechanics, clerks, shopmen, surgeons or lawyers, have turned from their several occupations, at almost a week's notice, and proved themselves creditable farmers. To such an extent had farming prospered, by the natural fertility of the soil and the industry -with which it had been cultivated, that much more produce was raised in 1842 than could be consumed in the colony, and grain and flour to the amount of £Ð,280 8s. was exported "to other countries whereas the value of the same articles imported only two years before amounted to £ 53,202. In the year 1844, the discovery of minerals had lessened the number of acres of wheat under cultivation to 23,918, but even this was too large a quantity for the men to reap. Almost any sum, either in reason or out of reason, was offered for reapers, and they could not be obtained. Gentlemen and ladies sallied out armed with sickles, and, as I have heard, even with com- mon scissors, to do their best, that the corn might be saved. The military and police formed in rank, and bravely attacked the standing corn. Much was gathered in; but, aLer all. many hundred acres of splendid wheat rotted on the ground* The next year was the same, as regarded the flourishing crous. and although many emigrants had arrived from the neighbour- ing colonies, almost the same scene happened again. ° It is a true saying, that necessity is the mother ot invention, and so it was in this case particularly, for in 1815 appeared a machine, invented by^ Mr. Ridley, a colonist, and manufactured jii Adelaide, which, being driven before bullocks or horses through the standing corn, plucked off the ears, beat the corn from the husk, then, winnowing it as it went along, turned it out into bags at the other end of the field, ready for the market. This was all performed very rapidly, at an expense of about 7s. an acre. Such as I have described is about the state of South Australia at the present tune. All trades and| occupations are only kept back from greater prosperity by the want of labourers. The mildness and salubrity of the climate is not to be excelled in any part of the globe. The inhabitants are almost exempt from disease. Food is in abundance, so much so, that the inhabitants arc unable to consume it. In fact, every induce- ment is held out to all who are ready to exert themselves; no man need there starve no man need begrudge another's food. There is enough for all and to spare, and it may truly be called a land of health, wealth, and prosoerilv.— \Vilkinson s Handbook. YE have papers from Port Philip to the 14th January. The emigrants that had arrived in the colony were immediately absorbed at high rates of wages, and it is stated that quadra- pie the number would apparently make no impression in the? labour market. This is encouraging intelligence to intewhng emigrants, provided that attention is paid to those departments of labour in requisition in a new colony. Animal food was at such a low rate thai legs of mutton were sold for 6d. in Mel- bourne, and fat bullocks, weighing 7 cwt., were sold at X2 15s. per head. EXTENT OF AUSTRALIA.—Australia is nearly as large as the whole of Europe, while its population does not exceed that of Wiltshire or Northumberland. In England there are 206 per- sons to the square mile Australia has twelve square miles to each person. The its of New South Wales are not quite two hundred thousand, the cattle 2,000,000, the sheep 8,000,000, being about 13 head of oxen and 50 sheep for each person. In the Legislative Assembly of New South Wales, in June of the past year (1847), it was stated that in this year no less than 64,QOO,OOGibs. of meat, would be waited, sufficient tofeed 'nearly a nullwtt and a lwlf i f these people whu were either underfed, or almost starving in England and Ireland." The only want in Australia is labour. Much corn is often left to shed for want of a sufficient number of reapers, and the wool is injured for the lack ol shearers. Large numbers of and sheep are actually boiled down for tallow. The wages given in these settlements are usually as follonv :-Sli(TT)- shearers, 12s. 6d. per day; reapers, 10s.; whilst shepherds and ordinary farm and other labourers receive from £25 to £ 35 per annum in money payments, in addition to which they are com- fortably housed and receive the following rations weekly, which in England would fully be wurth as follow :— s. d. lOlbs. of fresh meat, at 5d. per lb 4 2 lolbs. of liolir, at 2d. per lb 1 8 21bs. of sugar, at 4d. per lb 0 8 ill), of tea, at 5s. 4d. per lb 1 4 Tobacco i () Per week 8 10 or the annual value of Where there is a wife and family, they are provided with an equally proportionate abundance. I he facts here adduced must convince all those who have no invincible repugnance to leaving their native land, that a now home in' Australia offers many substantial comforts, not to be obtained in this country, where competition from year to year is oecommg more and more severe. Moreover, if the colony, through the influx of further labour, were-lrought rapidly into culture, it could send us additional supplies of produce and row cotton enough for the whole consumption ofo-,ir manufac- tures. Nor would the benefit stop at this point, as British produce would be taken in payment of Australian produce, and thus home industry would be powerfully stimulated by colonial trade. Ihe following will show the importance of colonics under commercial views, as compared with foreign commerce. Of British produce the annual consumption is by- Prussia, GeL per head I Russia, 8d. France, Is. Ccl, United States, 5s. 8d. Canada, £ 1 los. per head West Indies, £2 17s. 6d. Cape of Good Hope, i;3 2s. Australia, from £ 7 to £ 10.
THE ships at Greenland this year have suffered considerably from the immense quantities of ice, and the severity of the weather. Two vessels, the William Ward and the Pledge, of Hull, were lost; crews saved, but many of the men with frost- bitten toes, &c. •