IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT. In the HorsE OF 10R118, Feb. 25, Lord Carlingford, In reply to the Duke of R chmond, stated that the Ontario had arrived at Liverpool having on board 31 cattle and 7 sheep effected with toot-and-mouth disease. Those animals came among many others from Portland, in the United States, but there was reason to believe that the Ontario had brought the disease from Liverpool on an outward voyage. The diseased cattle and sheep which had come in her from Portland had been slaughtered at Liverpool; and among the other precautions tallen was that of prohibiting, for the present, the importation of animals from Portland. The Contagious Diseases (Animals) Bill, of which Lord Carlingford has charge was advanced a stage hy the receipt 01 the report of amendment*, and the Law of Evidence Amendment Bill, of which Lord Bramwell has charge, Went through Committee. The Bishop of Ely moved the second reading of the Mar- riages Legalisation (atopeley, Befordshire) Bill, the object of Which is to clear tip all doubt as to the legality of the mar- riages solemnized in the Stopsley church before it was con- secrated. After some observations from the Lord Chancellor, the Bill was read a second time. Their lordships adjourned at twenty-five minutes to five o'clock. In the HorSK OF COMMOKS, at the time cf private busi- ness, the Ennerdale Railway Bill again came on for conside- ration, and Mr. Bryce carried by 121 to 11 an instruction to the Committee to inquire whether the railway will interfere With the enjoyment of the visitors by injuriously affecting the scenery or otherwise. Quofitlon time extended to past six o clock, and som e 60 questions were addressed to the Treasury Bench—a third of them at least being put to Mr. Trevelyan. THE FALL OF SINKAT. -in-an-swer to Mr. Gibson, Lord E. Fitzmaurice Bald that CO women and children of the Sinkat garrison had reached Souakim; but as the soldiers carried their wives with them, it was conjectured that they wers killed. The fate of 4he children was more uncertain. Asked as to the date of this telegram, the noble lord could give no information. THE RETIREMENT OF THE SPEAKER. Mr. Gladstone, in proposing a vote of thanks to the re- 4MDg speaker for his distinguished services in the chair for more than 12 y ars. observed that the term., of hio resolu- tion acquired additional emphasis and significance from the circumstances under which they were employed. The busi- ness of the House was increasing, and the high functions Which the Speaker had been called upon to exercise had been exercised in a period < f difficulty previously unknown with skill, tact, flrmni ss, and admirable understanding. The House was deeply grateful for the work he had done on its behalf and of the country and as they looked back with gratitude, so they looked forwaid with warm desire to many years of public service and private happitss which they hoped the ritht hon. gentleman might enjoy. The Prime Minister concluded by moving—"That the thanks of this Howe be given to Mr. Speaker for his distinguished services In the Chair for more than twelve years that he be assured that this House fully appreciates the zeal and ability with Which he has discharged the duties of his high office through a period of unusual labour, difficulty, aud anxiety, and the judgment and firmness with which he has maintained its privileges and dignity; and that this House feels the strongest sense of his unremitting attention to the con- stantly-increating business of Parliament, and of his uniform urbanity, which have secured for him the respect and esteem of this House." SirS. Northcate, in seconding the motion, gave expression to the deep feelicg of regret universal on the Opposition Bench(s at the Speaker's retirement, and the high apprecia- tion of the value of his services, and added a few words ex- pressing his own individual gratitude for the wise counsel and generous assistance oittn received from the Speaker. Mr. Parnell, f peaking on behalf of the Irish members, said that while they were desirous of acknowledging the personal courtesy and consideration always extended to them by the Speaker, the conviet'on that his action had produced in- Justice and wrong and hardship to their country would compel them to say No to the motion. After some remaiks from Mr. O'Donnell, Lord H. Lennox, Mr. Newdegate, and Mr Gregory supported the motion, which was carried unanimously, with the exception of a few Noes from the Irish Benches. Members having taken off their hats, The Speaker, who was received with loud cheers, said The resolution which has now been moved and seconded and received by the Hons) iu a manner far beyond my deserts, obliges me to address a few words to ycu. Before I do so I am anxious to say a few words with regard to the criticisms which have fallen from the hon. member for the City of Cork (Mr. l'arneli) and the hon. member for Dun- gttvan (Vlr. O'Donnell). I do not doubt that both those on. members hare in the course they have thought fit to take been actuated throughout their ctlreer in the proceed- ings of this House by a sense of duty to their consti- tuents, and I am quite siire they will give iie credit for bavlnp, in my position as Speaker, acted on all these occa- sions to which they have referred as I always have, from a sense of duty. I am very sensible of my own thortcomings, and it has olfen been a subject of wonder oil my part how it Is that I have been lifted up to this high position. I believe that my elevation to this chair is mainly due to the simple -tact that ever since I entered this House, nearly 32 years ago, I have been animated and guided by a constant and abiding faith in this House as an instrument of good government, and have loyally woiked for the maintenance cf its high character. If in my tenure of this chair during a somewhat eventful period I have JJW to sustain the power and authority of this House, I Bf« have lived in vain. The rest of my ihlaol, i c^eert(l by pleasant memories of my career iu i anc* BmollS thosj pleasant memories the scene wuicn la now passing before us will hold a prominent place. X am unwilling to say farewell, for my heart will alwajs five with this House, to which I owe so much. I thank you heartily f< r the crowning act of this day in recog- nition of my services. Before I conclude I beg the Bouse willjiliow me to take this opportunity of thanking the Permanent officers of this House for the zealous and efficient support which I have received from them. From too clerks at the table of this House I have derived day by day constant and intelligent assistance. To the Clerk of Mis House my thanks are (specially due. He enjoys de servedly a world-wide reputation as an authority on Par- Uamentary procedure, and I have largely availed myself of his long experience and sound judgment in the conduct of the business of this House. Let me conclude with my best Wishes to one and all of those many members who have ever been introduced to me in this chair I wish them all happi- ness and prosperity, and I may be allowed to conclude with 'the prayer that the ideating of God may rtst upon this House 'for ever. Mr. Gladstone said I beg to move That the thanks of this House be given to Mr. Spt aker for what he has said this day to the House, and that the same be printed in the votes of this day and entered in the journals of this tiouge." The motion was agreed to. Mr. Gladstone I now beg to move the second resolution of Which I have given notice and which is in the hands of mem- berB-" That an hllmhleaddresg be presented to her Majesty praying her Majesay that she will be most eracious'y pleased to confer some signal mark of her Royal favour upon the Right honourable Sir Henry Bouverie William Brand, G C.B., Speaker of this House, for his eminent services during the ™Pprtant period in which he has, with such distinguished ability and dignity, presided in the chair of this House and to assure her Majesty that whatever expense Her Majesty Shall think proper to be incurred upon that account this House will make good the same." The motion was agreed to. THE SOUDAN. Mr. Labouchera then obtained leave to move the adjourn- ment of the House, in order to call attention to the position of the British army on the coast of the Red Sea, and asked forsome assurance from the Government that they repu- diated the bloodthirsty declarations to be found in the press, and Would confine their operations to defending Souakim. course of the discussion, the Marquis of Hartington ?J?8erved that one part of the policy of the Government wa» the defence of the Red Sóa ports. It appeared that a large and victorious body of the Arabs were in the neighbourhood f Souakim, and it might be necessary for the commander of British forces as a defensive measure to take the offensive against them ♦i^rr Gladftone pointed out the mischief that must ensue if House interfered with the action which the Executive, nnder a sense of duty and upon its responsibility, might think it necessary to take. further ^foraation^'but'^w^rned'them^'tha^6^111611' n'rt hfreqSnati0I1S thSn had J6t wSSo?«J The motion for adjournment was then negatived. THE STANDING COMMITTEES. The remander of the sitting was occupied by the adjourned debate on the motion of the Marquis of Hartington to revive the resolutions relating to the constitution aDd pro- ceedings of Standing Committees. A proposal by Jlr. Parnell for the creation of a Standing Committee of Itish members for the consideration of Irish Bills was opposed by Mr. Gladstone on the ground that the Standing Committees were purely an experiment, and that the proposal really was to refer a certain Class of measures to a commi ttee of experts. i ,» iDluc'1 discussion Mr. Parnell's proviso was negatived Lvelllnally the original motion was ac;retd to. The House adjourned at one o'clock.
EXECUTION AT TAUNTON. On Monday morning Charles Kite, labourer, was executed within Taunton Gaol for the murder of Albert Miles, at Bath. Binns was executioner. The prison bell began to toll at a quarter to eight o'clock, and the black flag was hoisted ^lle. representatives of the press were not admitted to the eaol but it was ascertained that the ouWtf igi i i I Ti scaffold, and that death*1flT Only a small number of people a°^i' "i gaol The convict being'oflterTs^^ gave him a long drop, and the bod/wTlloWdTo hang one hour. An inquest was held, and a formal Verdict was returned thai; the deceased had been executed according to law.
DARING STREET ROBBERY.—In London on Saturday at, the Bow-street Police-court, Thomas Allen and John Foreman, two youths, were charged with assault and robbery. The prosecutrix, Miss Amelia Distin, was proceeding down Prury-lane. about seven in the evening, towards the Opera Comique, where she is engaged. She was accosted by the two prisoners, and one of them made a snatch at a small handbag sue Was carrying, and which contained property to the value of £ 2. Failing to obtain possession of her bag, one of the prisoners said Hit her," whereupon pro- secutrix received a blow on the back of the head, and Was knocked down. The bag was then snatched from her hand with such force that the handle wa3 broken. Information was given to the police, and Detective Gregory arrested the prisoners, who were identified at the station. Both prisoners called evidence with a view of proving an alibi, but they were committed for trial.
THE DWELLINGS OF THE POOR. In the House of Lords on Friday evening in last week, Lord Salisbury moved an address for the ap- pointment of a Royal Commission to inquire into the housing of the working classes in populous places. He expressed his opinion that though this question of the dwellings of the poor was not a political one, no political question exceeded it in importance. It was not a simple one, but, on the contrary, one of a very complicated character. Some persons thought that it was a purely sanitary question, and that if the sanitary measures now in the Statute Book were duly carried out, they would be sufficient to meet the evil. But it was not so. The first consideration in connection with the matter was that which we knew under the name of "Sanitary," and it was certain that, whether owing to some insuperable obstacle to the working of the Sanitary Acts, or to negligence of the authorities, those beneficent measures had not effected what had been expected from them. Connected with sewage was water supply and the water com- panies, who had baffled more than one Ad- ministration. The remedy for all that could not be ascertained by discussion in Parliament or in the newspapers. Accurate investigation was required as to the evil and as to the appliances in which a remedy would be found. Then, though the Act which Sir R. Cross got Parliament to pass had done much good in respect of the structures occupied by the working classes, it had not done what was required. The com- pensation for ground in the metropolis was very high. Some persons would meet this by putting a part of the cost on the ground landlord or the leaseholder, as the case might be. To such persons he would say that if they had resort to confiscation at all they ought to get all they could by it and not confine themselves to con- fiscating the shilling or sixpence a foot to which the owner was entitled. However, this matter of the structures was another element of the question. He next came to overcrowding, which he regarded as the dominant difficulty of the question. The knocking down of unhealthy houses was not a remedy, because its immediate effect was to increase the overcrowd- ing of all the remaining houses in which the working people could be accommodated. Unless Parliament could cope with overcrowding, it would defeat all their efforts in this matter. A fitting subject of in- quiry by the Commission would be as to the numbers who required house accommodation and the radius within which a certain amount of accommodation was required. He did not seek to throw on any class blame for the existing state of things but as to the charge that much of it was caused by the clearance of estates, he pointed to the circumstance that the census returns showed a considerable increase in the number of houses in the counties contiguous to London in 1881, as compared with 1871. He thought that agricultural distress had much to do with over- crowding in the poorer districts of the metropolis. While not favouring any great scheme of State interference, lie was in favour of Parliament avoiding cowardice in this matter, because there were no absolute rules or principles in politics, and because material and moral laws ought to prevent the State from being indifferent to the social condition of the people. The noble lord concluded a well-received speech by moving the address. Lord Carrington announced that her Majesty, acting on the advice of her Ministers, had decided to issue a Commission in the terms of Lord Salisbury's motion, omitting the words, in populous places." The Prince of Wales rose with the Earl of Shaftesbury, to whom he offered to give way by resuming his seat, but the noble earl insisted on giving way for his Royal Highness, who said My lords, your lordships cannot have failed to have listened with the greatest interest to the speeches which have fallen from the lips of the noble marquis, and of the noble lord who has just sat down-speeches which cannot have failed to make a deep impression on your lordships' House. I feel convinced also that your lordships, in common with all classes of her Majesty's subjects, will be gratified to learn that the noble marquis has asked for a searching inquiry into this great and momentous question with regard to the housing and the amelioration of the dwellings of the poor and of the working classes, and that her Majesty's Government have granted a Royal Com- mission for that purpose. My lords, it is not my intention to trouble you with many remarks, but, as your lordships know, I take the liveliest and the greatest interest in this question but at the same time, I confess I have not gone into the matter deeply enough for me to venture on giving any opinion, especially after what has fallen from the lips of the noble marquis and the noble lord. Still, I can assure you, my lords, that I am deeply flattered at having been appointed a member of this Royal Commission. The subject of the housing of the poor is not totally unknown to me, as, having acquired a property in Norfolk, now twenty-one years ago, I have had something to do in building fresh dwellings for tho poor and the working classes. Oil arriving there, I found some of the dwellings in a most deplor- able condition but I hope that now there is hardly one person on the estate who can complain of not being adequately housed. Only a few days ago I visited two of the poorest courts and districts in St. Pancras and in Ilolborn, where I can assure vour lordships that the condition of the poor, or rather of their dwellings, was perfectly disgraceful. That in itself proves to me how important it is that there should be a thoroughly searching inquiry. As your lordships are well aware, there have existed now, for some short space of time, several private societies organized for inquiry into this very question. We ought all to be grateful that they should have given time to so important a subject, and I feel that a Royal Commission can in no wise clash with the efforts of these private individuals. In conclusion, I have an earnest hope, which I feel will be shared by your lordships, that the inquiries of this Royal Com- mission will result in its being able to recommend to Parliament measures of a drastic and thorough cha- racter, which shall bo the means of ameliorating not only the dwellings of the poor but their condition generally. The Earl of Shaftesbury, the Earl of Wemyss, Vis- count Cranbrook, and the Bishops of London and Rochester also took part in the debate. The Lord Chancellor congratulated the House on the unanimity of their lordships on this subject, and paid a tribute to the poorer classes in the great cities and towns of this country and to the general excel- y lence of their character in very trying circumstances. Lord Salisbury having stated that he had no objec- tion to the omission of the words "in populous places," and that he had nothing to do with the com- position of the Commission, the motion as amended was agreed to.
THE ORIGIN OF BRITISH SCENERY. Mr. Archibald Geikie, LL.D., F.R.S., Director- General of the Geological Survey of the United King- dom, recently delivered before a large audience in the theatre of the Royal Institution his third lecture on The, Origin of the Scenery of the British Islands." lie said the remarkable absence of coincidence between the drainage lines in Britain and the under- lying geological structure of the ground appeared to indicate that the rocks w at the surface must have been planed down to a general uniformity of contour irrespective of structure, or must have been com- pletely buried under younger unconformable forma- tions, on the unequally upraised surface of which the present lines of drainage were subsequently traced. It may even be possible approximatelv to restore the general topography of the country when the drainage first began to carve out the channels in which the streams still flow. In trying to reconstruct such ancient conditions of topography we are soon struck with the extraordinary inequality in the amount of waste which the country has undergone. Some tracts have been cut down into the very fundamental core of the framework of the land, while in their immediate neighbourhood many thousands of feet of younger rocks have been allowed to remain. Such differences are important in helping us to in- terpret former variations in topography, for they obviously indicate great differences alike in the total amount of upheaval above the base-level of denuda- tion and in the amount of time of exposure to denuda- tion. As a rule, the highest and oldest tracts will be most deeply eroded. Much of the denudation of the surface of Britain appears to have been accomplished m i n 1'? r5!, between the close of the carboniferous anc m of the triassic period. Deeplv eroded and presenting a singular configuration, of which only detached relics now remain, the surface of the country was thereafter submerged, and was probably for many ages buried in great part under secondary rocks. Not until some time after the chalk did the present terrestrial area emerge, and the existing topography has been mainly carved out since that time. The eastern half of the country, covered with secondary and tertiary strata, was probably the last tract to be uplifted; hence its watersheds and drainage lines may be regarded as the youngest of all. The history of our valleys brings before us the records of the great denudation. The Thames is one of the youngest of our rivers, dating from the time of the uplift which laid the tertiary sea-flow dry. Its source once lay far to the west of where it now rises, and its length and drainage area are being gradually diminished by the retreat of the jurassic escarpments. The Severn presents a more complicated history, while the Wye, Usk, Humber, Tay, Nitli, and Shannon may be cited as revealing some of the more interesting and important stages by which the present scenery of the country has been slowly elaborated.
THE FLOWER GARDEN. The continuance of wet, stormy weather, with occasional downpours of hail has tended greatly to deface the beautiful effect presented in the spring garden a month ago (says the Gardener's* Chronicle). Everything now presents a washed-out appearance, which can only be rectified by dry, sunny weather. As soon as the soil gets dry enough it will be ad- visable to loosen the surface of the beds, where this can be done without injuring the plants. All dead leaves and rubbish should also be removed, and where the plants have become loose they should be made firm in the soil, either by pressure with the hands or feet; and where necessary a slight top- dressing of sandy loam should be given between the plants, to make the surface even. Where the walks are of gravel it will be necessary to resurface them, when sufficiently dry, with fresh gravel, as they have, in consequence of so much rain, become extremely wet, disagreeable to the eye, and unpleasant to walk on. This will not only give the garden a bright appearance, but if well rolled they will require but little attention during the rest of the season to keep them in good condition. If the paths between the beds are composed of grass they should be swept when dry, the edges sheared" and well rolled, to produce a neat and trim appearance, and so increase and improve the general effect of the garden. Should the beds be surrounded by box, thrift, or other similar edgings, these should now be examined, and where necessary replanted. The whole should be clipped into neat form and size in proportion to the beds they surround. In replanting box edgings great care should be taken to make the soil sufficiently firm before planting, and also to thoroughly ram the box in the operation. This not only prevents its growing too rapidly afterwards, but it cannot be so easily dis- arranged by the roller and other causes. It is much better to perform this work now than to defer it till later in the season, when more important work will demand attention, and by doing a small quantity only at a time the beauty of the garden need in no way be marred. Frequent and careful attention will now be required in tying up and protecting the bulbs from frosts and severe storms as they push through the soil. Every attention thus given will be doubly repaid by their increased beauty. Clematis, roses, honey- suckle, and other climbers will also require the same care, especially the former, as their young shoots grow so rapidly, and are so tender and brittle at this season as to require almost daily attention. Roses growing on warm walls, as they are usually forward this year, may now be pruned, but extreme care should still be exercised, especially with respect to the teas and noisettes, not to cut back too hard, lest severe frosts should set in and destroy them.
THE EXPORTS OF IRON AND STEEL RAILS. Most of our readers are doubtless aware that there is included in the Board of Trade returns a supple- mentary table purporting to show the quantity of iron rails and of steel rails exported, separate from one another, and from the general table of railway material which forms part of the main account deal- ing with the exports of iron and steel (says Iron). The officials of the Board of Trade, however, append a note stating that this table is published with some hesitation, since, owing to the indiscriminate use of the terms" iron" and steel" by exporters and their agents, the figures cannot be relied on; and we have on a previous occasion drawn attention to the matter in the hopes that greater care might be exercised by those responsible for the information upon which the accounts are based. There is another direction in which this table appears to us capable of improvement, and that is in regard to the values affixed to the quantities exported. To obtain a correct notion of the value of exports is quite as requisite as to know their quantity. But to judge by the figures opposite several of the items, the values are declared without any attempt even at an approximation to correctness. Thus, for instance, we find that fifty tons of steel rails shipped in January to Germany are valued at S195, or less than S4 per ton. Now, al- though the price has been extremely low, we will venture to assert that nothing new has been sold at such a figure as this. It is, however, possible that the rails in this case may have been a second-hand parcel. But if we turn to the details of iron rails, we find anomalies which are not capable of such explanation. Thus, fifty-tliree tons of rails shipped to Australasia are valued at £523, or almost £ '10 per ton, which is simply absurd; and, again, 4GO tons exported to the East Indies are valued at £ 3881, or ES 10s. per ton, which is scarcely less ridiculous. There is no saying how often such errors arc repeated in the large quan- tities, with the result, of course, that the total value is altogether unreliable and worthless for statistical purposes. A very little care and attention on the part of those making the entries at the Custom House, upon which the Board of Trade returns are founded, would probably remedy this drawback.
ALLEGED MURDER ON BOARD A FISHING-VESSEL. On Friday iu last week, at the Hull Police-court, Joseph Nichcline, skipper of the fishing smack Ster- ling, and Thomas Hardisty, third hand, were charged with the wilful murder of Joseph Rowbottom, aged sixteen, on the high seas, on the 18th of the present month. According to the evidence of Charles William Jones, second hand, the deceased, who was cook, left Hull for the fishing grounds in the North Sea on Jan. 9. It was the deceased's first trip on board a fishing smack. They joined the fleet on the Thursday fol- lowing at the Pitts. Rowbottom was sea-sick for two or three days, and was not able to go about his work. They kept on the Pitts for a month until Feb. 10, and then they left for Clay Deep. The first time the skipper spoke angrily to the deceased was about two or three days after he recovered from his seasickness, when lie said to Rowbottom, You have been long enough now having an easy time of it, get about your work." From that time for the following fortnight the lad was subjected to the grossest illusage, notwith- standing the remonstrances of witness. Rowbottom was beaten with a rope by the skipper, who kicked him and jumped on him. On the 13th inst. Jones was aroused from his sleep by hearing the deceased call out William, William, lie is killing me." The third hand was then on deck, and witness jumped out and rushed up on deck. The deceased was lying on the deck, and the third hand was standing over him. With the very heavy boots which he used to wear Hardisty kicked him on the back as he lay on the deck. Wit- ness told him to knock that game off, and Hardisty replied. He won't do his work, and we will make him." On another occasion the skipper got hold of a piece of rope, an inch thick, and thrashed the lad round the cabin for three or four minutes. On the following Sunday night Jones, who had just turned into his bunk, heard a sound as though something was being hammered on the deck. He got up and said to the skipper, Is it that chap knocking the lad about again ? The skipper said, "I don't know;" and after listening they heard the deceased screaming. Witness ran on deck and saw the deceased and the third hand right forward. The deceased was lying on his back, and the third hand was stooping over him and holding Rowbottom by the hair of the head. Hardisty raised deceased's head and knocked it on the deck three or four times. The thumping went on fully three or four minutes. Witness shouted out 11 Knock that game off we don't want none of Brand's touches here." The third hand then left deceased, who appeared to be in great pain and seemed stunned. Hardisty said, I will break his jaw before I take any of his slaver." Witness told him that he would be killing tho boy before he had done. The boy was crying, and went into the cabin. When they got into the cabin witness said to the skipper, That there chap will be settling the poor lad, and then there will be anohter Brand's do." The skipper made no answer to that. Witness then turned into his bunk, and was awoke about half-past ten by the skipper and the third hand laughing. He looked out of his bunk, and saw the deceased naked on the floor of the cabin. The skipper said to him, Look at this lad what is up with him ? I don't know, unless he is trying to act old man. Witness said, Do you think that chap has knocked him soft with hammering his head on the deck ? The skipper said, I don't know." Witness said, Don't get striking him any more. You will soon see if he is foolish; bring a bucket of water and wash him down in his bare skin; he is in a very dirty state through rolling on the floor." The third hand then went and got a bucket of water and washed him down. The third hand then said to the deceased, If you don't get your clothes on bv the time I get the sole tub filled I'll give you three or fofar buckets of water, because that won't mark you." The deceased then put his clothes on, but he appeared to be stupid. The deceased laid himself down in front of the cabin fire until the next morn- ing (Monday), and I tried to rouse him up. I called the skipper, and said to him, I can't get the lad up yon had better see what is the matter with him." The skipper then said to deceased, "What do yon reckon is the matter with you ? The lad said, Nothing. Give me a knife to clean the fish." He got up, although with difficulty. After breakfast, during some conversation, the lad said, "You knocked me soft last night The third hand said, If I didn't knock you soft last night I will this morning," and he thereupon seized the deceased bv the hair of the head in front and bashed his head against the side of the cabin. It was a very heavy thud, and made everything crack. Witness said to the third hand, "You will be settling him. If you don't mind, some of you will be doing something in your temper that you will be sorry for." Just then we sighted the fleet, and we went on deck to make sail. I turned in that afternoon about half-past three, and I saw the deceased then in the cabin. I turned out about a few minutes after six to get my tea, and upon going on deck I saw we had our gear down, and that we were amongst the fleet. I then came down to the cabin, and said to the skipper (the third hand being there as well), "Are yoiujoing to send that lad in the morning with the cutQr ?" He said, No; he is in a nice state to send hoE*<*»" I said, That is just the reason why you oug^ y to send him." He said, Well, I shan't. I sauy"Well, I shall go home. Mind that this lad does not cause you some bother. I wouldn't have another week like I have had this last fortnight not for the best smack in Hull. The owners can do their wortt when I get home." The skipper then said to me, "Well, go." I then went on deck and called out, Tea, oh!" and the deck hand then called out, Joe but there was no answer. I said to the deck hand, Get a light, and go and see if lie is lying on any of the sails below." The deck chap then went down the hold, and immediately afterwards he called out, Bill, come and look where he is." I went for- ward and looked down the hold, and saw the deceased lying alongside of a cask. The deck hand lifted him up, and I at once perceived that he was dead. I ran aft and called down the companion, You had better come here, this lad is dead. It's no more than I ex- pected." The skipper and the third hand then came on deck, and the skipper then went down into the hold. The skipper and the deck hand raised deceased up, and I and the third hand pulled the body on deck, and carried it down into the cabin, followed by the skipper and the deck hand. The third hand never spoke. The skipper pulled deceased's shirt off, and commenced to pour warm tea down his throat and rubbed his breast. I said, It is no use doing that, he is dead as a door nail." The skipper then said, What are we going to do ?" I said, Heave up as quick as we can and make sail home." I also said, You will have to put this in the log." He made no answer, but got the log book out of his bunk and he wrote something in it. The third hand and deck hand were present when he wrote in his book. After he had written in the book, lie said, Come and sign this, Bill." I said, I don't know nought about it. I was turned in all the afternoon." He said, It is only just to prove that I wrote this." I said, If that is all, I'll sign then," and I did sign the book. On Tuesday morning last, the 19th inst., about nine o'clock, I was down in the cabin, and exa- mined the body of the deceased. I observed that the body was covered all over with bruises. I at once went on deck and saw the skipper, and said, Have you been illusing that lad again yesterday afternoon, after I was turned in ? He said, No that was with Tom kicking him, he told me." I said, It will be a bad job for you. I was in good hopes I should have been out of her before this happened." He said, "I expect it will be a swinging job for some of us." I said, You should have thought of that before. I have cautioned you often enough about it." Every time I saw the skipper or third hand kick the de- ceased they did so with heavy sea boots which they were wearing at the time. He was kicked daily during the last fortnight, and I am prepared to say t,bat-fie never gave them any cause to so ill-treat, him. When charged with the wilful murder of the de- ceased lad, after having the statement of Jones read over to him, Niclioline replied: "Well, I deny it. Nearly everything you have in that statement is false. He never asked me to bring the ship home onlv once, and that was on Wednesday night before the toy died. I never used no more roughness than was necessary. I was asleep when he says, Bucket him? He gave the boy the black eye with the fish- box himself. On the Saturday before he died he turned out of his bunk and he jumped on him. It was him that sent him on deck on Monday afternoon. I deny kicking him. I own to striking him with his belt, a piece of ratline, and with five nettles, and both him and Daniel Dyaff 1ms knocked him about aboard the vessel equally as much as me if not more. This is all I have to say." When charged with wilful murder by Insjjector Elliott, Hardisty said, He (Francis) has stolen a day's march on us, but he might be sucked in." The prisoners, on the applica- tion of the Chief Constable, were remanded.
THE SPONGE TRADE. From a report by the American Consul at Nassau, it appears that the sponge trade gives employment to several thousand persons and some hundreds of vessels, the sponges being divided into coarse and fine, of which the former brings in about five dollars per cwt., and the latter double that sum. The principal varieties, in the order of their value, are known as sheep wool, white reef, abaco velvet, dark reef, boat, hard-head, grass, yellow, and glove and of some of these varieties there are several grades desig- nated by numbers, all being used for mechanical, surgical, and bathing purposes. Bahama and Florida sponges are about equal in texture and value, but both are inferior to those of the Mediterranean. The vessels employed in sponging are small, with crews of 9 from six to twelve men. About six weeks' provisions are taken on board, and they then coast along the banks and reefs, where the water is shallow, and generally so clear that the sponges are readily seen, and are brought to the surface by hooked poles, or sometimes by diving. When first brought up they are covered with a soft gelatinous substance, as black as tar, and full of organic life, the sponge, as we know it, being only the skeleton of the organism. The day's catch is spread out on the deck, so as to kill the mass of animal life, which in dying emits a most unpleasant smell. Then the spongers go ashore and build a pen, or "crawl," of stakes close to the water's edge, so that the action of the tide may wash away the black covering, in which it is aided by pounding the sponges with sticks. When this operation is com- pleted, the sponges are strung upon small palmetto strips, three or four to a strip, which is called a bead," when they are taken to Nassau to be sold in the sponge market under certain conditions and regulations, nobody being allowed to sell his cargo otherwise than through this sponge ex- change. On the conclusion of the sale, the sponges are taken to the packing yard, where they are sorted, clipped, soaked in tubs of limewater, and spread out pp to dry in the sun. They are then pressed by machi- nery into bales, containing 1001b., and in this state are shipped to England or the United States, which of late years is almost the largest customer for Bahama sponges. The export has been graduallv increasing, for whereas in 1874 it only represented &76,500, last year it amounted to $150,000, and the year before to $168,000. A new sponge field was discovered last year at the island of Eleuthera, sixty miles from Nassau, extending over an area of many miles, and yielding the sheep-wool, the most valuable quality. Notwith- standing this fact, there have been two drawbacks to working this field, one being, though the sponges are of very large size, they are exceedingly tender in the inner portions, and will not cut to advantage; the other, that at certain times of the year myriads of small fish, known as "sailors," arrive at the "field and stir up the muddy bottom to such an extent that not a single sponge can be seen.
THE SALARIES OF SCHOOL TEACHERS. According to the most recent statistics in the United Statistics, the smallest salaries of teachers in schools obtain in the following places New York, £ '144; Massachusetts, £ 100 California, £ 184; Ohio. £92; and Michigan, EI40. The average monthly pay for teachers is: In Mississippi, £ 10; Connecti- cut, X12; Nevada, £ "25; New Hampshire, £ 7 Penn- sylvania, XS West Virginia, £ 7 Colorado, £ 17; Maine, E6; Louisiana, £13; Kansas, X8; Maryland, SO; Wisconsin, £8 10s. and Iowa, S8. In Eng- land the average yearly salary of a teacher holding certificates is £100. and in Wales it is only £78. Non- certificated teachers have incomes of from £48 to £ 62 per annum. In Scotland the teachers at the Presbyterian schools receive an average salary of £ 69; female teachers holding certificates receive about £ '62. In Denmark the ordinary paymen varies from £ 86 to £ '135. In Jutland the salary is smaller, being only about £ 45. In the whole coun ry only six per cent, of the teachers receive less than this. At Berlin the smallest salary m 1804 amounted to S63. By the alterations coming into effect on the 1st of January, 1864, the salaries were fixed as fol- lows After three years of service, X68 10s.; after six years, £ 75; after nine years, AW; after fourteen years, S99 10s.; after t venty-fours years, tl 12. In Alsace-Lorraine the payment has for several years been from E48 to X60.
ELECTORAL STATISTICS. Mr. John Biddulph Martin read a paper last week before the Statistical Society on electoral statistics 1832-81. After referring to various occasions on which electoral statistics had been dealt with by the society, and claiming as signally opportune the occa- sion of reading the paper, it being fifty years since the foundation of the society, and nearly the same period since the passing of the Reform Act of 1832, Mr. Martin briefly reviewed the changes affected by that and subsequent measures. The Act of 1832 struck off 143 English borough seats, and gave back 77 to other boroughs, one to Dublin University, and 6.5 to counties. The result of the Act of 1867, to- gether with minor alterations, is that there are now 283 county members and 360 borough members, against 253 and 399 respectively in 1832. The popu- lation has notoriously increased much faster in boroughs than in counties, and the result is that whereas in 1832 the county constituencies had 62'5 the population of the United Kingdom, and the boroughs 37'5 per cent. only. the counties have now but 52'8 per cent., against 47-2 in the boroughs. But the balance of electoral power has been shifted at a still more rapid rate, and whereas the counties bad in 1832 56'8 per cent. of the electorate, they have now but 36-9 per cent. The total population, if taken as 100 in 1832, is now represented by the figure 186'8; the electorate, if also taken at the same starting-point, is now 387'1 in other words, whereas when Mr. Newmarch dealt with the subject in 1857, the electors in England and W ales were 18'33 per cent, of the total adult males, the percentage is now 37'98. But after making allowance for the number of lunatics, paupers criminals, and aliens, as furnished by the census and other official returns, and also allowing for duplicate votes, the percentage is 40"48 in other words, there are now 4,048 electors in England and Wales out of every 10,000 competent adult males. An assimila- tion of the county franchise to that which now exists in boroughs, would apparently confer votes on 842,000 persons; but this bare calculation would be subject to many modifying considerations, such as allowance for duplicate and plural votes, estimated of 10 per cent. in counties and at I per cent. in boroughs; the relative density of population in It Iv counties and boroughs respectively; and other in- fluences not of a strictly statistical nature. The pro- portion of adult males per inhabited houses is 1000 per 878 houses in county constituencies, and 1000 per 751 in boroughs, but the rural nature of such boroughs as Cricklade and East Retford, and the fact that, large urban districts are now included in county con- stituencies, makes this estimate unsatisfactory. The census reports show that in the urban sanitary dis- tricts there are 2541 adult males per 10.000 popula- tion, and 2953 per 10,000 in rural sanitary districts, so that under an equal franchise there would be, in bond fidf rural districts, 32 adult males per 10,000 in- habitants more than in bond fide urban districts. As regards Ireland, the population may now be taken to be about the same as it was in 1801-viz., 5,100,000, the great increase up to 1841. when it, reached 8,199,000, having been entirely lost. But whereas in 1832 Ireland had 32 32 per. cent. of the population of the United Kingdom, it has now but 14'81 per cent.. and its electors, which were 11'32 per cent. of the whole in 1832, are now but 7'45. There appears to be no great difference between the ratio of adult males to total population in England and Ireland as a whole, but it varies considerably in the different provinces, being 27'82 in Leinster, and 24'16 in Comiaught. The electors per 1000 adult cl males vary in a very conspicuous degree, being 1810 in Ulster counties, 885 only in Connaught, while they are 3890 per 10,000 in Ulster boroughs, against 1632 only in Leinster boroughs so that the average ratio of England and Wales is only reached in the single instance of the Ulster counties. The circumstances of Ireland appear to point to an increase in her county members at the expense of the representation of her boroughs. It is very difficult to estimate the effect of an assimilation of the county and borough franchise in Ireland, but an occupation franchise in Irish boroughs, if it raised the constituencies to the English level, would enfranchise some 63.000 electors, making the total borough "electors 120,000 against the present 168,000 in counties; but, while the creation of a 40s. freehold vote would have comparatively but very little effect, a franchise that would include the mass of agriculturaj labourers would create some 135,000 votes, and thus more than restore the preponderance of the counties.
THE CENSUS OF BRITISH BURMAH. The official report places before the reader in a very clear manner the results of the census taken three years ago in British Burmah. Notwithstand- ing the many tribes and minor races, only two languages had to be used in the work of enumeration -English and Burmese. The forms and instruc- tions were all printed in the Rangoon gaol, and of go nearly 17,000 enumerators and supervisors by far the great majority were unpaid. The taking of the census was consequently not an expensive matter. At one moment it was feared that the census would not be accomplished without some untoward occur- rence, through popular dread lest it signified an in- tention on the part of the English to increase taxa- tion. One tribe of Karens, numbering about 500. persons, actually fled beyond the frontier. Another idea was "that the English made use of human heads for inquiring into the future." However, notwithstanding these difficulties from the appre- hension and ignorance of the people, the operation of numbering them was very successfully performed. The area of British Burmah is 87.220 square miles or about the same size as England, Scotland, and Wales. It has a population of 3,736,771, or less than that of the metropolis. To compare like things with like, the North-West Provinces have a consi- derably less area and a population nine times as great, but British Burmah is a still more remarkable pro- duct of English care and justice than even the fertile plains of Rohilkund. In 20 years the population has nearly doubled; in some of the most flourishing parts. more than doubled. Seven years hence it is expected to contain a population of more than five millions at the lowest computation; and let it be remembered that the provinces of Pegu, Tenasserim, and Arracan have been created since the first Bur- mese war, nearly 60 years ago. As the author of this report truly observes, every division of the province tells the same tale of almost unprecedented growth. Throughout the period of British occupation immigration of the kind referred to-viz., the return of former fugitives to their homes. the arrival of numbers seeking peace and quiet under English rule. immigration from Madras, from Bengal, from Chittagong, and from Upper Burmah—has combined to augment the natural in- crease, probably rapid itself, arising from the excess of births over deaths. The people of British Burmah dwell in 20 towns of more than 5000 population, and in 15,837 villages of less than that number. Of the latter, not fewer than 14.849 contain less than 500 inhabitants, and the majority of these have under 200 residents. The average of human beings to each house is 5A. There is a very large boating population, of about 75,000 persons to 15,000 boats. These are distinct from the colonies of fishermen, who are also verv numerous. Of the towns, Rangoon (134,176) alone contains a population above 100,000. Akyab. Moulmein, Prome, and Bassein are flourishing places in the present, with an expanding future. One other fact may be noticed, and that is the extraordinary excess of males, there wo'ne'l. being 245,239 more men than women.. t. This volume contains, over and above the s A|on very interesting accounts of the Talaigns or the oldest inhabitants, whose origin *.°0ut; of the whose language is at last begum"%roree> and of the marriage customs and ^el^fre mGre remarkable infirmities of the peop e- ^ic^ Tbe kst we among the males esplanation of the pros- need record as the prob< ± peritv of British Burmah i» that mere are ten acres Sf cultivated land for every l-o persons of the popu- lation.
The polling for Cork to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Mr. Daly took place on Saturday, when Mr. Deasy, the Nationalist candidate, was re- turned by a majority of 997 votes over Mr. Goulding, who had come forward in the Conservative interest.
THE TOYS OF CHILDHOOD. In an article on" Children's Toys" the Evening Standard says: Some of these articles seem to have grown out of their appellation, as children grow out of their clothes. Manufacturers and inventors have evidently come to the conclusion that, as the intervening period between infantism and the development into intelligent members of society threatens to diminish every year, tovs must neces- sarily keep pace with the march of intellect. The rattle may suffice for the first six months, but after that age, if the mental ability be of the average ca- pacity, it requires something more capable of assisting its development than this. Dolls that without any brains can talk, and animals that can run without moving their legs, may perhaps meet the exigency, and supply matter for reflection they may even awaken a desire to examine the anatomical mysteries minutely. Children always lean more to the realistic than the ideal in life, and it is perhaps to gratify these views on the question of toys that some of the latter are gradually increasing in their dimensions, and becoming so perfect in their mechanism, that they could really rank as something higher than playthings, and might supply the wants of a midget family. Toy shops are miniature stores, where one can buy everything with which to furnish a miniature house, from the kitchener, in which midget joints of meat can be baked, roasted, and boiled, to the cradle in which articulated babies repose. These cradle occupants have so well succeeded in their praise- worthy endeavours to emulate the real article that the model is sometimes beaten by the copy, in point of size and robust proportions. Railway engines and steamers that are not self-propelling no longer satisfied the boys with taste for engineering; and we may expect, ere long, to hear of nursery and school-room floors being furnished wit h railway lines and termini, and dockyards being established in the vicinity of the bath- room. Time was when the peg-top was without a rival of its kind, and its only substitute was a thimble. But Germany introduced the humming-top, and now she has superseded this with the musical top, which produces harmonious strains, soft and low, as it turns and turns, till it turns over on its side. The wonder is that this music-loving nation, which has invented melodious plates, glasses, boxes and a variety of other similarly gifted articles, had not thought of the top sooner.
POSTAL, TELEGRAPHIC, AND TELE- PHONIC SERVICE. On Friday in last week a deputation from the Associated Chambers of Commerce waited upon Mr. Fawcett, the Postmaster-General, to lay before him certain resolutions adopted by that body: Mr. Norwood, M.P., who introduced the deputa- tion, said there were four resolutions: one in reference to the acceleration of the mails in the south of Ireland, and the other three in reference to the telegraphic and telephonic charges and a pro- posed telephonic union. Mr. Murray, of Cork, first addressed the right hon. gentlemen on the acceleration of the mails between Dublin and Cork, pointing out that the mail from London arrived in that city at 2 o'clock in the day. and the mail for London departed an hour and a-half earlier, and suggesting that by accelerating the speed of the trains the present inconvenience might be obviated. Mr. Wolff, of Hull, said they were suffering from excessive charges for the use of the telephone in that town, so much so that though the population was near 200.000, they had only 100 subscribers. In his own case, if he had the telephone from his resi- dence and his office to the docks, the charge would be E46 a year. Mr. Reed, of Sunderland, said he thought the de- partment ought to give what facilities they safely could to the companies in order that there might be a free and fair competition. Mr. Fawcett, in reply, said that with regard to the acceleration of the Irish mail service, the deputation were simply spurring a willing horse. He thought that the Irish gentlemen might make representations to the railway companies in Ireland to endeavour to induce them to give the acceleration desired, without making excessive charges for acceleration, to which the department, in the interests of the public, would not be justified in agreeing. If the railway companies would be reasonable, he believed a satisfactory con- clusion would speedily be arrived at. So far as con- cerned the accelerated service in England, the London and North-Western Company had, he was told, almost completed their arrangements for that pur- pose. With regard to the policy of the Post Office in reference to telephonic communication, he wished that deputation had been there the other day when he received a deputation from Portsmouth on that subject, because lie then expressed himself at con- siderable length on the relations between the Post Office and the telephone companies. He did not want to go over the same ground again, but he would send a copy of his remarks to Mr. Norwood, the president of the association, and be should be glad if he would make what use of them he thought proper. He would now briefly indicate what he stated in reply to the deputation from Portsmouth. So far as the Post Office was concerned, he might say that there was no jealousy towards the telephonic companies. If any town thought, that they could be supplied better with regard to telephonic communication by private enterprise than they could be by the Post Office, he could only say that as far he was concerned he would be delighted for them to have telephonic communica- tion supplied through private enterprise. The depu- tation thought that they ought not to make a charge to the telephonic companies. The position of the case was this-that Parliament had decided to spend a very large sum of public money, ten and a-half millions sterling, in the purchase of a telegraphic monopoly. Then it having been decided that communication by telephone was an infringement of the Government monopoly he fixed a royalty of 10 per cent. for the telephonic companies to pay, and that was not an un- reasonable sum.With regard to the Post Office telephonic charges, they did not charge more money than they ought, looking at it as an enterprise of a commercial character. The whole question was in its infancy, and if as time went on it should be found that the charge could be reduced, having due regard to the revenue, it should be done. As to the charges for private telegraph wires, that was a matter which was absolutely in the hands of the public themselves. The Post Office had no monopoly, and there was nothing to prevent any gentleman who wanted to be supplied with what was called private wire going to any firm for it if he thought that he could obtain it cheaper and better than that supplied by the Post Office. With regard to the telegraphic charges in foreign countries, there had been con- siderable reductions in the telegraphic rates, andjtlie department would be glad to have them still further reduced. With regard to the charges to Russia, com- munication had already taken place between the de- partment and the Russian Government, and at the next meeting of the International Telegraphic Con- ference the charges to Russia and to Sweden would be carefully considered. The Post Office had no other object to attain except, while giving proper pro- tection to the revenue, to make itself useful to the community, and there was no part of its work which it was more important for it zealously to discharge than, as far as possible, to make itself useful to the general commercial association which the deputation represented. Mr. Norwood, on the part of the deputation, thanked Mr. Fawcett for the manner in which he had received them, and the deputation then withdrew.
The Sultan of Djokjakarta has had his palace lighted by electric lamps, employing altogether 196 incandescent lamps and four arc lights. The Prince of Socrakarta is also about to have his palace and gardens illuminated by the new light, which is, too, being installed in several factories and other estab- lishments in Java. On Saturday the governor of Kirkdale Prison received an intimation that the execution of Michael M'Lean and Patrick Duggan, convicted at the Liver- pool assizes of the murder of a Spanish sailor, and of Sarah Mallinson and William Smart of the murdero a young woman by procuring abortion, will take piacfc on March 10.