FARMING NOTES. (fWm The Snral World.") SUMMER FALLOWS. June ie the month (advises the able writer on c "Seasc,nht)ye Farmin" in the Rural World) for makmg real progress in summer fallow making. The days are long, nights are short, and the sun has great; power. Thus, if the plough and scuffle are kept dili- gently at. work most cf the weeds ought to be killed before the month expires, so as to admit of teams being spared for haymaking. Then between hay and harvest there is an opportunity to finish off the clean- ing process and open the ground to aerate and freshen for the vilieat crop to be sown at Michaelmas. Where fallowing is completed in good time, as may be the rase this year on the not over clayey soils, mustard might be sown in July, so as to give a substantial green crop for feeding off by sheep or ploughing in for manure. In either case the land would get a useful manorial dressing, and thus save drawing on the dunghill, which seldom holds out for all crops that need fertilising, I am much in favour of fertilising ground with green crops, and consider the practice has been too much overlooked by many farmers of late years. Only by generously manuring can bonntiful crops be produced. Twitch and thistles are the most troublesome weeds to deal with in fallow-making, and in the process of dealing with them other weeds are killed as a matter of common result. Indeed, no fallowing will make clean work of thistles, because they root so deeply in the earth. But the constant working of the soil kills many and weakens others. The great secret in fallow-making is to keep plenty of soil-i,e., to work the land each successional time well from the bottom or hearth. For want of deep working many farmers find they have scarcely any soil left at wheat- sowing time. Then not only are deep- rooting weeds not killed, but there is only an indifferent bed left to receive the wheat grains at planting time. Again, the deeper the ground is worked, the more air is let into it, and the more freely it will be reduced to mould, and the better all crops in the future rotation will flourish. And it goes without saying that if the ploughshare is sent home, and the scuffle made to touch hard upon the hearth, a strong team is needed. Light land farmers laugh at their compeers of the heavier soils nsill( four horses to the plough but it really takes four powerful horses to break up and cross-plough summer fallows on the more adhesive clays, and even if a five-horse team be provided to work the scuffle first time over, all the better. No matter how strong the team, the toil is sure to be greater than in work- ing light land, and this I say after having had to deal extensively with both, and that for many years. SHEEP ON FALLOWS. There was a good old custom common in years gone by of folding sheep at night on summer fallows, and the plan might well be again resorted to. The advantages are four-fold: Firstly, to fertilise the ground secondly, to trample and otherwise destroy creature pests in the soil; thirdly, to consolidate the earth to prevent wheat dying off in the following spring fourthly, good dry lying ground is provided for the flocks at night. About lOOeheep will manure 10 acres of fallow, and that, reckoning the dressing and trampling at £ 2 2s. per acre, comes to 20ga. Thus the sheep pay 20gs. extra over if not. folded, barring the labour on folding and the loss to the grass fields. The labour consists of driving the flocks to folds each night at sundown, releasing them again about five o'clock the following morning and changing the folds. They like the dry lying, and soon begin to draw off themselves to the folds as evening clcses in. As re- gards robbing the grass fields from where the flocks are driven, it should be arranged that the sheep be folded from such grounds as are not materially the losers by the animals being removed at night. Erery shepherd knows that sheep generally lie pretty much in certain parts of the pastures, so that often those parts are overdone with droppings. In such in- stances the folding on arable land rather sweetens and improves the pastures than otherwise. Folding should begin just after shear day, and continue until middle of August. Workings of the fallows can go on just as usual. The folds should be so frequently moved as to go all over the fields during the summer. Bhearhogs and theaves that are being stored along are best suited for folding—better than ewes and lambs or such other sheep as are being fattened off for the butcher. It is essential that the pasture fields adjoin or lie quite near the arable, as it would not answer to drive the flocks far to night quarters, especially in hot weather. Before releasing the sheep from the folds in the morning they should be stirred up and allowed to move about a bit for half an hour, during which time they void their faeces and urine. It is only by looking to such means of enriching land as sheep folding that can lead to profit in farming arable land in these days of free imports of foreigu corn. THE SOWINGS are now reduced to swedes, hybrids, white turnips, and mustard. There are three weeks left to sow swedes, and during that time a good deal of work may be done if the weather is propitious, but not otherwise. After midsummer it is better to plant hybrids or white turnips, as it is too late to hope for the slower growing swede to mature to average weight. The ground that will need most urgent attention is where green forage crops have been grown, such as rye, vetches, and trifolium. The only plan is to break up the fields as soon as the crops are removed and continue to clean and break down the clods until a mouldy bed is provided, and that with- out an hour's delay-at least, when the weather ia favourable. There is no immediate hurry about lowing white turnips and hybrids, but the ground should be got ready with dispatch. Sowings made! about the beginning of July often give bountiful yields. There is no especial call for the team from the root fields until haymaking time. Some farmers hold from diilling when the earth ip, over dry. For my part I care not how dry the ground is if there be a free mould to drill the seed in. As soon as rain falls the young plants spring through the surface freely enough, and often after sown in dry mould show the best plant. Still, the ground is not very j dry yet. By drilling up the ridges in the evening that are prepared during the day there will be suffi- cient moisture in the earth at prenent to germinate the seed. So I say drill without delay as fast as a free mould can be prepared, whether that mould be as dry as March dust or moist and cool. What ought really not to be done is to drill among clods, small I though they may be, neither when the land is sc I damp as to clog to the drill. MANURE CARTING may still be continued on hindering days when the land is too wet to work kindly. Haymaking time is fast approaching, and it is well that yards be cleaned out and made tidy before that busy time. The nearer the dunghill can be made to the fields to be dressed the better, for thus labour is economised, j In some instances the fields may be dressed direct from the fold yard, and that is the best plan of all. PASTURE LAND. Pasture land recently laid down is greatly assisted in forming a sward by liberal applications of farm- yard manure; active nitrogenous manures, such as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia, should be entirely avoided, because of their tendency to encourage rank growth and diminish clovers and finer pasture plants. On the heavier soils, especially if rather damp and rich in organic matter, basic slag, about 5cwt. per acre, is generally a most valuable agent in improving them. On the lighter soils, 3cwt. or 4cwt. of superphosphate may be more useful, but this can easily be decided by experience. On the lighter soils also a dressing of 4cwt. of kainit, or an equivalent amount of other potash manure, is generally useful. The late autumn is probably the best time for the application of all these manures. On poor, thin, or sandy soils the application of lOcwt. of rape meal manure per acre has been found useful in developing a sward, but experience must be a guide as to whether this manure be economical or not. In forming a new pasture it is very important that if a crop of hay is removed in the first instance it should be cut very early, and every precaution (close grazing and otherwise) should be exercised to prevent the pasture becoming rough and coarse at any time; probably a renewal of the phosphatic and potash manures suggested would be advisable about every four years. The feeding of corn and espe- cially of cakes to the grazing stock, under proper conditions, is one of the most valuable methods of improving a pasture. A WARM WEATHER MILK-HOUSB. Milk is a difficult article to keep sweet and good. Next to an ice-house, a cold water shed comes nearest to perfection. It is 6ft. square, and 6ft. high at the eaves, which is large enough for the rnilk of two or three cows. The milk tank, which is 12in. deep and 14n. wide at the top, extends along the north side. It has a screen cover, which may be covered with cloth in very hot or dusty weather. A table with shelf underneath occupies the soivh-east corner. A space just above the level of the tank, 2ft, wide and extending on all sides-of the house, is covered with wire screen. Shelves above the screen and below the tank give sufficient room for milk and butter dishes. The milk is set in pails. A galvan- ised iron pipe leads from a small tank at the side of the pump down 18in. below the surface of the ground, across the 20ft. space, and up again to the levet of the milk tank. An overflow pipe at the other end of the tank carries off the water after it "has reached the proper height in the tank. Another pipe, at the f. bottom of the tank, is used for emptying it when desired. The door in the south-west corner is of I wood, but could be of screen if preferred. Board Abutters cover the screens in rainy weather. The i water in the tank may be changed at any time by pumping water into the small tank at the well.
GARDENING GOSSIP. (From, Gardening Illustrated1") EARLY TOMATOES are now ripening, and will need plenty of nourish- ment, but it is better to partly meet this by rich mulchings, as if strong liquid-manure is used. too freely the fruits may crack and will not keep or prove so valuable. Most people like yellow Tomatoes, but from some cause or other they are not so saleable in the market as red enes. And they do not crop quite so heavily as the best cropping reds, and there- fore they are not so much grown, except in private gardens where the produce is consumed at holtie. Free ventilation is important now. We water with the hose to save labour, but do not wet the plants They are better without it. CUCUMBERS IN HOUSES are now bearing heavily, and muat have frequent top-dressings and abundant supplies of inoistiire. We use Moss-litter-manure, mixed with good loam, for top-dressing. One has to be careful there are no wirt-woritis in the loam. Houses cleared of bedding and other plants may now be planted with Cucumbers or Tomatoes. WINDOW GARDENING. Take cuttings of any good Cineraria which has done flowering. They will soon root in good light soil. Shift on Balsams and Tuberous Begonias, Balsams will do better outside, and will make sturdier growth and flower better. I know a working man who Ii always took first prize for Balsams, which were always dwarf, bushy, and well bloomed, and he always grew them outside on a hard bottom till I within ten days of the show, after the end of May. OUTDOOR GARDEM. There will soon be a good deal of sta j ing and tying to do now among herbaceous plants, Carnations, | etc. Sweet Peas should be supported with feathery Hazell-sticks, and the rows of sweet Peas should be mulched on both sides. Last season the Peas, where mulch was used, flowered well, but the unmulched plants did badly during the dry weather. The mis- fortune is that with such things watering cannot Qiake a good substitute for mulch. Roses, where prompt measures have been taken with insects, are now looking well, but where flies and maggots have been present in large numbers many of the blooms will be spoilt. To grow good Roses, even on a suit- able, well-prepared soil, requires constant care and watchfulness. What, then, must it be on a soil not suitable and not properly prepared ? The two chief items calling for attention now are freedom from insects and giving abundant nourishment. In windy districts maiden plants must be secured to prevent the heads being blown off. There will be a good deal to do in pricking off seedling hardy plants, such as Wallflowers, Canterbury Bells, etc. If left too long in a crowded seed-bed the plants soon spoil. Those who only grow a few plants on their borders may prick them out in pans in open spots in the borders. Hardy annuals may yet be sown for late bloom. FRUIT GARDEN. Those who force Strawberries early should layer runners, either in small pots or in some other way, as soon as they can be obtained. Runners from young, fertile plants are best. Follow up the disbudding of young shoots on outside Peaches. Thin the fruit if very numerous, and maintain the fight against insects. The neglect in dealing with insects is one of the causes of the inferior condition of Peaches and Nectarines on walls. in the early stages of growth Tobacco-powder is the best remedy for green and black-fly; later on washes may be used. ICobacco- powder is always ready for use. The dist»er can have it near him when at work, and can use it in the exact spot where he finds the insects. Washes often have to be mixed with hot water and involve time in preparation and they rarely kill all the insects, and, therefore, have to be repeated, and the procrastinator, and sometimes the hard-worked man, put things off. See that recently-grafted trees have the grafts secured from the wind. Now is the time to feed late Peaches under glass with artificial or natural stimulants. They will take a good deal of nourishment; the same remark applies to Vines and other fruitp under glass. The regulation and stoppage of the growth must have prompt attention. Late Vines in unheated houses should be confined to early-ripening sorts only, such as Hamburghs and Sweetwaters or Musca- dines. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Late Peas may yet be sown, also scarlet or white- flowered Runners. The bulk of seed sowing is now over, but there are certain things which re- quire to be sown at short intervals, such as Lettuces, Radishes, and small salading Sow a good breadth of Turnips now, and sow lite crops after early Potatoes. Endive may be sows now. If sown before June the plants generally bolt. Plant out Leeks and ™elf I' S™ C^,0008 now in P^pared trenches. Mulch Peas, Cauliflowers, and Lettuces with faalf- decayed manure. Peg out the shoots of Marrows and Ridge Cucumbers after mulching. It is a common plan to plant the seeds of Marrows for late summer use in the ground in patches of three. These plants usually do well and bear freely. Coddling plants under glass, so far as the future is concerned, is not an unmixed good always. "The dripping June puts things in tune," and at the time of writing it looks as if the June clouds would drop fatness. Certainly, May has been dry and cold. Tomatoes, both outside and under glass, must have prompt at- tention in removing surplus growths and training the main stem. Ventilate freely. Fire-heat is not absolutely necessary now for Tomatoes, but in wet, cold weather it is an advantage to have a little warmth in the pipes. lUBES AURRUM. Although not so striking a shrub as the red-flower- ing Currant, this species being now fully in bloom, makes a very pretty display. It is one of the unarmed Currants, growing to a height of 6ft. to 8ft. and is of free, graceful growth, its smooth leaves being of a rather pale shade of green. The flowers produced in short, semi-pendulous racemes, are sweetly fragrant; they are of a golden-vellow colour, and each one is about tin. in diameter. There are several varieties in 4 cultivation, some of which differ in the colour of the fruit, the most distinct being one named tenuiflorum, which has by some botanists been set apart as a dis- tinct species. It is not so fine a plant as the ordinary aureum, its flowers being smaller and destitute of perfume. The true Ribes aureum is a native of Missouri, etc., whereas the variety tenuiflorum is a native of California and never occurs east of the Rocky Mountains. JBW'S MALLOW. There are three varieties of this shrub in culti- vation-viz., the type, a'double-flowered form, and a variegated one; of these the typical green-leaved single-flowered plant is the rarest in gardens. In some respects, however, it is the most beautiful of the three, being of freer growth than the variegated plant, and yet not having the somewhat coarse stems and flowers of the double variety. There are now bushes at Kew about 2§ feet high and half as much more in diameter, which are really charming in their wealth of blossom and neat, rounded habit. The flowers are each from 1 inch to 11 inches in diameter, 2 and bright yellow. The double-flowered variety was introduced as far back as 1700, and its identity was unknown for over a century, until, in fact, the year 1835, when the typical plant was sent from Japan. It was thought to be a Corchorus (a genus allied to Tilia), and in some gardens and nurseries the name of Corchorus japonicus still remains in use for the Double Kerria. All the forms like a rich, moist loam, and can easily be propagated from cuttings mad^ £ >f half-ripened wood.
Snil What do you think of my portrait ?" He: Sincerely, it is not beautiful-but the likeness is perfect I" A PHILADELPHIA paper says that the latest theatrical novelty comes from Chicago, where a manager stages a sausage-machine in full blast. The hog appears on the stage alive and departs in the form of sausages, distributed amone the audience as "souvenirs." J
"ONLY A PRIVATE." j A TALI OF WAR WITH THE RBDBKIN3. A dreary plain, a vast waste, with only a green, oasis-like grove of trees in which had hastily been thrown np a rude breastwork of sand and stone. A cloud of howling savages surrounding the earth- work, in which was the great overland stage. It was a scene calculated to excite fear and oyini),,t- hy. Theie were women in that beleaguered fort as well an men, and their pale faces, parched lips, and dry. ft iirlfsi eyes evinced the stony terror caused by the prospect of certain death. A dozen troopers under command of Lieutenant Marts had been sent to guard the stage-coach when they found themselves confronted by such overu helm- ing odds that they hastened to the grove we mentioned and hastily threw up the earthwork behind which the soldiers and passengers were cie- fending themselves. The face. Qf Lieutenant Mari. g was almost as pale as marble, and be had long since ceased to give orders, for it was now a pitched battle in which every man was his own commander. Two soldiers and three passengers were already down. Many redskins bad bitten the dust, but the overwhelming numbers of savages about the earth- works made it evident that the brave defenders were doomed. Prominent among the troopers was, a tall young man in the uniform of a private soldier. There was a look of calm determination on his face, and what- ever others may have done, he wasted no shots that, day. Every time his rifle cracked a redskin fell. Though he exposed himself more to the redskins' bullets than any of the others, he seemed to hold a charmed life, for not a shot touched him. This private was only twenty-four years of age, with a handsome face, dark eyes and black moustache His name was George Stone, and it was whispered that he was a graduate of Princeton. How be came, to be a private soldier in the-regular army is a storft* of sufficient interest to tell even in t&a Xidtt «* battle, especially as it has some bearing otf the co flict. He and Lieutenant Davfd Marks had beei eohoolboys together, and both were competitors foiM the appointment at West Point. Marks, though* j inferior to Stone in every respect, having the strongest! political pull, succeeded, and Gecrge went td Princeton. George graduated about the same time that liiq successful rival came from West Point with a com- j mission as second lieutenant of cavalry. He hap-j } pened to be near the town in which the regiment ofi his rival was quartered. This renewed the jealousy! i of his companion. Then Miss Mary Sommers camdM to the city. She was going to her sister in Montan the coming summer, and as Mark's regiment had beenjH ordered to that part of the country, he hoped b would meet her again, especially as he bad fallenS desperately in love with her. For the second time hi rival was his schoolboy friend, George Stone, wh seemed to be more successful than he had been before. f Marks had no political pull in love matters, and j began to look about for some means to .ponq.uem again. F The plan he fell upon was the most nefariously that can be conceived. One day he and some other/) officers and friends enticed George into a saloon, anew during the afternoon induced him to drink so much! champagne that he became utterly unconscious of. his acts and surroundings, ( While he was in that statfe, a recruiting officer whoj was present induced him to enlist in the regular army t as a private, and he was assigned to the company to which Lieutenant Marks belonged. When Stone recovered consciousness and realised, what he had done, he resolved never to drink another drop of intoxicating liquors. He was angry and filled, with mortification. Friends came to his relief and' offered to purchase his tfischarge, but he declined their kindness and determined to serve. Marks, who had been his constant associate, ôf; course cut his acquaintance, and George vyas com-, pelled to mess and associate with the common soldier. The common soldier is not always an educated wan. He is sometimes rude, uncouth and grossly immoral! Stone was quiet, silent, and more like a convict thaia a trooper. He gave strict attention to orders, arid) studied military tactics as he had never studied anp, subject in his life. He became the favourite of ali save his second lieutenant, who lost no opportunity to humiliate him. In due time the regiment was ordered to thej plains, and he was with the squad sent to guard thfll Btage. It was the first time Lieutenant Marks had? ever been under fire; nevertheless it was natural t. suppose he would show some courage on this oce* ■ sion, for Mary Sommers, the girl who had won heart, was in the stage." t It was galling to poor George Stone to meet the woman whom he loved under such changed circum- stances that fig dared not speak to her. He bore himself erect with a proud, soldierly dignity, but was silent. When the attack came he was first in the fight, and it was then that the lieutenant, who ha" shone as a society man, began to show the white feather. He failed to, go to the front with his men, and kept as much out of range of bulletsagd arrows as possible, It was George, his stony silence broken only by the exigency of the moment, who suggested the grove ae the proper place to make a stand. It was he who I proposed th&t .the^reastwork be thrown up from the oneø and sand. He even directed the operation, tor the commanding oStcer was stupefied and dumb with fear. When the reinforcements of .Indians cams and' ,*e fight was raging hot, it was the private soldier whu. by his manly, unselfish courage, inspired his. ,.CQP k panions to make battle against such overwhelming odds. All the while the cowardly lieutenant, with pale lips and trembling, form, was crouched uude the stage-coach, ;not uttering a, word or taking 407 part in the conflict. Lieutenant Marks," said a sweet, miosical voices', his side dur,ipg a Jull in the conflict, why do yoa not go to tlie front with your men c" I am ill, Miss Sommers; indeed, 1 am very I can hardly stand upon my feet," answered the lieu- tenant, And to pj&ve^that he eocrect, he lay it full length on the ground. You were not ill two hours ago. II No, this has been very sudden and very unfortu- nate indeed.. Jf L.were well .1 could, drive oft' those rascally Indiana bnt really I am not able to hold up my head." And it seemed as if be would burrow hia head in the sand. I Lieutenant Marks, you are a coward! cried the Lieutenant Marks, you are a coward cried the brave girl, indignantly. You>are a disgrace to the service." He began to lament in a pitiable manner, and she turned away and ran to the Bide of George Stone, who atood boldly erect by the imperfect, breastwork, firing at the savsges, who were pouring a storm of bullets about him. Laying one little hand on his shoulder, ahe said: "Mr. Stone, it is not right that you ahould eit- danger your life." He turned his pale, stem, face upon her, and spoke to her for the first time since he had worn the. uni- form of a soldier. ♦ Miss Sooimers, this is no place for you." Nor is it any place for you," she answered. I am a soldier, and it is my duty to die." And I am one whom you are defending, and it is my duty to remain at your side." "Mine Sommus -he began. c, No, no, George t I wiU, novel leave this breast- work while you expose your life-more precious than that of any other in the party." He was touched by her words. Theyappealed.,to his heart. A moisture came into the eyea which hjid been so long dry, while his frame trembled. Miss Sommers- "George, you used to call me Mary; won't you do ao now ? Remember, death is a great leveller, and we are facing death." Mary—1 must defend you," he said. I would defend you even if I were not a soldier, and 1 must inspire these others by my mmple. Better let any of them expose their lives than you she answered in a voice of melting tenderness. It would be fatal to shirk duty now-the aot of a coward. Is it not better that we take the- only chance we have of defending our lives than to die a coward's death ?" Then let me stand by your aide and fall when you do. I shall not care to live if you are gone." "No, no I Don't insist on endangering your life, Mary. You unman me. I am a coward when you I are exposed to danger—I am brave in the thought that l can defend you." His reason and entreaty prevailed, and the was in- duced to seek the most sheltered place in the enclosure when the Indians made their next cbArge on the rude earthwork. They are coming again, boys I" cried the brave private. Now remember that it is' better to die a wave man than a coward. Don't waste a shot. Our only hope ieI. in making a bold, stubborn re- sistance." V,' ,¡ II. ,> .:+. (!ç. I fee soldiers, who looked upon him as their sa^fal leader, silently nodded assent. •Here they come 1" cried Mr. Bullard, o»e of the patengers, who had seized the rifle of a dea Softer. Heavens! What a tornado of hoofs and i h' They raise a storm," said Mr. Lead«, another ttfcller. „ There's a thousand of them. We're done for, Bullard Well, let's die game if we are." Now take I 04 Steady all I" cried George Stone. "Now tae etul aim. Don't any of you waste lead on the big cijef with red feathers. Tyery rifle was aimed. Steady! Let them come a little nearer, before you Up they came until they-were even within long rtstol range, and then George gave the oommand: fire! There was a rattling crash of firearms, and the Kremost saddles were emptied. The big chief with led feathers went down with the others. The rider- Jss horses plunged baek among the mounted savage^ aking the panic more general. Load r* cried the young soldier. As they were all armed with breechloaders, it was in easy task to slip cartridges into their guns. Before fre Indians bad recovered from the confusion the Volley had thrown them into, a second volley was poured into them. Then some of the passengers Hsavihg Winchesters began a continual fire. Bf The ravages drew offugain, but they bad no iDten. tion of giving up the fight. Other chiefs came to take the place of those fallen, and they appealed to their comrades for revenge. Trey htd only to point £ b the s!andy plain, reddened with their blood, and <%ith deafening yells they charged the breastwork. M»V Bulfard had fired two shots, when he sank 'owtf tfpdfi his knees and became very still. Mr. "lattclls sudderly turfted away and placed his bands to :'is ftee, then, staggering backward, fell to the iTound. One by one the soldiers went- down. As if by a ^miracle Store WHS still unhurt, and gathering the .rms of his faUen comrades about him, he continued to fire with such rapidity that the Indians little dreamed there was but one man left. ■9. "George, let me help you," entreated Mary. I can load the guns." God help you he murmured. At this moment there was a sudden and for some time unexplained stampede on the part of the enemy. Hastily taking up their wounded and a part of their ^dead, they flew aciross the plain as raprjly as their Iponie* could tarry them. The cause of their flight |fwas the arrival of two hundred soldiers under Major ^Warner. George was the only man unharmed save tfche cowardiy lieutenant, who was still under the stagecoach, and'who never recovered from his sudden -malady until he and the. major assured him the enemy were gone. Miss Mary Sommers went to the city, where her brother, a wealthy miner, lived. Tom Sommers was not only wealthy but influential, and he was soon ready to offer Gebrgs Stone either a discharge or a commission.He ohose to be disohargbd, and shortly after married the lady whom he had se gallandy -defended. He removed to a Western State, from which be was sent to Congress,"And subsequently i became an official in the war department. In anotiaer- Angagement Marks had-proved to be at 18bward; and was tried by a court-martial and dis- missed from the service.. He went to Washington to be reinstated, and while at the war department met the n;an whom he had injured. Well, I suppose you will do sail you can against me," said the lieutenant. You will keep me out of the army if you pan." 1 I I I No," George Stone answered. I may be doing wrong in befriending a man whom I do not believe fitted for the position; but my influence shall be given to, bave you restored, providing you will resigil." He succeeded in having the officer restored, and then the lieutenant resigned, which removed the stigma of disgrace from him. It was at the President's reception that Lieutenant Marks met. Mr. Stone and his beautiful wife. I am proud to meet such a distinguished person as Colonel Sto&e said the lieutenant, derisively. The fair wife quickly interrupted him with- Not a colonel, lieutenant* Private Stone. I am pyotid to own that I am the wife of a private. A private who is brave in battle is to be preferred to a commissioned officer who becomes deathly sick at a ,Aleu,of danger." Lieutenant Marks, very much humiliated, left the- .White House.
A GIGANTIC UMBRELLA. Tlie. last Paris Exposition bad its Eiffel Tower, Chicago had its Ferris Wheel, Nashville had its giant see-saw. The department pf concessions of the Omaha Trans-Mississippi Exposition of 1898 has also received an application for space for the erection of a novel mechanical device. It resem- bles the framqworlc of a gigantic umbrella more than anything else which might be mentioned. The part corresponding to the stick of the um- brella, is an immense cylinder, 30ft. in diameter, constructed qf steel -plates, firmly riveted, making a standpipe which rears its head 250 feet abpve the level of the ground.. At the extreme top of this cylinder are fastened 12 long arms resembling the ribs of an \imbrella. These are steej. trusses, reaching almost to the ground. At the lower end of each of these ribs is suspended a car for carrying .passengers, each car having a capacity fqr 20 persons., 'These monster ribs are raised by hydraulic power acting by means of steel cables operating through LhtJ cylinder, aided by a mechanism greatly resembling that portion of an umbrella which comes into action when the umbrella is opened. By means of this mechanism the gigantic; arms are raised until they are horizontal, the cars in the meantime being carried outwards-and upwards (until they reach a point 250ft, above the ground, the ^diameter of the huge circle formed by the suspended cars being also 250ft. When the highest point has "been reached another mechanism comes into play, jand the suspended cars re swung slowly around in a circle, after which they are lowered to the ground. jTho sides of the cars are of glass, so that the pas- sengers may secure an extensive view of the surround- ing country.
AN HISTORIC ESTATE. Another interesting and historical estate, compris- ing about 4000 acres, has just changed hands. We refer to Farming Wood, Thrapston, in Northampton- shire, which has belonged to, Lord Lyvedon's family for a good many generations, and which has been sold to Mr. J. Gardiner Mnir, the well-known South African sportsman. The mansion of Farming Woods is seated in the verdant glades of the Forest of Rock- ingham, and is interesting as being the former resi- dence of the Ranger when the forest was a lloyal chase. It is a many gabled stone structure, incorporating one of earlier date, surrounded by quaint gardens and some of the finest timber in the Midlands. On the estate are the remains of a curious stone building orecled for Sir Thomas Tresham by John Thorp, but never completed, the gateway of which now forms the stable entrance. Another curious link with the past may be found on the estate in the shape of a stone inscribed, "Here stood the Bocase Tree." What the Bocase Tree indicates is not certain, but competent authorities state that on this spot the verderers met to shoot their arrows and hung their eases here.
A PARLIAMENTARY return issued in the form of a Blue Book shows that the total number of persons killed on the railways of the United Kingdom during 1896 was 1008, while no fewer than 5877 were in- jured, the latter item-being 1856 more than in the preceding year, while the former item shows a de- crease of 16. No fewer than 34 horses were killed 37 beasts and cows, and 75 sheep, besides pigs, dogs, and donkeys. LORD PORTSMOUTH, though not particularly a keen sportsman, is greatly interested in the wild duck on his estates, and he breeds many hundreds under wire netting every season. He has some of the best wild dack shooting in the South of England. THE new city of New York will begin its official existence on Jan. 1, 1898. It has an area of 306 square miles. Its population exceeds 3,100,000. Its real estate is assessed for taxation at 2,221,879,805dol. Its foreign commerce last year exceeded 1,000,000,000 dol. Its public schools number 350, with 202,961 •cholars and 7464 teachers. It has 6889 policemen and 2167 paid firemen. It has more than 7000 men in its militia force. Its pay-roll contains 33,113 names and calls for an annual payment ef 53,769,000dol. It has 89 public libraries, 264 asylums and hospitals, 1100 churches, 11,961 saloons, 6500 acres of parks, 160 miles of elevated railway, and 1040 miles of sur- face railwav.
THE MOCKERY OF MONOPOLIES. For many years past, though the actual business done has shown a fairly steady increase, the commer- cial outlook (according to the Marrakesh corres- pondent of the Pall Mall Gazette) in Morocco has gone from bad to worse. Yet more of its products are now exported, and there are more European articles in demand than were thought of 20 years ago. This anomalous and almost paradoxical condition is duetto the increase of competition and the increasing weakness of the Government. Men who had hope a few years ago now struggle on because they have staked too much to be able to leave for more promis- ing fields.. This has been especially the case since the late Sultan's death. The disturbances which followed that event have impoverished many tribes, aad left behind a sense of uncertainty and- dread. No Euro- pean bourse is more readily or lastingly affected by local political troubles than the general trade of a land like Morocco, in which men live so much from hand to mouth. It is a noteworthy feature of Moorish diplomatic history that to the Moors' love of foreign trade we owe almost every step that has led to our present relations with the empire. Even while their rovera were the terror of our merchantmen, foreign traders were permitted to reside in their ports, the facilities granted to them forming the basis of all bnbsequent negotiations. Now that concession after feoncession has been wrung from their unwilling Government, and in spite of freedom of residence, travel, and trade in the most important parts of the empire, it is quite disheartening to see the foreign merchant in a worse condition than ever. MERCHANT PRINCES A DREAM OF THE PAST. The previous generation, fewer in number, far less privileged, and subjected to restriction* and-indigni- ties that would not be submitted to to-day, wereable to make fortunes and retire, while their successors find it hard to hold their own. The "hundred tooners" who, -in the palmy days of Mogador, were wont to boast that they shipped no smaller quanti- ties at once, are a dream of the past. The ostrich feathers and elephants' tusks no longer find their way .,out by that: port, and little gold now passes in or put., Merchant" princes will never- be seen here again; commercial travellers from Germany are found in the interiori and quality, as well as-price, thas been -reduced to its lowest ebb. A crowd of petty trading agents has arisen with no capital to Bpeak of, yet claiming and abusing credit, of whjch a most ruinous system prevails, and that in a land I where the collection of debts is proverbially difficult, and oftentimes impossible. The native Jews who were interpreters and. brokers years ago have now learned the business and entered the lists. These new competitors content themselves with infinitesimal profits,, or none at all in cases where the desideratum is cash to lend out at so many hundreds per cent, per annum. Indeed it is no uncommon practice for goods bought on long credit to be sold below cost price for this purpose. Against such methods who; can .com- pete ? i THE WORTH LESSNSSS, OF SO-CALLED CONCESSIONS. Yet this is a rich, undeveloped land-not exactly an El Dorado, though, certainly as full of promise as any so named ever proved to be when reached; favoured physically and geographically, but politi- ratty 'stagnant and rottipg, cursed with an effete administration, bound and fettered by a decrepit pr £$di Ini view of this situation it is no wonder that from time- to time specious schemes appear and dis- appear with cloekwork regularity. Now it is in Eng- land, now in France, that a gambling public- is-fotiad to hazard the cotrt of proving the impossibility of opening the country witn a rush, and the worthless- ness of so-called concessions and monopolies granted by sheikhs in the south, who, however they n-ay chafe under existing mle. whioh forbids them ports, of their own, have absolutely none of the powers required. 1) A TARIVING- TRADE IN SLAVES. The only branch of business that thrives in these days of depression is The slave trade. Thiii afternoon in the market, though not a full day, I saw 22huniap beings for sale, some fresh importations, some sold on account of the famine, mothers advertised with or yvithout their ohUdrep* Fhite girls fpr the harems, and black girls for cooks. Prices are low, however, two small boys.fetching £ ^5and £ 5 10s.; a full-grown White girl, £24 black girls of 12 or 15, Eg to £10; a stalwart negro, £ -14. A leading dealer showed me the other day a girl he had just bought for £ 13, and hoped to dispose of for E25, after a course of train- ing under a fancy cook for whom he was asking 33 A beauty, he said, would fetch just now from .£160. He gets most of his supplies from the Soudan, by way of Soos, but whenever the army is there, as at present,.a number of whits girls are caught and enslaved. The details of the sale I will not describe.
( WE have received intelligence of the sad death of Dr. NiddfPfens, M.D., Assistant Colonial Surgeon, which occurred as the result of an accident to a railwky trolley in which he, with some friends, was travelling from Wellington to Cline Town. They lost control of the trolley, which dashed down an incline at a terrific rate into a truck standing on the line, and Dr. Paris had his foot smashed in a shocking manner. He died two days after the accident. IT is no unusual thing to record a generous act on tJ:¡e part of Sir Walter Gilbey. The latest is the gift of a plot of land for the cultivation of strawberries to every working-man in the parish of Elsenham, in tthich he lives, with a promise to find everything tieceesary for each plot. This is indeed a worthy Diamond J ubi lee, celebration. THE mail tells us that Lord Hampden unveiled a statue of the Right Hon. W. Bede Dalley in Hyde- park, Sydney, on April 20. In the course of his speech Lord Hampden said that Mr. Dalley's prompt, pgtriatic, and statesmanlike action in sending a con- tingent to the Soudan had won the admiration of eyery Englishman who had watched the course of war there. F' As an Englishman, he had no doubt in his own ihiad as to the wisdom of the policy, for in offering the contingent Mr. Dalley had struck a note that had appealed to the racial instincts of the English-speaking people in every part of the world. A PRESENT fashion in the United States is the eopymg, -for decorative purposes, of the beautiful designs of the antique Dutch blue delf pottery. The ware used to be found in the old mansions of New England, the specimens having been imported from Holland centuries ago; in some cases they were brought over by the first settlers. Bine delf ware is supposed to have been introduced to Europe by the Moors, > and taken to the Netherlands by the Spaniards in the course of their frequent invasions of that region. THE metric system of weights and other measure- ments stands a fair chance now of becoming legahsed in the United Kingdom. A Government Bill was introduced in the Commons on May 27, and if this should pass, as it doubtles* will, a shopkeeper will have the option of Belling potatoes by the pound or by the kilo, as manufacturer will be able to spool his cotton on reels containing 100 yards or 100 metres, an engineer may choose whether he will make a boiler to hold gallons or litre*, and optional measure- ments will be current everywhere. Without a decimal :oinage, however, buying and selling transactions will be DO more convenient than they are at AMMnt i r < <
EPITOME OF NEWS; -F In the United States there are 57 frog farms. THE first English steel pens were sold at 30k each. i 1 THE loftiest cliff on the coast of England is Beashj Head, height 564ft. THE annual increase of the German nation during the last five years has been more than five times to much as that of the French. GREAT BRITAIN broke its record for shipbuilding in 1896, the number of tons launohed being 1,326,822% as against 1,156,571 tons in 1895. AMONG the 4000 thieves arrested in Paris during the last 12 months were a Princess, a duchess, and a countess. THE first Russian census gives a population for the Empire of 327,000,000. RUSSIA, with a population of 127,000,000, has only 18,334 physicians. In the United States, with-a population of about 75,000,000, there are 120,000 physicians. THE longest underground thoroughfare in Great Britain is in Central Derbyshire, where you can walk seven miles upon a road connecting several coal-mines. ST. PETERSBURG has a population of a million ai^d a quarter, Moscow just under one million. Nineteen other Russian towns are returned at 100,000. THE next meeting of the Postal Union Cpngrepa will be held at Rome in 1903. „ AN epidemic of cholera has broken out at Bangkok. the capital of Siam. THB Corporation of Southampton have offered prizes for Jubilee decorations in the town. LORD DILLON has been elected president of t8 London Society of Antiquarians in succession to the late Sir Augustus Franks. THE first fatal accident in Belgium caused by a motor car has just occurred in Brussels when a cyclist was run down on the Boulevard Waterloo and died in a few minutes. A SERIOUS fire has occurred at the Ain el Arbil Synagogue, at Oran, Algeria. A tin-box, filled with powder and scraps of iron, was found in the buildrng. IT is announced that the date of President departure for Russia has been definitely fixed for July 25. He will travel by sea, and will be accom- panied by M. Hanotoux. THE British Embassy in Washington costs Great Britain about £ 18,000 a year. The German Em- bassy costs about £ 12,000, the French about F.10,000, and thj Italian E6000. i AMSTERDAM is intersected by canals, which divide the city into about 90 islands. Communication with them is had by about 300 bridges. THE tower of Nolton Church, Bridgend, is to be completed, and a stone spire erected. Mr. F. K. Kempson, of Cardiff and Hereford, is preparing the plans, and the work is to be put in hand imme- diately. A CHURCH-iiorsE for the diocese of Liverpool is to, te built in Lord-street, Liverpool, on the site of Clarendon-buildings, near the Town Hall. The building is to cost about £ 48,000. :r" IN dotnmemoration of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee,J>Mr. H. Douglas Horsfall, of Liverpool, has offered to build and endow a new church in some poor and populous part of Liverpool, at a cost of C16,000 or £ 18,000. THE most wonderful wine-cellars in the world are underneath a' iiobleiiian's palace 'at Warsaw. They have been used for storing wines for over 400 yearr, and the whole place is one tiotass of fungi and stalac- bites. THE amount received in response to the appeal of the Dnke of Richmond, the Earl of Northbrook, and "the trustees of the Royal Agricultural Benevolent Institution, in connection with the Queen's reign, i8 now £8374 138. 6d By an odd chance there are in South Kensington Museum' two rooms which are believed to be fire- proof. These will be utilised to store some of the property not distributed amongst the provincial museums connected with South Kensington. The Hon. Margaret Brand, eldest daughter of Lord Hampden, Governor of New South Wales, was recently married to Captain Alexander Fergusonv A.D.C., of t'be 2nd, Life Guards, at St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney. Over 800 invited guests were present at the ceremony, and the streets between Government House and'the cathedral were crõwdd with spectators. THE veteran ironmaster, Sir Henry Bessemer, has suffered a severe blow by the death of his wife, Lady Bessemer, at DenmarR-nll]. Sir nenry iiven iu OlIO of the most rural of residences in the leafy neigh- bourhood of the South London hill-top, with a park spreading round his house that might be miles awa^ from town. THE telephone is now used by dee&O,er dhwmi A receiver and'transmitter combined is affixed to the inside of the helmet near the: diverts ear. By at slight turn of his head he can epeak into the tele- phone, and he can hear readily froni il at- all tihiefc Its value in deep-sea work for reporting progress oe receiving instructions is clear. '> IN England about one in 21 of the population have ttii ^aece<irit in a savings bank in Wales, one in 40 4n Scotia-nd, one in 12; and in Ireland, one in 100. The. aV'erage amount-owing to English depositors is £ 1 lis. 4d; to the Welsh, 18s.; to the Scotch, JE1 17s. 5d. and to the lyish, 7s, lOd. THE Barton House Estate, South Warwickshire, ooraprisiug an original Jacobean mansion, built by Ioigo Jones in the year 1615 for Sir James Overbury, with ifs estate of abotft 750 acres, has been sold for £ 27,200, including the valuable timber, AT a meeting of the Eastbourne Town Council the long rows of flaring trade advertisements on the pier were described as a serious disfigurement to the sea- front, and the Foreshore Committee were instructed to ascertain the exact legal position of the corpora- tion with a view to the removal of the advertise- ments. Two French poets and idealists are going to light a duel, and perhaps hurt themselves, beeaurtnije sister- in-law of one of them made a remark reflecting on the walking-stick affected by the other. If this sortr of thing is to prevail, no man will feel really eafe in marrying until be has thoroughly satisfied himself of the discretion of his intended's sister. LARGE extensions at the shipyard, Clydebank, which have just been finished, comprise an enlargement of the boiler shop, new drawing-off loft and storegi new gatehouse, brass foundry, brass finishing and coppir shops, with other buildings. Mr. T. Mofatoeh, Of Glasgow and Airdrie, was the architect. AT present it is estimated there are in the <pMiffs oceans 7,000,000 cubic miles of salt, aad-thfe BidBt astonishing thing about it is, that if'ali this salt could be taken out in, a moment, the of the water would not dro p one single inch. MR. F. C. SELOUS has been a traveller "and a hunter practically since 1871, when he was 20 years of age. He left.Er.gLmd in the July of tha £ 'tear, went to MuUbelelW life -nd for upwards orle years devoted himself to elephant *liufiting aha the collection of specimens of natural history. In 1890 he became connected with the British South Africa Company, and was guide in the pioneer expe- dition to Mashonaland. He took part in the first Matahele War. THE leading religions are represented by the fol- lowing tiguxes: Protestant Christians, 200,000,000; Roman Catholic Christians, 195,000,000 Greek Catholic Christians, 105,000.000; total Christians, 500,000,000. Hebrews, 8,000,000; Mohammedans, 180,000,000; heathens,' 812,000,000 total non- Christiar.s, 1,000,000,000. THE machines used by the America Government for counting and tying postal cards in small bundlee were made in Connecticut, and the two are capable of counting 500,000 in ten hours and wrapping and tying the same in packages of 25 each. In this opera- tion the paper is pulled off a drum by two lortg fingers/' which come up from below, and another finger dips into a vat of mucilage and applies itself to the wrapping paper in exactly ihe right spot. Other parts of the machine twine the paper around the pack of cards, and then a thumb presses <ner the spot where the mucilage is, and the package is thrown upon a carry belt ready for delivery. IIETHER it be an effect of business, or tempera- V ^mer'canB like to take their amusements thick and fast," as all who have seen Baraum'a Show will admit. To meet thi# want an American architect has devised a theatre with two aujitoriume and one stage between them, so that two audiences can watch two performances at once. Such is Proctor's Pleasure Palace," NewYork, in which the central stage is open on both sides and the two audiences are separated by it. It is used at present for ballets and varieties; but, who knows, perhaps, the American mind will advance a step further, and crave the piquant sauce of comedy and tragedy played together — say, Hamlet" on one side, and "Charley's Aunt" on the other.
THE OMNIBUS IN SUMMER "Full outside" is |he usual announcement of tht omnibus conductor t6 the would-be passenger when the fine, warm weather of the summer months has set in. And there are few that can endure sitting inside on account of the oppressive heat, the cha- racter of which can only be likened, says the Lancet, to that of a glass-house under full-bombardment of the sun's ray. Those, of course, who are anxious to arrive at their destination at a certain time are com- pelled to go inside and endure the stifling heat as best they can. Surely this discomfort need not be. Why cannot the fixed glass windows be made to slide up and down as in a railway carriage, or in many of the tramcars? There would be very few per- sons on a hot sunny summer day who would object .to- agecy window being down. It would certainly pay the companies to afford this advantage, since, whereas on many days in the summer they now carry only 14 passengers outside, they would secure 12 addi- tional passengers inside if the conditions could be made as agreeable there as on the top in the breeze. As it is, the omnibuses are commonly empty within but full outside, which, apart from any other consideration, adds top-heaviness to the vehicle, and may be dangerous and conducive to their capsizing.
ACCOUCHEMENT OF PRINCESS ^ADOLPHUS OF TECK. The Princess Adolphus of Teck was safely de- li vered flim daughter at White Lodge on Saturday evening., .Both Princess Adolphus and the infant Prices* doing well.