A TRAVELLER FROM KHARTOUM. Under the above heading the Daily Telegraph publishes an article from which we take the follow- ing: Mr. Frederich Bohndorff, the last man who left Khartoum before it was hemmed in," and the last European who saw General Gordon before his entry into the beleagured city, has personally furnished us with some particulars which will be read with interest at the present time. Mr. Bohndorff is a German naturalist who has spent many years in Africa, and whose collections from the Niain-Niam country. exhibited the other evening before the Liijnajan Society by Mr. Bowdler Sharpe, of the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, excited so much interest. General Gordon took him into his service in 1874, when he went to govern the White Nile. Owing to illness he had to return to Cairo, but upon recovery resumed his scientific inquiries, asso- ciating himself with Dr. Junker, the Russian traveller and banker. In November, 188.3, having completed the collection to which reference has just been made, he reached Dem Suleiman, the capital of the Gazelle country, on his return journey, and there made the acquaintance of Lupton Bey, the governor of that territory. Then for the first time Mr. Bohndorff heard of the Mahdi, and we shall give as nearly as possible a literal translation of his statement, made in French, in reply to questions touching the revolt: Lupton Bey thought the movement which the Mahdi led most serious and far-reaching. He told me he had asked the Egyptian Government for war material, but without result. He bad plenty of negro soldiers, but neither guns nor ammunition, and, in fact, was so short of the latter that he was glad to receive some 200 or 300 caps from me. Lupton told me he understood that at this time the Mahdi was preparing to take El Obeid. I was curious to know something of the revolt, and I learned from my host that the Mahdi had been a poor Fakir on the Island of Abba, in the White Nile, four days' journey south of Khartoum, who lived there with a scanty and impoverished population, with whom, as well as with many of the sailors who stopped there for wood, he enjoyed a great reputation for sanctity and for the possession of some supernatural power. From the Fakir the Mudir of Faschoda demanded extraordinary taxes. J-he Fakir and the island population generally were will- mg to pay some taxes, but they firmly declined the latest exaction. The Mudir, like most of the Egyptian governors, was only too ready to enrich himself at the expense of the natives, and would not be put off. He sent word that he would bring the Fakir to Faschoda with a chain round his neck if he did not pay and soldiers were despatched to the island apparently to carry out the threat. The soldiers were all killed. A great commotion followed amongst the people far and near wherever the news spread. The Fakir saw his opportunity. He announced that he was the promised deliverer or Mahdi, that he would relieve the people from the exactions of the Egyptian Government and secure them in the enjoyment of peace and plenty, and so invited them to join him. The response was more general than he could have anticipated. Soon lie had emissaries everywhere, and tho entire Arab popu- lation of the Gazelle country sympathised with him, because they hoped that with his success they would resume the right of openly trading in slaves. ■•Aere, I may say, that, so far as I could see, the slave trade was carried on to a very considerable extent, though surreptitiously. The people were very poor, and t-bey were in that state of discontent that any- thing Jn fjle form Gf resistance to the Government would have had their ready assent. Thus, said Lupton Bey, the open revolt commenced with a per- sonal grievance, but all that had been wanting before was a leader. All the White Nile people ilocked to the standard of the Mahdi when it was raised. The natural disposition of these people is peaceable. The mass of them cultivate the soil, and the nomad por- ion wander about selling cows and milk. The fer- mf?. on, and the rebels, having worsted the Sf In several encounters, possessed themselves 0 ieir weapons, and thus was formed the nucleus of the army of the Mahdi, who soon after boldly over- ran the mainland. y — When. I left Lupton Bey he was very dispirited. This was in December, 1883. He had not at that time heard of the defeat of Hicks Pasha, though it had taken place in the previous August, showing how completely communication had been intercepted. In January of this year I reached Khartoum. The only Europeans there were the Commandant, Colonel Coetlogon, Mr. Power, who was acting as English Consul, and Herr Hansai, the Austrian consul. All told—there were 60.000 souls in the city. It was surrounded by water, a canal having been cut to join the stream of the Blue Nile. Colonel Coetlogon had fortified it as strongly as he could, but his cannon are not much to boast of, the best having been taken by Hicks Pasha on his ill-fated expedition. Mr. Power kindly placed me under his protection, and I was lodged in a room of the house once occupied by General Hicks. Colonel Coet- logon spoke sadly as to the prospects of resist- ing the Mahdi, whom he already regarded as Waster of the Soudan. Nothing in the commandant's opinion but a strong English expedition would avail or the reconquest of the Soudan. He was in hopes hat a force would be sent under Baker Pasha, verything I saw confirmed the gloomy forecast of oetlogon. The provinces of the Soudan have been governed by Egyptians who went needy to their promptly enriched themselves, and then left nem to other governors as poor and rapacious as themselves. Colonel Coetlogon's view was that r^nartoum might be starved after a long siege, but yiat it was too strong to be taken by force. Every- bOdY in Khartoum said there were provisions— niainly the Kaffir wheat—to last for six months. The ■kgyptian soldiers would surely be killed by the ^abs if they got them in their power, and that is nearly the only reason, so far as I could see, they did not desert. The populace openly in favour of the Mahdi, and Arab traders' sympathies are strongly him. While I was in Khartoum a slave girl, a ojivert, arrived with a letter from the Austrian missionaries whom the Mahdi is keeping in captivity, mi e better was very carefully concealed in her clothes, f 6 a^di had informed them that any of them j writing would be instantly killed. They were e greatest distress, and were turned out into the esert, where they were encamping. They had no ance of escape, and they asked the Austrian Consul dotPd thalers for their release and some f Ps>as whnt they once possessed had been taken de'^f em" There was an aspect of sadness and ftJfl 0n 0ver Khartoum, but the people were per- rout ftr?qui1' News reached Khartoum that the Mr 6p r,ber was likely to be blocked, and upon '°wfr's advice I left promptly with my col- p At Berber there was no sign of the revolt. A W W0J n°t talk on the subject. I speak -ra.'c an" know the tribes, but they seem to be rai to say anything lest they should offend some one in power, who would promptly hang tbem, and if to be vaWWUy ng it is generally so diplomatic as to be valueless as an expression of opinion. Leaving Berber at the end of January with mv guide and my servant we struck into the desert is no track, and you commit vmn-aolp guide. On the afternoorofCryXurtrda!-V?y°T 1 saw a great cloud of dust far away on tS 1 arch and presently a cavalcade came riding toward™ an extraordinary pace in contrast us me at march. The leader was Tad"c?7 °JnrWCaried his eager manner and his compact fim noticed blue military frock coat, red trousers, ancTa fez m & "Bohndorff," said General Gordon—f™ u —"we ^1 at Cairo thought you were dead. Thave often prayed to God to protect you and Dr Jnnl-p,. and preserve you alive. I dismounted and went to the side of his camel and he shook hands warmly. I was overwhelmed with astonishment, for they knew nothing at Khar- toum or Berber of Gordon s coming, but immediately I saw him I divined his mission. I only needed to see him to know why he was there. Whv have you left Khartoum said Gordon, hurriedly. I am very glad to be going there. Why is everybodv leaving? Are you afraidr Not exactly afraid, but I have finished my collection, and I am returning." Well, how goes it there ? E-ver)-tliing in a terrible muddle (incroyahlc melange), no one knowing who is faithful to the Government and who is not. i, V are the people of Khartoum afraid ?' Excellency, there is plenty to be afraid of." Tell me, now, is the Mahdi as strong as people say ? and all through he exhibited in his voice and nianiler the most cheerful and buoyant confidence.- -the Mahdi, Excellency, is much stronger than you have any idea of." Ah, all I shall manage him."—" I pray the good od to assIst you." i b is LuPton Bey? Well in health." Bey ? Also well in health." And Slattin Bey at Darfour? I know nothing of him, as communication with Darfour is cut off." What is the strength of the movement in Kordofan ?"—"I assure your Excellency that Lupton is in a perilous position, and he has no ammuni- tion." And about Dr. Junker, when you go to Cairo make my compliments to the Russian consul, and tell him he need not. have the least fear for his country- man, as the Gazelle territory will be safe." This was said in the most joyous strain. Are you coming back I hope so, but not now. Would you like me to come soon ?" If not very soon, you won't find me. I shall not be here more than five months. "Now," said he, pressing my hand, do you want anything ?"- Nothing. Sure?" Nothing, Excellency." He repeated the question several times with the kindest emphasis, and then presented me to Colonel Stewart and Ibrahim Pasha, who rode behind him, wearing grey tourist suits. General Gordon hereupon hastily bade me adieu, and then the party, numbering about ten persons, started off again at the tremenclo lS pace equalling that at which I saw them approach some fifteen or twenty minutes before. Each member of the party carried a small water sack, some pro- visions, and a sleeping carpet." Mr. Bohndorff does not believe that the garrisons, supposing they were to retreat, could cross the desert from Berber to Korosko. They would have to go to Dongola, and thence to Wady Haifa by the Nile, which will be of ample volume in August or Sep- tember.
THE PRICE OF SHEEP The Daily Telegraph says the spring mar- kets and fairs of the past month show that a depreciation in the price of mutton has affected the rates of store sheep in a very marked degree. At the great Lincoln Sheep Fair the general average was 59s. 2Jd. each, whereas that of last year was 67s. 5d., a fall of 8s. 3d. per head. Taking also the general average of prices at this fair for the eight years 1876 to 1883 inclusive, which amounts to 65s., the decline would be 5s. 9:td. per sheep. Nor is depreciation in values at all confined to one part of the kingdom, as it amounts to from 6s. to 8s. per head well nigh everywhere. So much the better, no doubt, for those grazing farmers who buy in lean stock largely at this period of the year, but on the other hand they have made few, if any, profits from the animals fattened during the past winter. The declino in grazing cattle has been nothing like so much as in sheep; indeed, in some districts they are reported as realising full average rates of value, while cows and calves and young dairy stock have seldom been dearer in price. The abundance of keep and good pros- pects of grass feed being plentiful no doubt suffi- ciently account for this, and may perhaps operate in preventing sheep rates from declining below their present level.
EXTRAORDINARY CHARGE AGAINST A SERVANT. At the Stratford (Essex) Police-court on Monday, Kate Atkins, 19, a respectably-dressed person, de- scribed as a domestic servant, late of 1, Albert-villas, Woodford-green, was charged with unlawfully and by force taking away Frederick George Earnshaw, aged 8 years, from the lawful custody of his father, Frederick Earnshaw, and with breaking and opening a cup- board and stealing a portmanteau, a box, about S4 in gold, silver, and bronze, and other articles the pro- perty of Frederick Earnshaw, from 1, Albert-villas, Whitehall-road; Nacl she was further charged with obtaining four puirs of ladies' kid button-boots by false pretences, with intent to defraud Samuel Cut- forth, draper, of Woodford-green, on the 31st March. Mr. Atkinson appeared to prosecute, and from his opening remarks and the evidence given, it seems that the prisoner has been in the employ of Mr. Earnsliaw for about ten weeks as domestic servant. On Friday evening, the 2nd inst., Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw went out at about a quarter-past seven o'clock, having previously seen their three youngest children put to bed. The eldest, Frederick George, was accorded the privilege of sitting up; and after his father and mother had left the place, the prisoner commenced to remove a number of articles, and she asked the lad if he would care to go to London. She took some articles out of the lad's toolbox, and when the toy told her that they were his, she said, Never mind; they will come in handy. This is not tlic first time I have taken a lock off." She then broke open a cupboard, took out a portmanteau and box, packed some things up, and then took from a box a sum of money, amounting to about X4, the accumulation arising under a singular manner, Mr. Earnshaw stating that every time he had a child born lie put coins from a farthing up to a sovereign into a box dated the same year as that in which the birth occurred. Mr. and Mr. Earnshaw returned home at about a quarter to eleven o'clock, and finding the garden gate open and failing to get any response to his repeated knocks at the door Mr. Earnshaw became alarmed and then burst open the door. The lights were all found burning, and it was found that the tea things prisoner should have washed were put away uncleaned. The lad was missed, and the place appearing to have been ran- sacked and various articles taken away information was given to the police. A description of prisoner and the lad was put in the Police Gazette, and on Saturday afternoon Detective Johnson, when at Liverpool-street Station, saw the prisoner and the lad come out ot a waiting room. He fancied the descrip- tion tallied with that of the advertised missing woman and child, so he addressed the prisoner, and asked, Your name is Kate Atkins, is it not ?" upon which the prisoner replied "No." Johnson then addressed the boy, and remarked, Surely your name is Freddy Earnshaw?" and the lad replied in the affirmative. The prisoner was then arrested, and it was discovered that :slie was at the station waiting to take the train for Colchester, which was timed to start twenty minutes after Johnson accosted the prisoner. In the case of the boots, these were obtained by the prisoner from Mr. Cutforth on the representation that they were for a customer named Mrs. Allen. The Bench remanded the prisoner.
SEVERE THUNDERSTORM. On Monday afternoon a thunderstorm of unusual severity and duration broke over the metropolis. The early part of the day was bright, warm, and summer- like, but shortly after 1 in the afternoon the sky became much overcast. A few minutes before 2 o'clock there was a tremendous clap of thunder, evi- dently in the west, and for fully an hour there was a succession of exceedingly vivid flashes of lightning. The rain, meanwhile, came down in torrents, so heavy, indeed, that it ran down the channels outside the kerbstones in Ludgate-hill with great force, while in Fleet-street, the Strand, and other great thorough- fares sheets of water lay temporarily outside the foot- ways. The thunderstorm was followed by bright sunshine, which lasted up to lialf-past 4 o'clock, but thereafter, during the evening, the sky was again overcast and the weather looked threatening. In the neighbourhoods of Camberwell and Brixton the greatest alarm was caused to the inhabitants by the constant flashes of forked lightning; jmd the alarm was intensified among those who in the streets or roadways witnessed the electric fluid playing about the telegraph wires which runs overhead along the railway line. In several instances horses harnessed to cabs, omnibuses, trams, and other vehicles stopped suddenly on the roads in South London as if blinded by the flashes of lightning and unable to see their way to get along. In the City proper, crowded as it always is at the hour when the first great peal of thunder was heard, there was a great deal of alarm, and men left their offices and came out into the streets in the down- pour of rain to see whether any buildings in their Immediate neighbourhood had been destroyed, so close at hand did the terrible crash appear. u Blackfriars-road the electric fluid struck the e egraph w ires and tore them asunder. At the time rp le arge the passengers on one of the London in t oTJ ?arS observed a bal1 of fire strike the stones n the roadway opposite Peabody-buildings. As the ball struck the earth the Ore appeared to expand and then suddenly disappear. A number of persons who witnessed the phenomenon ran to the spot, but there was no sign of any disturbance of the roadway. The telegraph wires were curled up on each side of the roadway, and five wires of the overhead lines were thrown across Blackfriars-road. Three persons were knocked down, but not seriously injured.
A thief who broke out of gaol in Ohio, the other day, being captured, told the sheriff that he might have escaped, but lie had conscientious scruples about travelling on Sunday!
IDEAS OF LOCALITY. An Ohio correspondent suggests that there is some relation between lost people describing a circle in their wanderings, from one limb being longer than another, and what is ordinarily spoken of as getting turned around," when people travelling are confused as to the points of the compass, and attributes both phenomena to some peculiarity of the brain. Neither j is owing to any "peculiarity of the brain, but both are rather the necessary results of the normal opera- tion of a sound mind. On the prairie as on the ocean, in the dark, or in strange places anywhere, one depends upon definite known bearings for fixing the points of the compass. When these pass out of sight on land it is generally by successive steps through sur- roundings less and less accurately observed, so that, particularly in journeying through the night, or for a period when the shifting of position as to external objects cannot be noted, the memory bears a constant impress of the direction last observed, and seeks to fit new surroundings thereto. The compass, or the sun and the stars, are the usual means for correcting the wrong impressions but it is only by a subsequent mental process, which with intermittent attention, is often a good deal protracted, that we are able, in some cases, to obtain correct ideas of locations into which we have been but newly introduced.-Scientijic American.
FLUIDS AND FAT The removal of surplus fat from the body by appropriate means naturally forms a subject of interest to the well-to-do classes, says the Lancet. Various modifications of solid diet having had their day, the consumption of fluids is now undergoing regulation in respect of quantity among those who find their own presonce insupportable. There is some- thing in this theory, inasmuch as liquids, merely as syich, materially aid the digestion and absorption of the food with which they are taken. Again, several of the fluids in most common use are, directly or indirectly, fat-forming. Thus cocoa contains a very large proportion of fat, coffee a considerable amount along with amyloid substances, which are also represented i.1 tea to a much smaller extent, and which readily pass by chemical decom- position into the form of fat. Beer, wine, and spirit are all fattening, partly in consequence of their saccharine and starchy constituents, partly from their tendency to hinder excretion of waste pro- ducts of food, and, when acting on any but a languid frame, to hurry and to slur the methodical oxidation by the blood on which the maintenance of sound tissue depends. General opinion, we are sure, will bear us out in saying that when the solids consumed are moderate in amount and digestible, and when the fluid is merely fluid, not fatty or amyloid in its com- position, and not stimulant, free drinking will not influence obesity. We can call to mind heavy drinkers of water and regular consumers of tea, moderate in diet otherwise, whose habits engendered not the slightest tendency to corpulence. We should without hesitation recommend their practice to the stout, and should rely for the reduction of their bulk not on any further alteration of their diet, which might easily be carried so far as to starve their more important tissues, but on the maintenance of regular and sufficient physical exercise.
ABOUT SOME CURIOUS LOCKS AND KEYS. In the middle ages locks for church and cathedral doors were often rare specimens of art metal work. Elaborate scrolls, the images of saints, and other ambitious efforts of the true artisan of those days, entered into the design of locks, which were really an ornament to the magnificent doors and cabinets of those times. A design for the escutcheon surrounding the keyhole frequently had the figures of two guardian angels with outspread wings. Locks of very curious construction, known as "Apostle locks," were also common in medieval times. These locks had on the front the figure of one of the Apostles, and on touch- ing the hand of the figure the bolts flew back. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth one Mark Scalist, a smith, constructed a lock consisting of eleven pieces of iron, steel, and brass, all of which, with a pipe key, weighed only two grains of gold. That great inventor, the Marquis of Worcester, who flourished in the reign of King Charles I., devised a lock containing a steel barb which was perfectly harmless so long as the right key was used, but if a wrong key were inserted the barb sprang through the keyhole and" caught the hand of the intruder as a trap catches a fox," It is said that while the inventor was experimenting with this curious lock he was scarcely nimble enough in removing his hand, and was caught in his own trap. At Willen- hall, in Staffordshire, which is a great seat of the lock trade, silver padlocks, the sides of which are much smaller than a threepenny-piece, are still made, and are quite perfect in their mechanism. Locks contain- ing single bells, and even chimes, which sound an alarm when tampered with by a false key, are among the modern curiosities of the trade. Common pad- locks are largely made for the natives of India and Africa at Walsall. A lock and key complete are sold by the maker for a half-penny, and merchants abroad state that many of the natives string these locks to- gether so as to form necklets, and wear them as "charms."—Little Folks.
A FEAT OF TELEGRAPHY. We have often heard of the wonderful line between this C0. ltry and Teheran, the capital of Persia, a distance of 3800 miles, but we scarcely realised the fact that good signals were obtainable through so great a length of wire until recently, when we availed ourselves of an invitation from Mr. W. Andrews, the managing director of the Indo-European Telegraph Company, to make a visit of inspection. It was between seven and eight on Sunday evening, April 13, when we reached the office. In the basement of an unpretentious building in Old Broad-street we were shown the Morse printer in connection with the main line from London to Teheran. The courteous clerk in charge of the wire, Mr. Blagrove, informed us thatwe were through to Emden, and with the same ease with which one wires" from the City to the West End, we asked a few questions of the tele- graphist in the German town. When we had finished with Emden we spoke with the same facility to the gentleman on duty at Odessa. This did not satisfy us, and in a few seconds we were through to the Persian capital (Teheran). There were no messages about, the time was favourable, and the cuiployes of the various countries seemed anxious to give us an opportunity of testing the capacity of this wonderful line. T. H. N. (Teheran) said Call Kurrachee," and in less time than it takes to write these words we gained the attention of the Indian town. The signals were good, and our speed must have equalled fifteen words a minute. The operator at Kurrachee, when he learnt that London was speaking to him, thought would be a good opportunity to put us through to Agra, and to our astonishment the signals did not fail, and we chatted pleasantly for a few minutes with Mr. Malcom Khan, the clerk on duty. To make this triumph of telegraphy complete, Agra switched us on to another line, and we were soon talking to a native telegraphist at the Indian Government Cable Station Calcutta, At first the gentleman at the other end of the wire could not believe that he was really in direct communication with the English capital, and lie exclaimed in Morse language, Are you really London ?' Truly this was a great achievement. Metallic communication without a break from 18, Old Broad-street, London, to the telegraph office in Calcutta 7000 miles of wire The signals were excellent, and the speed attained was not less than twelve, perhap's fourteen, words per minute. Telegraphist.
LOCAL TAXATION.—A return has just been issued, giving the total net receipts of the local authorities in England and Wales, including the metropolis, for each year from 1875-6. For 1881-2 the receipts were: Rates, £ 27,959,953; tolls and rents, £ 5,042,044; Treasury subventions, £ 2,053,508 all other sources, £ 0,953.198; loans, £15.351,914-total, £57,360,617. In the metropolis the receipts were: Rates, £ 5,768,672; tolls and rents, £ 1,101,443; Treasury subventions, £ 126,940; other sources, £ 1,270,872; loans, E3,987,464-total, 112,255,391. The outstand- ing loans in 1881-82 were £ 151,704,640, of which the metropolitan share was £ 32,175,831. A SERIOUS DEFICIENCY.—A little girl of seven had been presented with the almanack for next year. She seemed greatly amused with it for some time but, after an hour or so, pushed it aside, as if tired of looking at it. Well, Lucie," asked mamma. have you fallen out with your present ?" Yes I have." Why ?" It is not complete." What is wanting?" "Well, I have found out all the new moons, their quarters, and the Harvest moon, but there is no honey-moon." Mamma's features were a tableau on hearing this.
A REMARKABLE INCIDENT OF THE CYCLONE. One of the most remarkable and tragic incidents of the cyclone which passed over Dayton, Ohio, recently, occurred near the end of its destructive career at a point near Xenia. Capt. William Godfather, ex- Sheriff of Greene County, while driving through the country near Xenia was overtaken by.a heavy shower 0 and took shelter in a covered bridge. While he was in the structure the cyclone came howling along and pick- ing the bridge off its foundations carried it through the air at a distance of 300 yard', and dropping it permitted it to fall a mass of broken timbers into the furious waters of the swollen stream. Captain Godfather s horse was instantly killed and his vehicle broken to splinters. A party of farm hands who wit- nessed the flight of the bridge worked for half an hour among the timbers and in the water before the unfortunate captain could, be found. When rescued he was badly crushed under timbers and up to his neck in water. His head was held between two timbers, which suspended him in the water and prevented his being drowned.
ACTION AGAINST MRS WELDON. In the City of London Court, before Mr. O. B. C. Harrison, deputy judge, an action was brought by Mr. Owen Humphreys, otherwise George Sanford, engraver on wood, against Mrs. Georgina Weldon, to recover XS for engraving, drawing, and designing a cartoon called Social Salvation." The plaintiff stated that in November last he had a preliminary conversation with Mrs. Weldon as to engraving the cartoon in question. In December he received a letter from Mrs. Weldon, which he had unfortunately lost, giving the order for the block. He en- graved the subject, and delivered it on the 14th of January. The block was used in the publication, and Mrs. Weldon expressed herself highly pleased, and made use of extravagant language as to the beauty of it. He, however, sent in the bill, when the defendant wrote asking the plaintiff to wait twelve months, or until she bad gained her legal fights." Mrs. Weldon, in defence, said the block was returned by her messenger Harcourt, who was called and corroborated the defendant. The plaintiff said lie never received the block. The judge said it was quite clear that Mrs. Weldon had given the order and accepted the block and used it. The Plaintiff: You can pay, you ought to pay, and why don't you ? Mrs. Weldon Because I won't be bullied by a blackguard. Judgment was ultimately, after a somewhat stormy discussion, given for the plaintiff, and costs. I
THE DYNAMITE PLOT. A revelation has been made in connection with the dynamite discovery in Birmingham which throws a new light on the question of how the explosive mate- rial used by the dynamiiards is brought to this country. The bottle in which the nitro-glycerine was found fit Egan's house is a flat flask, the inside being of thick brown glass. Experts who have examined it are strongly of opinion that the bottle was not made in this country. It is generally surmised that it is an American spirit flask, and that the nitro-glycerine was placed in it so as to hoodwink the Customs- house authorities at the incoming ports. It is con- sidered certain that many other bottles of this kind have found their way across the Atlantic. The nitro-glycerine in the bottle was sufficient to make two pounds of dynamite. Ex- periments were made with the compounds by Dr. Dupre, at the Council House. Colonel Majendie was not present. The bottle had been removed to Dr. Hill's laboratory at the top of the Council House, and a small bag of Keieselguhr earth, similar to that used by Macready, in the Ledsam-street case, was procured for converting the nitro-glycerine into dynamite. The water having been poured off the top of the nitro- glycerine, the latter was filtered and tested. Dr. Dnpré pronounced it to be comparatively neutral, the acid having been almost entirely washed out, showing that it had been most carefully prepared. Dr. Dupre then mixed a smallquantity of earth with nitro-glycerine in a porcelain basin until it assumed the pasty con- sistency of new dynamite. Dr. Bostock Hill assisted in the experiment. Mr. O'Connor, Egan's solicitor was present with the permission of Mr. Farndale, chief of the police. He wished to take away a small sample of the compound, but Dr. Dupre assured him that such a course would be dangerous. He then inquired whether there was no legitimate use for nitro-glycerine, to which Dr. Dupre replied in the negative, and further informed the solicitor its only use was for the manufacture of dynamite. After completing the preparation of the explosive, Dr. Dupre tested an infinitesimal Dortion, weighing scarcely two or three grains, by striking it with a long iron hammer upon the stone floor, when a sharp report and explosion resulted. Afterwards the dynamite was re- moved into the adjoining yard, and distributed over the ground, when it was fired and consumed, no ex- plosion ensuing, and only a light-brown sediment being left. The destruction of the entire quantity was effected in this manner in several operations, the combustion in each case occupying only a few seconds. The police attach considerable importance to the find- ing of the bottle, which is of thick brown glass. The detectives think It may afford them some clue as to the expedients adopted by the dynamitards for im- porting their explosives into the country. Dr. Dupre was unable to determine how long the nitro-glycerine had been made, but it is tolerably certain that it is not part of that manufactured by Whitehead, as it is of a superior and purer kind. Although M'Donnell, the publican arrested on a charged of treason-felony, declares that he had not been connected with the Fenian Brotherhood, or any other secret association for ten years, it is asserted at Wednesbury that revelations of a sur- prising kind will take place when the accused is put on trial. It is also said that in several Black Country towns many secret meetings have recently been held, and several persons are suspected of manufacturing nitro-glycerine.
THE MURDER OF A POLICE- SERGEANT. At the Durham Assizes, on Friday in last week before Mr. Justice Hawkins, Joseph Lowson, 25, Joseph Hodgson, 20, and William Siddle, 25, all pit- men, were indicted for the wilful murder of Police- sergeant William Smith, at Buttterknowle, on the 23rd of February last. This trial, which was begun on Thursday morning, excited much interest. It appeared that on the 23rd of February the prisoners had been at a pigeon- shooting handicap at Butterknowle, and afterwards spent the evening at the Diamond Inn there. The landlord cleared the house at five minutes to ten o'clock, and as the prisoners went out Siddle and Hodgson snorted" at Sergeant Smith, who was standing in the road, After going a short dis- tance along the road, in company with other pit- men, Siddle proposed that they should go back and "rib the policeman. Very shortly afterwards the prisoners were seen following close behind the sergeant, who, after a few minutes later, was found lying on the ground, brutally murdered. His skull had been fractured in several places, and the face dreadfully battered in. When the prisoners were apprehended the same night stains of blood were found on their clothes. A pearl button had been found near the body of the murdered policeman. A corresponding button was found missing from the flannel shirt Lowson was wearing. The missing button was the second in the shirt front, and near it was a smear, as if the shirt had been clutched by a finger and the button torn forcibly away. Several other incriminating statements were given in evidence ngainst the prisoners. For the defence witnesses were called to account for the blood on Lowson's jacket, and to show that the identity of the prisoners was not satisfactorily established. The jury re- turned a verdict of guilty against Lowson and Siddle; Hodgson they found not guilty Sentence of death was then passed in the usual form on Lowson and Siddle.
STATISTICS OF LITERATURE. Germany produces yearly more new books than any other country. Recent returns declare the number brought out in 1883 as 14,802; whilst Great Britain produces 6145, and the United States only 3481. Comparative numbers among special classes of literature range as follows :—Theology Germany, 1504; Great Britain, 704; United States, 375. History Germany, 795; Great Britain, 414; United States, 119. Medicine and hygiene: Germany, 922; Great Britain, 163; United States, 211. Education and languages: Ger- many, 2300; Great Britain, 556; United States, 197. Law and jurisprudence: Germany, 1301 Great Britain, 139; United States, 397; and in the field of fiction Germany, 1207; Great Britain, 349 United States, 670.
WILLS AND BEQUESTS. (From the Illustrated London Sews,) The will (dated Feb. 10, 1876), with three codicils (dated Feb. 12 and March 2, 1877, and Nov. 28, 1879), of the Right lIon. Montagu, Earl of Abingdon, and Barjn orreys of Rycote, D.C.L., late of Wytham Abbey. Berks, and of No. 18, Grosvenor- street, who died on Feb. 8 last, was proved on March 31 by the Hon. Francis Leveson Bertie, and the Hon. and Rev. Alberic Edward Bertie, the sons, the exe- cutors, the value of the personal estate amouEting to over £ 36,000. The testator makes certain pictures, plate, jewellery, works of art, and other articles, heirlooms to go with Wytham Abbey, and the re- mainder of the household furniture and 'effects there he leaves to his eldest son. Montagu Arthur, the present earl, who succeeds to the family estates. There are various provisions in favour of his younger children, and an annuity is given to a late servant. The residue of his real and personal estate he settles on his son Francis Leveson. The Irish probate, granted at Londonderry, of the will (dated Sept. 24. 1883) of the Right Hon. George Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, late of Rock- wood, Castlederg, in the county of Tyrone, who died on Oct 19 last, at Killendarragh, to Alexander Mont- gomery Stewart, J.P., one of the executors, has just been sealed in London, the aggregate value of the personal estate in England and Ireland exceeding X4500. The testator, after making provision for his wife out of the monies receivable under his life as- u surance policy, and giving legacies to two servants, leaves the residue of his property to his cousin, the said Mr. A. M. Stewart. Letters of administration of the personal estate of the Right Hon. Victor Alexander, Earl Grosvenor, late of Saighton Grange, near Chester, who died on Jan. 22 last, intestate, save as to the appointment of guardians of his children, were granted on the 19th ult. to the Right Hon. Sibell Mary, Countess Gros- venor, the lawful widow and relict, the value of the personal estate exceeding £ 5000. The deceased not having left a will disposing of his property, his per- sonal estate by law becomes divisable among his family in the proportion of one-third to his widow, and two- I thirds between his children. The will (dated Feb. 16, 1877) of Mr. Samuel Cundey, late of -No. 5, Old Bilrlington-street, tailor, who died on Dec. 19 last, has been proved by Mrs. Eliza Cundey, the widow and sole executrix, the value of the personal estate amounting to over £ 60,000. The testator devises and bequeaths everything of which lie shall die possessed to his wife for her whole and sole use and benefit absolutelv. The will (dated Sept. 17, 1844), with four codicils, of Mr. John Heelas, late of The Holt House, Wokingham, Berks, formerly carrying on business at Wokingham and Reading as a draper, who died on Feb. 9 last, has been proved by John Heelas and Daniel Heelas, the sons, and William Wilson Wheeler, the executors, the value of the personal estate amount- ing to over £ 47,000. The testator leaves to his wife. Mrs. Dorothy Ann Heelas, £100 and all iiis house- hold furniture and effects, and for life a house at Wokingham and an annuity of £ 500 a special legacy of E2000 for the benefit of his son Wilberforce and his family and a few other legacies. The residue of his real and personal estate is to be divided between all his children in equal shares, the children of any de- ceased child to take their parent's share. The will (dated March 29, 1882), with two codicils (dated Oct. 5, 1882, and Feb. 8, 1883), of Mr. John Gallop, late of Stanhope-gardens, Bournemouth, who died on Feb. 25 last, has been proved by the Rev. Edward Jordan Gallop and Reginald George Gallop, the sons, the executors, the value of the personal estate exceeding £ 40,000. The testator bequer.ths X300 and his furniture, plate, pictures, household effects, horses and carriages, to his wife, Mrs. Adele Helene Sophie Gallop and legacies to his brother, nephews, niece, godchildren, and others. The residue of his real and personal estate is to be held. upon trust, to pay the income of one moiety to his wife, for life, and, subject thereto, for all his children in equal shares. The will (dated Jan, 10. 1884) of Colonel Compton Alwyn Scrase-Dickins, Knight of the Legion of Honour, late of Horfield Barracks, near Bristol, who died on Feb. 11 last at Tamworth, has been proved by Colonel William Drummond Scrase-Dickins, the brother, the sole executor, the value of the personal estate exceeding £ 15,000. The testator devises and bequeaths all his real and personal estate to his said brother for his own use and benefit.
THE SMOKE PEST. The Morning Post, in a leader, says: It is an encouraging fact for those interested in subduing the smoke pest that the question of ceasing to burn the raw bituminous coal which produce the evil, has passed beyond the sanitary aspect in which it was originally considered, and has secured, in addition, and on widely different grounds, the earnest attention of Tarious branches of science and of the manufactur- ing world. Some important statements and remarks at the recent annual meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute give insight into the theoretical and practical advancement made on this subject in connection with one of our greatest forms of national industry. It was authoritatively declared tint but very little difference exists in a calorific point of view between the .value of bituminous coal and coke in the smelting of iron," when both are fully oxodized. Yet from coke have been extracted the ammonia, tar, and other valuable properties which render it ob- noxious in the raw coal state, but would represent a value of nearly £ 2.000,000 per annum, were they entirely withdrawn from the 12,(.H)0.000 tons of coal yearly consumed in the blast furnaces alone of our iron country. What the difference would be to the workpeople and inhabitants of that dismal region in breathing smokeless air defies, of course, all calcula- tion, though their welfare is assuredly not absent from the thoughts of those scientists who advocate im- proved fuel on the score of economy to their employers. Released from the all-pervading smoke particles there can be no reason why the once fair "black country" should not again show rich herbage and green trees, rosy children and healthy adults, gains which may be held to exceed those conferred on property and chemistry by the wholesome change. Like all innovations, however, the use of coke has opponents who, amongst other drawbacks, aver that coal pro- duces a better quality of iron in the smelting house. Other cleanly and economical substitutes are not wanting. Gas puddling and furnace heating have been tried with great success, and to judge by the announcements from America, anthracite coal must supply a fuel irreproachable in every particular, though hitherto it has scarcely found more favour in manufacturing than in domestic use in this country. It is probable that the American anthracite exceeds ours in density and hardness, but at all events by means of its tardily igniting blocks more than one-third of the iron smelting is accomplished there. Yet another fuel of the future was confidently predicted at the meeting of the institute, one of whose members declared his conviction that the time was not far distant when tar or tar oil would be the fuel used particularly on steam-ships, whereby only one-half or even less of the present spac.e would be taken from cargo room, effecting also enormous saving in the labour of stoking and an absence of smoke," Without (being unreasonably sanguine, it may be hoped that jtar or tar oil could be made to feed engines on land las well as on sea, and that the railway train will some day cease to defile and disfigure the fair landscape with its long trail of foul vapour, or to emit the same with more deleterious effect through the blowholes of under- ground lines in London. The demon smoke is un- questionably being attacked vigorously in all his strongholds, and by far more tangible foes than those which first sought his destruction. Still that philan- anthropic society for the general good which made the first advance against the enemy may work in concert with less noble inotives of self-interest until the victory is complete, until our cities are clear-aired, and our factory districts unpolluted. Once worsted, the evil thing will never return, and the only feeling of our descendants on the subject will be that of amazement at our long endurance. ——
ABOUT POOLS.—" Stranger," he began, as he shoved his hat back on his head and sat down on a trunk on the platform, what is this 'ere about these 'ere rail- road pools ?" How! Wall, then, what is a railroad pool Why, a number of railroad lines put all their earnings into a bag, shake it up and divide even." What's that fur ?"—" So that all can get a whack at business."—"An' its accor in o law ? "'—" Yes. —The man pulled his hat down rested his elbows on his knees for a think, w three or four minutes, and then sud en y r. en id • Stranger I have been a tarnaf tool. 'How?" Why,' thars a chap livin' nex door to me at hum, who has alius worked four hours to my one. and who earns a dollar to my quarter, and it has never occurred to me to make him pool our wages and whack uP "Detrl)it Free Press.
THE TUBBERCURRY CONSPIRACY. On Monday the Tubbercurry murder conspirators were charged before Mr. Moloney, R.M., and Mr. Henry Turner, J.P., in Sligo Court-house. The prisoners, who are eleven in number, are chiefly of the artisan and small farming class, with the excep- tion of Fitzgerald, who was arrested in London, and who seems to be a shrewd, intelligent man, of rather good connexion. The names of the prisoners are Jeremiah Lowry, James Connolly, Luke Armstrong, Patrick Donohoe, Patrick Durkan, Michael Durkan, Patrick Gannon, William Murphy, Owen Gannon, Thady Higgms, and Patrick N. Fitzgerald. The Crown was represented by Mr. F. L: Poer Trench, instructed by Messrs. Murphy and Pevton, p Crown solicitors. Mr. Taylor appeared for the pri- soners. Mr. Trench having stated the nature of the charges, which are, briefly, treason-felonv and con- spiracy to murder, an informer, named John Morau, was called and examined. He staled that he was asked to join the Fenian organisation twice about seven or eight years ago, and on the second occasion he consented. At the request of the prisoner Patrick Durkan, he went to the house of a man named Cos- grave, in Tubbercurry, and he was there sworn .in. The oath was, as well as he could remember, that he was to be loyal to the Republican Brotherhood, to obey his superior officers, and to take up arms when called on. He afterwards became acquainted with members of the society, including Donohoe, Arm- strong, Lowry, Owen Gannon, Patrick Gannon, Thady Higgins, and James Connolly, all of whom he identified. He also identified Fitzgerald, and stated that he had seen him at meetings of the society. The subscription was Is. quarterly, and it was paid to the B." for the purchase of arms. At that time a man named Sweeney was; B." But wit- ness was afterwards elected a B himself at a meet- ing at which P. J. Sheridan was present. That was about a year after he joined the society Patrick Durkan informed him of this election. He received subscriptions and at tended meetings afterwards, and was appointed over the Piperhill Division. The other B s" were Patrick Reynolds, who had fled the country, Jeremiah Lowrv, Michael Gaffney. and Mic-iiael Durkan. At the meetings of the he used to pay over the money to Sheridan who was a county centre. The meetings were held every three months. Witness recollected attending a meeting held at night in a field at the Rock, near Tubbercurry, at which Fitzgerald. Sheridan, Patrick Durkan, James Connolly, Matthew Slieilds, Thomas Gallagher, Jere- miah Lowry, and others were present. "Fitzgerald addressed them and asked whether they were satis- fied with the English Government, saying that if they were they might go home, and if they were not they might remain. They replied that they were not satisfied. He then told them to n. organize, to form divisions and circles, and to sub- scribe for arms. On the night of Mr. Sexton's return for Sligo a meeting of the B's was held in a field, and before that witness went by direction to Mr. Michael Anderson and received a box containing ten rifles and bayonets and over 20U rounds of ammu- nition. Patrick Durkan, who was Mr. Anderson's servant, told him about them, and he was accom- panied by James Lyons, who had absconded, Thady Higgins, and Juhn Case. They concealed tho box in a field near the workhouse for a few days, and then brought it to Bartley's blacksmith's forge, where a place was prepared for them, and where they left them. All the prisoners except Murphy were pre- sent at the meeting. The arms in the forge were afterwards discovered by the police and removed. Witness was present at a meeting of the eountv leubs in Sheridan's house, which lasted two or three' hours. Several of the prisoners were there. Lyons afterwards told him that Sheridan had formed an inner circle called "the Invincibles," that the inner circle was formed for the purpose of shooting people, and that they would get any amount of money for any man they shot. He asked witness to join, and he consented. They were in Jerry Lowry's hotel at the time. Lyons produced an open penknife and a paper. He handed the knife to witness and told him to raise his arm. He then read what was on the paper, and directed witness to repeat it after him, and lie did so. He could not remember all the paper, but the substance of the latter end of it was that if he disobeyed orders or divulged secrets it would be death. After this he told witness to stick the knife through the paper which he laid on the table for the purpose, and witness did so. The witness then described drill meetings which he attended, and a night raid on the house of a farmer in search of arms. Luke Arm- strong succeeded Sheridan as County Centre. Sub- sequently Lyons told him there was a move on the books- that they were going to shoot Donohoe, the clerk of the union, who was suspected of getting some men arrested. Armstrong was present, and said there would be £10 each for doing it, and if it was ever found out they would get plenty of money to leave the country. Armstrong then handed Lyons a revolver and a box of cartridges. They went in the direction of the workhouse, and met Patrick Reynolds, who was an asaistrtnt to Mr. Donohoe, and Thady Higgins. Having obtained information from Reynolds about Mr. Donohoe, arranged to meet next night at Patrick Burke's store, in Tubbercurry. They met next night. John Brett was also there, and he said he would go with them. After getting some porter they set off together towards the workhouse. They were all armed with revolvers except Lyons, who had a double-barrelled pistol. Witness was stationed at the gate- with directions to fire on any one who might enter. Higgins, Brett, and Lyons went to the window of the Board room in which there was a light, and in which they saw Mr. Donohoe the night before, and Lyons was raised up to the window on the shoulders of the others. A shot was fired, though witness could not say which of them fired it. They all ran away, and as witness was passing the window he heard a voice inside exclaim, I am shot." They went back to the town and got some drink, and then returned in the direction of the workhouse, after the police had gone there, and remained about for a while. Some days afterwards witness noticed that Lyons's wrist was bound up, and he said the pistol had kicked and cut his hand. On another occasion Lyons told witness they were going to shoot a process-server named Brett, who had served ejectments on Major Knox's Carrewreagh property. They went down to the house for the purpose, and witness described how it failed through the Tubbercurry men failing to meet them. After Sub-Inspector Doherty was fired at Patrick Gannon asked witness why they did .not shoot Lewis Golden, the bailiff and summons server, and said there would be £ 60 for doing it. Subsequently Lyons went to Golden's house with a double-barrelled gun, but did not do anything. Next day he told wit- ness that lie nearly shot Nealon m mistake for Golden, when the former ran out before him on the road. At this stage the further hearing of the case was adjourned for a week.
FOREST FIRES IN AMERICA. A telegram dated Philadelphia, May 4, says: The protracted drought has caused serious forest ifires along the Alleghany Mountains in New York, iNew Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. Westerly winds last night filled Philadelphia. New York, and other seaboard cities with smoke. Many villages and timber camps have been destroyed. Brisben, Pennsyl- vania. has been burnt, 250 houses being destroyed. The damage amounts to 200,000 dols. Two persons were burnt to death. Great distress prevails. farnia, Houtzdale. Whitehaven, Beauplain. bwisa- nont, Sterling Run. Arnot, Ashland, Minehill. Gap, find other villages have been injured. The <- at-sMU Mountains. New York, with the highlands on the Hudson River, have had extensive fores ires, a so the Blue Mountains, New Jersey. Heavy losses are reported. Akie'r telegram snys: Additional reports come of devastation bv forest fires. Fifty square nnles ot forest have been swept away near Ashland. Pennsyl- vania Four lives were lost, and damage done to the amount of 112.000 dols. Gilman Station, New York, has been destroyed. The loss is estimated at 150.000 dols. Gainsville, Florida, is partly destroyed, the loss amounts to 140,000 dols. Rains are extinguish- ing the fires.
CHARGE OF CHILD -MURDER. At Salford, on Monday, Mary Isherwood, of Bury, was remanded on a c large oi murder. On Saturday the woman went to aaltord to redeem some pawned articles, but, getting drunk, she asked a woman, named Farnworth, to redeem the articles for her, and promised in the meantime to take care of her baby. Immediately Faruworth had gone out, Isherwood took the baby out of the cradle, and. putting it on the floor, poured upon it the boiling contents of a kettle. The baby died the same night.