J y. PARISH CODICILS. n;. i., <; u.- J Bases Parish Councils.—At the annual meeting of the Essex Local Government Committee, the clerk (Mr. J. H. Nicholas) reported that there had been a failure to elect a Parish .Council at Ashen. Only two attendod the Parish Meeting. A similar thing happened at Barling., At Belsham St. Paul tha newly-elected councillors had failed to write the Qeceasary declarations. At Elsenham a Parish Meet- fbg wa'8 cilled, achairman appointed, but no nomi- nations were handed in. At West Mersea the full number were nominated for the Parish Council, but two only out of the' 12 signed thtf declaration1, the e,c hra I others refusing to do this. It was also reported that at Great Stambridge the election was not held on the proper day, owing to a mistake by the vicar. At Wivenhoe only three councillors had consented to serve. There had been a failure to elect a Parish Council at Tillfngham (near Mai don), owing to some informality. Mr. Fitch said that all was wrong at" this parish. ^Laughter.) Mr. Benjamin Dow was both chairman and clerk of the late Parish Council; he was a very good man, but he did not know at all what to do. It was really unfortunate for the parish that such a state of things existed, but probably the same thing would occur again if they ordered a fresh election. (Laughter.) The Clerk read an extract from a letter Written by Mr. Dow, in which he said, I consider -there is no difficnlty at all here, but the Scripture sayq, 'Every fool will be meddling. (Laughter.) The Clerk said they might appoint Deputy Councils to act in these cases. Mr. Johnston Would it nbt be well to do that, instead of going through the farce of ordering new elections ? The Clerk said these Deputy Councils could only act temporarily. It was decided to order that fresh elections should take place in all these parishes, with the exception of Great Stam- bridge, Mr. Fitch proposing they should "grant absolution to the vicar," and. confirm the election. Coronisifting on thlB matter, the County Council Times says: Strange as it may seem, there are more than a few parishes still without Parish Councils which do not seem to have any overwhelming desire to possess the privileges which a Parish Council could Eve them. The Essex Local Government Committee id an amusing report to make at its annual meeting with regard to some of the parishes in Essex. In each of two parishes only two members at- tended the Parish Meeting. In another a meeting was called and a chairman elected, but, having got so far, the parishioners teem to have decided to rest on their oars, for the matter was carried qo further. In several cases Councils were elected, but the successful candidates declined to serve or to sign the declaration. In one parish a chairman was elected at the Parish Meeting Who, well meaning but helpless, could only express his disgust at the failure to elect a Parish Coqncil by, quoting Scripture. Altogether the rural parishes of Essex seem to be in such a state that the best thLpg they could do would be to go to this gentleman for advice. He might remind them that Heaven helps those who help themselves "-which sounds Scrip- tural i even though chapter and versq cannot be. JUB- •ignea to if. Allotments Inquiry at Bodham.—The Bodham Parish Council have for some time been endeavour- ing to hire by agreement, on reasonable terms, land suitable for allotments, but have not succeeded. They tyave, therefore, applied to the County Council to authorise them to obtain the same by compulsions There are nine applicants for allotments, who want in all some 10 acres of land. The piece the Council wish to hire for a period of 14 years is known as OtterV Field, and is of an estimated extent of 10 acres. It is owned by Mr. J. S. Mott, of Barning- ham Hall, and is at present in the occupation of Mrs Harriet Ann Mack. The County Council directed an inquiry into the application to be held îW Mr. C. Louis Buxton and Mr. Robins Cooke. A Careful Council. The Parish Council ot Shaftesbury the other day approached its neighbour Council of East Stour, Dorsetshire, with a view to a ,Iegmy,aon celebration of the Queen's reign, in which "Festivities bore a part. But the East Stour eouncil- meo were of a frugal mind," and accordingly trans- raMttejJ to their brethren/pf the Shaftesbury parish the following determination Resolved, to buy a, wheel-bier to celebrate the Jubilee, and not to join in the Shaftesbury festivities and hospital scheme. The Dwellings of the Rural Labourers.-The ques- tion of the proper housing of rural labourers has oeen recently receiving attention at the hands of Parish Councillors and others; and thereanpnt, ip the course of an interesting article, the Councils' Grazitte remarks The problem really resolves itself into, a simple question of finance. This question may be divided into two parts: (1) Can capital be ex- pended on the erection of labourers' cottages, witji such reasonable-seourity and with such prospect of obtaining a small interest thereon as would justify' the Government in either themselves advancing money for this purpose, or sanctioning advances by. rural local uthorities ? (2) If so, should the money be advanced out of local rates or from the National Exchequer ? At the recent conference of the Rural Labourers' League, two practical sugges- tions were propounded. Mr. T. W. Cook advocated the loan of money by the Government for the, p«r- pose of building cottages at 2k" per cent., while t. P. S. Stephenson, M.P., suggested that Pural Dis- trict Councils should be given power to raise loans for acquiring land at long leases on which to build cottages, the management of these to be delegated ooa Parish Council or committee. Forbpth of these proposals there is, we think, a -to be said, and the principle of each of them has already, in relation to kindred subjects, been adopted by Parliament, and found to work with success. In Ireland, for example, legislation on eimilar lines to the first-named suggestion has been tried with satisfactory results; while in our urban districts power has been given to the local authori- ties, undpr certain circumstances, to raise money for the erectiop of artisans' dwellings. In the case of Ireland, we believe, it has been found Sossible to arrange Government loans on con- itions which provide a very fair measure of security, aod little diflteulty has been experienced in obtaining the moderate interest charged. However depressed agricplttute may be .in England, there does not seem to be any valid reason for supposing that Government 108Illt could not be carried out with at least as much snceeas as. has attended the experiment in Ireland. The analogy .between the expenditure of money by urban autheritjeB in building artisans' dwellings and the scheme advocated by Mr. Stephenson is not so complete, inasmuch as the larger wages obtained by the artisans and the more substantial character of their houpos necessarily afford better security than could be found in, the case of cottages for rural labourers. Still, we beliere that if the rural authori- 1" ties were allowed to raiio money and acquire land for this purpose, there would not be any serious risk of loss to the ratepayer, provided, of course, that in the erection of the cottages due regard was had to the amount of rent which could be obtained therefrom. On the whole, it appears to us that a scheme under which the Government advanced money at, say, two and a half, per cent., on, reasonable conditions, to 1 either rural authorities or private individuals for the purpose of building cottages, would be attended by very little risk of loss either to the ratepayer or to the National Exchequer. There is one important aspect of the problem about which only a word can now be said. We refer to the difficulty experienced in some districts in obtaining land for building pur- poses. It is obvious that it is of no avail to provide a means of obtaining the money required if land is also not rendered available. We are not particularly attached to the principle of compulsory acquisition, but it must, we think, be conceded that'there is at lepst as much justification for putting it into force for the purpose of obtaining land for building pur- pcttes there is in the case of allotments." i. a;
)' BBYK MAWR COLLEGB, in the United States, has again bestowed the honour of a fellowship upon a CambrlClgehaar. This time the recipient of the distinction is -Mis$'Qertruds, Longbottom, of Girton Colleger who was, awarded a place, among the Wrangled iU tb<r Cambridge^ Mathematical Tripe* last year. She is elected to a Fellowship of Mathematics, tenable for one year and of the value of one hundred guineas. Miss Longbottom is the daughter of Alderman Loogbottom, of Louth, in Lincolnshire, and was once a pupil of the North London, Collegiate Stfbool. She passed the London University Matriculation Examinatjon, oftupying the nineteenth place, in the Honours Ihtasion. BeWg awarded both the Barbara Bodchon entrance^cholar- •hip and the leaving scholarship from London School, she entered at Girton College, w "he pursued a brilliant carrer.
GREATER BIUTAiS." IT is feared that the heavy snowfall in ths Gilgit direction may slightly delay the Iadian monsoon. MAHARAJ SIR PEKTAB SINGH OF -JODHFUR is one of the Indian Princes who ha\e arrived bt-re with the Imperial Service force from the different native States of India for the Diamond Jubilee. He is one of those Rajputs who laboriously trace a genealogy;ex- tending over 2000 years back to the sun and moon as their original ancestors. For a gtneration he has been among the most famous sportsmen in India, and in pig sticking there is no better spear. In fact, he has made Jodhpur the oen-re and capital of sport in Ilajputana, As-many as 40 boars have been killed in a morning during the Christmas or March meetings, and the tournaments are famous for their, brilliancy. Nothing delights him more than to entertain globe-trotting English- men who wish to enjoy this fascinating sport at its best. The one thing he dislikes is the want of keen- ness and pluck. He was not well pleased when, on the occasion of the present Czarle visit to his State, the Russian officers preferred to shoot rather than stick the pig. The Rajput aristocracy are born horse- men, and Sir Pertab Singh is distinguished even among the most graceful of his race. FOUR native Indian officials-two in the Punjab and two in the Central Provinces—have been con- victed and sentenced to imprisonment for corruption and breach of trust. THE reorganisation of the Gilgit Agency is now practically complete. This important frontier pro- vince of India stretches from the Mustagh moun- tains to the Shandur range, separating Gilgit from the district of Chitral. The Political Agent at Gilgit under the new scheme is responsible for the watch and ward of the passes leading from the Eastern portion of Chinese Turkistanand Wakhan into Hunea and Yasiu, whence run. r<>&d- xat., wnrcti are Smiriy-caej in summer, though most of them closed by snow during the winter months. The garrison of Gilgit will this summer be reduced by 400 rius, their place being taken by local levies who know the country and passes well. This system has already been inaugurated with success by Captain Stuairt Godfrey, the Political Agent of the Goverment of India in Gilgit, and has resulted in a large saving of expenditure to the Indian Government and the Kashmir State, a matter of urgent necessity now that local financial resources are being strained to the utmost in order to supply the means to meet famine requirements. Mn. J. W. CHARLES DE SOYS A, Ceylon's representa- tive at the Diamond Jubilee, is the eldest son of Lady de Soyea, of Colombo, and his name is a household word in Ceylon in general and Colombo in particular. It is calculated that the De Soysa family has given some Rs.25,00,000 in public benevolence during the last few years. At his residence in Colombo he enter- tained, first, the Duke of Edinburgh, and afterwards the Prince of Wales, and in honour of these visits founded the Alfred Model Farm and the Prince and Princess of Wales's College and, Schools, for Boys and Girls. fI THE British Association, which meets in Toronto on August 19 will have the advantage of a Hand- book for Canada" now in preparation6 Lord and Lady Aberdeen will be present at the opening cert- mony. Excursions will be made to Niagara, the Mnskoka Lakes, where the Muskoka Lakes Associa- tion have summer camps. The Cataract Construc- tion Company, and the Harvard Astronomical Obser- vatory, have invited members to visit their establish- ments. A public banquet will be given in honour of Lord Kelvin, Lord Lister, and Sir John Evans, the President-elect of the Association. A CANADIAN sea captain has invented an apparatus with which he thinks whales can be killed by electric shock. A harpoon is fixed at the end of a long metallic cable, properly insulated, and which serves in place of the usual rope. Through this cable an electric current of 10,000 rolts is to be sent by means J of a dynamo carried in the whale-boat. The inventor believes that no whale would be able to withstand the shock it would receive the instant the harpoon entered its side. THE Queen has presented seven photogravure portraits of herself, bearing her autograph signature, to the police stations of the Island of Grenada. Her Majesty, oh being informed that the members of the police force had contributed towards buying a portrait of the Queen for encli of the district offices, as 'a memento of the sixtieth anniversary of -her reign, et- joraased » wwb to make the interesting gift hbrself. The portraits were unveiled by Lieutenant Lingham, the chief ef the force, at St. George's-*—the capital of Grenada-a short time since amid much enthusiast*. The honour conferred upon th» force has been greatty appreciated throughout Grenada. > COAL has been discovered in Jamaica, which ex- perts pronounce bituminous. IN his report on the British Solomon Islands the acting Deputy Cothmissioner, Mr. C. M. Woodford, says that ne was hopeful that the year 1896 would have passed without any murders. Referring to the disaster to the expedition of the Austrian man-of- war Albatross, he says that the Austrians were in a position where, without previous knowledge of-ttte natives, no one should have gone. An interesting account is given of the manufacture of shell bead money. It is of three qualities, white, black, and red. The white ia of the least valne, and the red most highly prized. White traders buy the latter for use in British New Guinea, where it is used to buy gold dust from the natives. A fathom of red money could recently be bought in the Solomons for Is. In New Guinea it is worth 25s.; a very satisfactory premium, but there the supply is limited and the natives loth to part with it. THE latest of the Colonial Premiers to take up their quarters in London for the Diamond Jubilee are Sir Hugh Nelson, of Queensland, and the Hon. C. 0. Kingston, of South Australia. The former is a son of a Scottish Presbyterian minister, and went out to Australia in his teens. Settling down in Northern Queensland, he gradually developed into a wealthy' squatter, but he did not trouble himself abopt public affairs until he was close on 50. Ketuiltifid to the Queensland Parliament as member for the Northern Downs, he developed some skill as a debater, and when his brother Caledonian chief, Sir Thomas Mcllwraith, was compelled to relinquish the Premiership on account of continued ill-health, he was called upon to fill the vacancy, which he. has done in a respectable fashion. Mr. Kingston is the only one of the Colonial Premiers who comes to us with a reputation for occasional eccentricities and impulsive proceedings. His language at times is frequent and free, and hts famous abortive duel with Sir Richard Baker, the President of tbe Legislative Council, will not be for- gotten for many a day. Sir Richard had said some- thing which Mr. Kingston construed as personally offensive. A challenge in French fashion was imme- diately sent:, and transferred by its recipient to the police. When Mr. Kingston arrived on the meeting- ground, Victoria-square, Adelaide, he was promptly placed under arrest and marched by a grinning con- tingent of constables to the nearest police-station, where he was detained until he signed a bond not to do any harm to her Majesty's subjects in general and his intended opponent in particular. THE visit of the Hon; R. J. Seddon to his native place, St. Helens, in Lancashire, reads like a chapter of romance. It is now 34 years since he left St. Helens. Then he was a working engineer; now he is New Zealand's Premier, and withal a man of high loyalty and shining patriotism, as his stirring speeches show. No wonder that thousands of people assembled at the railway-station to welcome the man who has been the architect of his own fortunes. Mr. Seddon does honour to his town and country, and one certain result of his visit to England will be to knit closer together the ties between the mother country and the flourishing colony he represents. The Premier of New Zealand's visit to his native place, St. Helens, finds several notable parallels. A few years ago M. Dupuy, then French Premier, paid a visit to his birthplace, Le Puy, where he declared almost every paving stone must know him. He, like Mr. Seddon, had greatly risen through his splendid exertions and his talents. The feelings of a great k man on such occasions are, perhaps, most admirably expressed in Tennyson's noble Canto LXIV. of "In Memoriam A NEW ZEALAND matron carries her 60 years so lightly that she thinks nothing of riding on her bicycle 100 miles in a day, and since she first became a cyclist has covered, in all, some 5000 miles.
.iI 0::1 lIC., ,) THE' NEW11 ROYAL TRATN. For the Diamond Jubilee festivities the treat Western Railway Company have built for the De of her Majesty in her journeys between Windsand London an entirely new train in their .work at Swindon. It cannot, perhaps (says the Daily^'ele- graph), be compared with the sombre soldity of the Russian Imperial train, or the boudoir elegance of the Presidential train in which M. Felix Faure travels but the Victorian t#in, nevertheless, represents the' biggest type* of rfig- lish design and workmanship, and is worth! of the reputation of one, of the premier railway om- panies of this country. The carriages afford an example .of. the perfection of detail at which buijfers are nowadays aiming. No train in Great Britah is bettel appointed in all essentials of comfort, Imd safety. On its trial trips the sharp curves en the road to Taunton were successfully covered, 1\11\ a speed was frequently attained of 65 miles an hepr; while Mr. Thomas, superintendent, of the carriage department, states that equally satisfactory, resets were obtained upon the occasion of the run to Newport. v The Royal train is built upon the corridor pin- eiple throughout, that is to say, one may walk fytm one end to the other. In actual running, howeier, the privacy of the Queen's saloon and adjoining oom- partments is secured by closing the sliding-doop. os. Two brake-vans, capable of carrying about 10 tons of luggage, two Royal saloons, a first-class corridor carriage, and the Queen's "coach "make up the six vehicles composing the train, which haA a total length of 338ft. and a gross weight of nearly 160 tons. It aiffers from tie London and North-Western train in which her Majesty invariably journeys, to Scotland in. the fact that it is uniform in character, though there are certain difference* Queen's rxage ana tbe others. This is explained by MrJ desire of her Majesty that, tbe salooq in which rar] has travelled on the Great Western Railway sinolt 1874 should form portion of the new train. Con- siderable alterations have, however, been male in it, which have received the, Queen's approval, her Majesty having thrice used this particular carriage since its enlargement—once upon her return from Cherbourg tq Portsmouth, and twice between Windsor and Paddington. Outwardly, there is nothing to distinguish this coach from its fellows, except the Royal arms and heraldic adorn- ments painted upon the panels, the four lions' headl^ —one at each corner of the bed frame—and the folcT ing iron alighting steps. The entire train is painted iL cream and chocolate—the Great Western Railwav colours—and the mouldings, together with the framed work and springs, are heavily lined with gold. Ttrf windows have broad mahogany mouldings, and the handles of the doors are all gold-plated. T Her Majesty's carriage is placed fourth from tha engine. It differs slightly from the rest of thev train, as the coach is 4ft. shorter than the Royar saloons which are at each end of it, It is of the samer width-8ft. 6in. oatside measurement-and ru. npon a pair of 10ft. bogies, each having four wheels.) The roof is domed, after the older models; whereas] the other saloons have the newest Great- Western deck roofs, with narrow windows jin the upper part. Originally the Queen's carriage I was 43ft. in length. Without disturbing the| central portion reserved for the use of thai Sovereign, the 5ft. 6in. which has been added stj sach end has greatly improved the carriage. TheN jhief gain has been the substitution of a vestibule | entrance, 5ft. lOin. wide, in place of a narrow passage 3ft. wide. The folding doorway opening to the plat- form is now fully 6ft. wide, and her Majesty has ex- pressed herself very pleased with the change. From this vestibule a sliding door, in the upper part of which is a mirror, conducts into the Queen's private saloon, which is absolutely unchanged It is an apartment measuring 15ftt kqie.- by Bft., with a covered roof, cream colour, hand painted, with a scroll, into which the lion and crown are introduced at the corners. There are one long and two short windows on each side, capable of being screened with green silk blinds, the massive silver-plated rod of which is supported} by ormolu Hercules. Lions' heads in satinwood are repeated in the four angles of the roof. Satin- wood is also used for the pillars and mouldings, but tbe panels are of sycamore. The furniture is •of carved satinwood, upholstered in plain cream ribbed silk, with green-and-white «lk laoos, to, ,.DlA 41*0 Tory ricn lrfsli Carpet, whloh possesses an extremely heavy pile. There is space for a' wide couch, with arms, which can, if needed, be ex- tended in width to form a bed; an easy-chair in one corner, in which her Majesty usually sits; and. three smaller chairs, with a narrow, oblong satinwood table opposite the sofa. The cushions are elaborately em- broidered with Y.R.I. Mirrors at each end of the apartment mark the doors, and in the centre of the -ceiling a frosted bell contains six electric lamps, half the number being switched off if less light is desired. Next to the Queen's saloon, separated by a dress- ing-room, is the compartment in which her Majesty's women attendants travel. Its upholstery, cabinet- work, and fittings are identical with those of the central saloon, but the roof is of lincrusta, in white and gold. Two couches are provided. At the other end of the coach, beyond the entrance vestibule, there is a similar compartment for the Indian attendants, in which a cupboard contains an apparatus for boiling a teakettle by electrical means. Toilet-rooms are at both ends of the Queen's carriage. Besides her Majesty's there are two other Royal saloons reserved for Princes and Princesses. These carriages are alike in plan and construction. They measure 58ft. in length, and are connected with the Queen's carriage by flexible gangway's, padded with cream morocco leather. Passing first into a saloon 15ft. 6in. long, having four corner seats and two couches, one notes the pleasing contrast of the dark walnut pillars and delicate syca- more panels, which harmonise so well with the tabrette silk of a charming shade of fawn, with green and white laces used in the upholstering. The carpet is of green-and-white Wilton. A white- and-gold clerestory roof, numerous mirrors, coloured photographic views of scenery on the Great Western Railway, electric lamps in pretty glass shades, and brass fittings, instead of silver-plated, all contribute to the elegance and cheerfulness of the carriage. It is well supplied with toilet conveniences, and there is a saloon for the Princes, also 15ft. 6in. long, similar in every respect to the other one, but having, in addition, a smoking compartment, with four seats, covered in cream morocco. The first-class corridor carriage is 66ft. in length, and weighs 26-1 tons, as compared with 27 tons, the weight of the Queen's carriage. It has four com- partments, with a corridor at one side, lavatories for ladies and gentlemen, and a smoking compartment in two divisions, four seats in each. Like all the other coaches, it is a bogie carriage, and therefore runs smoothly. The fittings are the same as in the rest of the train. Room is found on the train for Great Western officials and for electric light attendants and servants—the latter travelling in the brake vans, which are furnished with seats, In one of them there is a gas-stove, with a grill and sink, so that a meal can be cooked en route. Steam-heating apparatus warms the train in winter, and adequate ventilation is secured by a special arrangement. The doors are fitted with draught excluders, and the doors that slide to and fro do so without jar or noise, as they run on ball bear- ings. The windows of the doors are lifted and adjusted without the slightest difficulty. Wood wheels, with steel tyres, make the rolling stock the easiest on the road in the world. In case of accident the vacuum brake can be applied, without consulting the guard, by moving a lever in each coach. The train generates its own electricity on Gill's system. A dynamo, when the train is in motion, is driven Trom one of the axles with a pulley, and at the rate of 25 miles an hour it continues to recharge the batteries, which contain 10-i hours' storage. Should the spe ad 2 of the train increase, what is called a slip of the belt" takes place, and the dynamo is undisturbed.
THE daily movements of the Mikado of Japan are very regular. He always goes to is study at 9 a. and remains at his work there until 4 p.m. He reads and signs all Parliamentary laws and deciees. When a Cabinet Minister address his Majesty about auy public matter he inquires about the subject, the purpose and condition, and decides it, He is tirm and not changeable. When he decides a matter once he cannot after that be moved. His Majesty under- stands the condition of the lower classes, aud familiarises himself with the private conduct of the Cabinet Ministers. When he reads newspaper articles relating to the private iniscoliduct of any Cabinet Minister and attacking him, he sometimes Smiles. He is fond of readil>g"bookti and newspapers, and is especially fond of German books. He likes to compose Japanese poems, which he can do readily.
M ER—you see, governor," said the young man, as tenderly as he could, "you sfee, father, you are just a bit of an old fogy." • "I suppose I am," admitted the old gentleman. It's a sort of family failing. My father was the same way when I was your age." JIGGLES (facetiously): "I never saw such hands upon a respectable person. I'd have cleaner hands than he carries if I had to wash myself once a week." Bu'ggles (literalist): Funny about Jiggles. He Bay8 ^,e never waehee his hands as often as once a
MARKET NEWS. MARK-LANB — Business has been quiet, and prices have remained about the same. The sales of home- grown wheat in the leading markets of England and Wales during the 41 weeks of the season have been 2,206,961qrs., against 1,336,722qrs. last season, the average being 28s lOd against 258 Id per qr. barley, 3,192,156qrs., against 3,350,282qrs., at an average of 24s 4d against 23s Id per qr.; and oats, 575,299qrs., against 618,563qrs., the average being 16s 5d, against 13s lid per qr. English wheat has moved off slowly and was 3d to 6d lower on the week. For foreign wheat the demand was inactive at a similar reduction. The flour market was dull and prices were 3d loWer. Barley was a quiet but steady market. Oats' Were in moderate request at previous currencies. Maize was steady in value with a moderate demand. Beans and peas were about the same in value with a quiet demand. LONDON METROPOLITAN CATTLE.—The supply of beasts was larger than usual. Business was dis- tinctly quieter, and a slight decline occurred in prices. Fat butchering cows were in full eupply, and they eold slowly at fully 2d per 81b. less money. There was very little demand for the fat bulls and rough cows on offer. The best Scotch reached 4s 6d to 4s 8d Norfolk?, 4s 4d to 4s 6d; Lincolns, 4s 2d to 4s 6d and fat cows, 3s 8d to 4s per 81b. The sheep pens were well supplied. There was a firm trade for wethers at fully last week's quotations; but ewes, being in excess of the demand, met a slower trade at 2d per 81b. decline. The beet 7! to 8-stone Downs made 5s 8d; 10-stone, 5s 4d 10-stone half- breds, Ó8 2d to 5s 4d; 12-stone Lincolns, 4s lOd to 5s and 10-stone Down ewes, 3s 8d to 4s per 81b. Lambs sold readily, but were not quite so dear; 5-stone fat Downs lambs, 6s 8d to occasionally 6s lOd fper 81b. Calves were a nominal market. Pigs dull, the top price being 4s to 4s 2d per 81b. Fifty milch cows,15 to^eaj pur Lead. Quotations: Coarse and inferior beasts, 2s 4d to os -M; Tsecona grrarrry ditto, 3s 6d to 4s; prime large oxen, 4s 2d to 4s 6d ditto Scotch, &c., 4s 6d to 4s 8d; coarse and inferior sheep, 3s 8d to 4s Od; second quality ditto, 4s 2dSto 4s lOd; prime coarse-woolled ditto, 5s Od to 5s 4d j prime Southdown ditto, 5s 6d to 5s 8d; lambs, 5s lOd to 6s lOd large coarse calves, 35 2d to 4s 4d; prime small ditto, 48 8d to 5s 2d; large hogs, 2s 6d to 3s 4d; and neat small porkers, 3a 8d to 4s 2d per 81b. to sink the offal. SIUTHFIJSLD MEAT.—There was very little meat came to hand fresh, more especially Scotch beef and mutton. The trade was slow, and the market was not cleared. The following were the prices: Inferior beef, Is 8d to 2s 4d; middling ditto, 2s 8d to 3s oa; prime ditto, 3s 2d to 3s (jd, Scotch ditto, 3s 6d to 4s Od; Scotch short sides ditto, 38 8d to 4s 4d; Ameri- can, Liverpool-killed, 3s Od to 3s 4d ditto killed, hind-quarters, 3s 4d to 3s 8d ditto killed, fore- quarters, Is 8d to 2s 2d; English veal, 2s 8d to 4s 4d; Dutch ditto, 2s Od to 4s Od; inferior mutton, 2s 8d to 3s 4d middling ditto, 3s 8d to 4s 4d prime ditto, 4s 8d to 5s Od; Scotch ditto, 4s 8d to 5s 4d; New Zealand ditto, 2s 4d to 2s 6d; American ditto, 38 6d to 3s lOd; Dutch ditto, 4s 4d to 4s 8d; English lamb, 5s 4d to 6s 4d; New Zealand ditto, 3s Od to 38 4d large pork, 2s 8d to 3s Od small ditto, 3s Od to 3s 4d; and Dutch ditto, 2s 8d to 3s 0d per 81b. by the carcase. BILLINGSGATE Fisti.-Good supply ot fish; fair demand. Prices: Wholesale Scotch salmon, Is 3d grilse, Is Id; soles, Is 2d to Is 6d slips, Is 4d; red mullets, 6d to 9d per lb.; turbot, 5s to 7a; brill. 6s; halibut, 5s; lemon eotm, tm phuoe, 4* 6d I to 5s Od per stone mackerel, 12s per 60; live cod, 8s to 10s; dead cod, 6s to 8s; whitings, 4s to 5s; hake, 9s; roker, 9s gurnet, 8s; catfish, 5s; Scotch salted herrings, 4s to 5s per box; fresh haddocks, 6s to 8s per trunK ditto, 12s per turn; live eels, 20s; dead eels, 10s to 14s per draft; conger eels, 30s per I barrel; whitebait, Is per quart; crawfish, 30s; lobsters, 20s to 40s per score; oysters, 2s to b*s per 100; shrimps, 8s to 10s; winkles, 8s to 9s whelks, 4s to 58 per bushel; bloiaters, Is to 2s; kippers, Is 6d [ to 2s per box London-cured haddocks, 3s to 6s per I dozen crabs, 12s to 18s per hamper. [ WHITECHAPEL HAY AND STRAW.—The supplies con-, tinue in excess of the demand, which is very slow,, j trade being depressed. Best clover. 70» to 95»; in-; ferior ditto, 50s to 70s best hay, 60s to 90s; inferior y ditto, 46s to 55s; mixture and sainfoin 50s to 88ø;! and straw, 28s to 40s per load. BOROUGH AND SPITALFIELDS POTATO.-There waØ\ good supply of potatoes on sale. The trade was dull, at prices as follows: Old Magnum bonums, 90s to 35s; main crops, 70s to 80s; ituperators, 40s to v45s per ton. New: Jersey kidneys, 9s to 10s; Cherbourg ditto, Be to Be 6d; ditto rounds, 6s 6d to v7s; Malta ditto, 6s .to ,6s 6d; and Lisbon ditto, 6s per cwt. SEED TRADE.—Market thinly attended,- with 8Carcely any business passing. Cloverseeds are just now neglected. The prices for new French trifolium for delivery end of July are considered too high. Tares still find buyers. Rye is wanted. Mustard seed and rapeseed, firm. Birdseeds slow. Peas and haricots, steady. Californian butter beans, on spot, are scarce. CAMBRIDGE CATTLE.—Store beasts a larger show, but trade slow. Fat beasts a good number pricefe unchanged. A large show of fat sheep, prices about the same. Stores, some very good lots of ewes and mbll shown, bat trade slow; Lambs, not so many shown; prices unchanged. A poor trade all round for fat pigs. A slow trade for hay, straw, and roots. prices: Beef, 7s Od to 8s Odj mutton, 4s 4d to '5s 6d lamb, 8d to 9d; pork, 4s 6d to -5s 6d. READING CAFTLB.—The sopoly-bt beasts was large. IPrime animals sold, slowly at 4s 4d to 4s Sd, and oarser sorts 3s 8d to 4s per stone. There were a large number of sheep penned, which were with difficulty disposed of at va 4d to 5a 8d per stone for small sheep, and 4s 8d to 5s per stone for larger animals. Lambs fetched 6s to 7a 4d,,and calves 3s 8d to 4s 8d per stone. CORK BUTTER.—Primest, 77s per cwt.; prime, 74s Srsts, 77s; seconds, 74s; thirds, 73s fourths, 64s. Mild cured: Choicest, 79a choice, 75s; superfine, 78e; fine, 75s. Choicest boxes, 82s; choice, 77s. GRIMSBY FISH. Supply and deniabd good. Brills, 7d per lb.; -.lood, lite and dead, ls to 3s Od I each; salt, 7* to 8s per cwt.; codlings, So to 10s per box crabs, 4s 6d; catfish, 10s to 25s per score; gurnets, 2s 6d to 4s 6d per box; halibut, live, 48 6d to 5s 6d; dead, 3s 3d to 4s Od per stone; haddocks, 28a to 36s per kit; round, 8s to 14s per box; finnan, 3w to 3e 3d per stone; hake, 2» to 5s each; latcbets 5s 6d to 7. 6d per box; ling, dead, Is to 4s each lobsters, Is 4d per lb. mackerel, 5s to 58 6d per score; American oysters, 4a per 100; plaice, 3a to 6d per stone; roker, 6s to 14s per score; soles, Is to Is 2d per lb.; lemon, 5s to 6s per stone; odmon and grilse, Is to Is 4d per lb.; skate, live, 2s to 4a dead, Is 3d to 3s each; turbot, 7d per lb. whitings* live, 4s 0d per score; dead, 2s 6d to 3s 6d per stone; whelks, 3s per wash: ice, Is 6d per cwt.
¡, J t A NEW ARRIVAL AT THE ZOO. A specimen of an animal that has not been on view for some years has just been acquired by the Zoo- logical Society of London. This is the Californian sea lion, so familiar to visitors to San Francisco. At present the only convenient place for a sea lion to disport itself is in possession of an old-resident at the Zoo, tloe Cape sea lion. The Cape sea lion, more- over, does not at present see its way to yielding place to the newcomer, and has seen through various allurements in the <4hape of liberal offers of fish, meant to entice it into a cage. Unfortunately, the two species cannot be safely allowed to share the accommodation, spacious though it is; for misunderstanding might arise which would I be apt to be settled in a practical fashion, and pro- bably distinctly to the-detriment of the smaller Cape animal. The new sea lion—or sea bear, as it is some- times, and really with greater accuracy, termed-has i tiot had its temper improved by the sight of the water and of its neighbour. But instead of signify- ing its emotions by a dignified roar, or even a bear- like growl, it yelps like an injured puppy.
BEFORE the ena of this year the railway line from Mafeking to Buluwayo will be finished, and the journey from Cape Town to the capital of Rhodesia will occupy as mfiny days as last year it did weeks. Last spring Mafeking was the terminus of the long lise from Cape Town. The distance from Mafeking to lJuluwayJo is six hundred miles, and from Bulu- wayo northwards the British territory still stretches for hundreds upon hundreds of jniles, The railway to -Buluwayo is suire to bring crowds of pettlers. That nine-tenths of them will be English may be inferred from the proportion of recently-arrived English immigrants in the corps [raised at Kimberley and neighbouring places for service in the late insurrec- 1 tion in Rhodesia. |
IGAMAGE, for Cycles, Cycle Accessories, &c. LEASING THE WAY AS USUAL. CHEAPEST AND BEST HOUSE. Write or call for comprehensive Catalogue for the Season, Post Free to any Address, — THE "GAMAGE" CYCLES STAND THE RACKET. — The Ga"pedo' 10 Gns. The Gamage 1 412 19- Gd. Tbe 1 Special Oamagc 15 Om. I;Tbe 'CSamspedo' IO Gni High Grade, Smart, Up. to-datel 12 Months' Warranty. Rough Roads will not Wreck them. The" Lucissime "Lamp. ) 1 10/6 Post Free. Bums Paraffin Odourless and Non- explosive. Richly Nickel- plated. The 'Gamspede' Lady's 11 GIIS I The I Gamage 1 13 Gm:, The Special Gamage' 16 Gus. ¡ Tried and True 1 12 Months' Warranty. Honest Workmanship in every part. I The'Gamage'Watch Holder I I 2 I ''I iown Very neat, Glass ftee, Peectly dust. proof, Spring clip pre- vents vibration, Locks on the Bar. Price ale; with Watch complete 12/9 POST FUSE. Lady's and Gent's size. I Gamage's Famous Bells. ] (AS ILLUSTRATION.) t i/4, 2/3, 2/9, 8/3, 3/6, 3/9. Postage, 8d. Loud and clear toned. Marvellous value. THE 'SYKL' FOOT PUMP. VERY POWERFUL Can be carried in the Pocket. No Stooping. Pumping up a Pleasure. No Rattling on the Machine. 2/9 r°Zda9e THE ONLY BRAKE HOLDER. 3/- Pottage Sd. Holds Brake to any tension. Locks Machine to prevent Theft. Attachable to any Cycle. Doctors do not differ In their opinions of Gamage's OSOEZI' SADDLE, And why t Because it is at once hygienic, anatomically cor- rect, and pressure upon the perineum is avoided. No saddle soreness even after the hardest and most continuous riding. POST FREE. 21/- POST FREE. Suitable for Ladies or Gentlemen. Easily adaptable to any Machine. 12r )A.W.CAMACE,HQLBORN, E.c. t
A SCOTTISH HISTORICAL HOME. FALKLAND PALACE. What promises to be an interesting series of articles on "Historic Homes of Scotland," com- mences in the current number of the Scots tu- iorial. The initial article deals with Falkland Palace, situated in the delightful old Fifesliire town of Falkland, which possesses a distinct advantage in being on the road to nowhere. It thereby enjoys virtual immunity from attack by the hordes of tcur- ists who affect the antique. In a similar sense (re- marks the writer) it has been said, who goe.3 to Falkland gets to Falkland"—meaning that the old burgh does not lie upon any of the great lines of communication traversing Fife. It is not touched by travellers to either Cupar or St. Andrews, Dun- dee, or Perth. The railroad passes it at a distance, and it stands about midway between the two great highways through Fife, that from Kinross and that from the Southern coast, which meet in Cupar. It is only visited by those who make it their objective point. From six centuries or more of alternative strife and pleasure it has emerged into the peace of dreamy retirement. Proud of its long pedigree and brilliantly coloured history, it rests in aristocratic indolence at the foot of the Lomond Hills, and lets the tide of modem life roll past. From the northern slope of the East Lomond, Falkland is seen, huddled close between the Palace and the hill. In these later days it seems to be endeavouring to itcetoh its diminutive proportions out to right and left, but the older town still possesses the appearance, common to many others in Scotland, of a confused medley of houses- They form such a fortuitous con- course of building as might have been strewn by some colossal power along the narrow strip of available ground. Above them rise the gateway towers and southern wing of the Palace, the nucleus And r foster-parent of the town. Originally the latter probably consisted of a few cottages or I,, clustering round the Tower, Castle, or Keep, which preceded the Palace. As time wore on the town became the capital of the stewartrv of Fife, and in 1458 it was made a Royal burgh. It has, however, little or no history apart from the Palace. Richard Cameron, the Covenenter and Martyr, was no doubt born in Falkland, but all the associations of the town practically centre in the Palace to which it owes its existence. This latter statement is sub- stantiated by the terms of the charter erecting Falk- land into a Royal burgh. According to Major W. Wood, who now resides in the Palace as factor for the Marquis of Bute, the charter was granted that the inhabitants might provide convenient accommo-i dation for the number of persons, many of high social position, who were often obliged to resort thither on account of the residence of the Court." A SECLUDED COURT RESIDENCE.. How the Court happened to go to a place PO secluded that it must have been difficult of access can* only be explained by a brief excursion into history. All the open country we have been surveying was, in the olden time, -a forest. Of the Falkland wmxls 11 scarce a remnant exists, but there was a time wbea they were under the care of both Sovereign and Parliament, and when the forester was held one of the more important personages attending the Cctirt. Part of his fee consisted of the dead timber, that if, such as had been uprooted or blown down by the wind, but he was forbidden to cut down growing wood, and severe penalties were inQieted upon those who destroyed trees in the neighbourhood ot-%he Palace. Even when King James 1 V. set about build- „ ing the great St. Michael "to avenge the death oF; Sir Andrew Barton, he allowed all the woods of Fife to be cut to supply the timber demanded by her enormous- size, with the outstanding exception of Falkland. In 1555 the Scots Parliament ordered liD inspection of the woods, and that trees, auld, fall- yeit, and decayit and meit to be cuttit down," should be removed and others planted in their stead.. A similar precaution had reference to the grant of the lands of Freuchie to twelve proprietors. One of the conditions was that they should plant elm, ash, and other trees, and sow breom seeds in the shaws. The explanation of these several matters of manage- ment may be found in the burgh seal of Falkland, which displays a stag crouching under a tree in leaf. The Palace became a Royal retreat and residence, and the woods formed a kingly hunting-ground. In restoring the sylvan character of the country- side, and depicting Falkland Palace as a favourite j holiday resort of the pleasure loving Stuarts, a key to its history is found. Out of remote solitude it is lifted into historic prominence. The old walls have listened to ambitious prompting of state- craft perhaps they have witnessed murder. Twice they have been a dungeon from which death freed one prisoner, and a swift horse carried another. The courtyard has rung with the huntsmen's horn and the clatter of hoofs. The hall of Falkland," says Sheriff Mackay, often heard the minstrel's voice." Blind Harry that is, being a Court minstrel, chanted his ballads to his harp before the King at Falkland, while Dunbar, a Court poet., sang of the incidents of Royal life and pastime. Discussion in both politics and polemics ran high in the audience chamber. Many figures pass in the diorama, and finally Kings, Queens, and courtiers are seen dancing upon Falkland-green, and indulging in all manner of merrymaking and revelry.
MR. LOWELL'S astronomers have made a large num- ber of observations on the stars at Mexico. They have measured 300,000 double and triple stars, more than half of which are new to science. Some of these are very brilliant. Full reports of the work will shortly be sent to the Royal Astronomical SoQwty of London.
THE QUEEN'S STATE CARRIAGE Undoubtedly the Queen's State carriage is the most superb carriage ever built. It is used only upon the rarest State occasions, says the Road, and will not be seen on the 22nd inst., as was erroneously reported. Indeed, since 1861 it has not left the Royal Mews at Buckingham Palace. The carriage was designed by Sir William Chambers, and in every part was richly ornamented with laurel and carved work, beau- tifully gilt. Its entire length is 24ft., its height 12ft., and the weight of the whole coach four tons. Feur huge tritons support the body of the coach by four braces covered with red Morocco leather, and ornamented with gilt buckles. The two figures in front are represented in the action of draw- ing by cables extended round their shoulders, and are sounding shells to announce the approach of tbe Monarch of the Ocean. The body of this re- markable coach is composed of eight palm trees, which, branching out at the top, sustain the roof. On the centre of the roof stand three boys, repre- senting the Genii of England, Scotland, and Ireland, supporting the Imperial Crown of Great Britain, and holding in their hands the sceptre and ensigns of knighthood. The inside of the carriage is lined with rich scarlet embossed velvet, superbly laced and embroidered with gold. The State carriage is drawn only by eight cream horses, whoee magnificent harness ilt made of red Morocco leather and decorated with the blue ribbons and the Royal Arms, richly gilt. This harness will be made use of on Jubilee Day. On the coach panels are many beautiful pic- tures by Cipriani. The one on the door represents Mars, Minerva, and Mercury supporting the Im- perial Crown of Great Britain. On the left and right eides the Liberal Art and Sciences are shown. The pictures on the other door and panels are no less beautiful. They represent Industry and Ingenuity giving a cornucopia to the Genius of England, and History recording the reports of Fame and burning the implements of war. The back of the Queen's State coach is magnificently decorated. On the upper part are the Royal Arms, with the Order of St. George, the rose, shamrock, and thistle entwined. A large picture below shows Neptune and Amphi- trite issuing from their palace in a triumphal car drawn by sea horses, attended by the winds, rivers, Tritons, Naiads, &c. Her Majesty's second State carriage is less magnificent, but more often used than the first. It is the Queen's favourite coach. Like the other, it is drawn only by eight horses. The beautiful gilt work round the top is composed of roses, thistles, and shamrocks, carved in wood, and richly gilt. The interior of the carriage is up- holstered in the finest blue silk. The Imperial Crown rests on a cushion on the roof.
TORPEDOES AND WARSHIPS. Vice-Admiral Colomb read a paper at the United Service Institution the other day before several naval authorities on The Future of the Torpedo." The whole theory of the battleship in war had become, he argued, an idle dream by the production of a type of torpedo-vessel which must be more com- pletely master of the battleship than anything ever heard of before. Britain o battleships had 17^ knots speed; her torpedo-boat destroyers could overhaul them at the rate of 2000 yards—good gun range — in six minutes. She could put 25 of the destroyers afloat for what it cost her to put one battle- ship afloat; and if she thought of sending battleships and destroyers into action, she would only expose the same number of lives in, 15 destroyers that she would expose in one battleship. It was plain that 15 destroyers acting together could not now be matched, at the same cost, by anything else afloat. If it was doubted that they would easily master one battleship in the open sea in broad day- light, it would scarcely be doubted that no one battle- ship would willingly attempt to drive them off the sea. Then, how was he to speak of battleships com- manding any sea, when it was a necessity for them to shelter in close harbours at night, and, therefore, to leave the enemy's torpedo-vessels in command of the waters they had quitted in fear of their lives ? Already we were preparing for a 33-knot speed to match the increased speed of the latest battleships. Already an armoured torpedo-boat destroyer had been seat to sea. Must we not reasonably expect, directly, the perfectly armoured torpedo-vessel, sea-going, sea- keeping, comfortable to live in, and with seven or eight knots more speed than any possible armoured gunship of present type?
CTma UAMns are Demg used m Switzerland ana Germany to check profanity. People go about with t,he cards in their pockets, and whenever they bad language present one to the swearer to sign. lh» card has printed on it a pledge to abstain from swear- ing for a specified time, or to pay a pfennig an oath to some charity. Nearly 40,000<jarda haw been dis- tributed in Switzerland, where there we -)aree lan- guages to swear in. THE bottom of the Pacific between Hawaii and California is said to be so level that a railway could be laid for 500 miles without altering the grade any- where. The fact was discovered by the United States surveying vessel engagod in making soundings with the view of laying a cable. AN interesting relic of old Birmingham is to be found in Mr. George Thornton, of Villa-street, an old Birmingham postman, who is in the unique position of celebrating three diamond jubilees all within a few months of each other. Mr. Thornton was married on September 4, 1836, to Mary Gough, who is still living, and celebrated his diamond jubilee in the autumn of last year. This year he completes 60 years' connection with the Post Office, having joined. the service in 1837, and retired on a pe°»,0° after fulfilling the duties of a postman for 40 years.