The Atmospheric Railway The problem which Messrs. Clegg and Samuda had to solve, and which they have so far solved most successfully, was the practicability of effecting the propulsion of carriages upon a railway, by the mechanical exhaustion of the air, from one end of a set of pipes, and a preponder- ant pressure of the atmosphere at the other. Mr. Medhurst and Mr. Pinkins had both tried to accom- plish this, but both failed. The obvious difficulty in the case was not so much to accomplish the required degree of exhaustion, as how to connect the carriages, outside of the pipes, with the moving force established by the exhausting process within. So formidable did this difficulty seem to Mr. Vallance, another well- known experimentalist in this line, that despairing altogether of overcoming it, he proposed to make the pipes large enough to contain the carriages and pas- sengers inside, and to produce an exhaustion in front of them so complete that they should be projected in a twinkling from London to Brighton, or vice versa! On the practicability of such a scheme it is unneces- sary to waste a single word. The way in which Messrs. Clegg and Samuda have got over the difficul- ty, we shall now briefly describe. An air channel consisting of a series of pipes about 9 inches in diameter, connected together, by air-tight joints, is laid down between the two lines of the rails on which the carriages travel, and at the top of this air channel, but rather to the one side, there is a small slit or opening, which is covered with a continuous leather valve, one edge of which is fastened down, and the other drops into a trough or groove filled with a composition of bess' wax and tallow which is solid at the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere, but is only very slightly adhesive, and becomes quitu fluid when heated a few degrees above that tempera- ture. As long as this valve remains fixed in its seat no access of air can of course take place through tho slit or opening. A piston which works lengthwise in the air channel has a vertical arm which works into the slit, upon the leather valve which covers that slit being lifted (which is easily effected by alittle pressure), and is connected with a driving carriage placed on the rails outside in the usual way. The air channel is divided by separating valves into suitable length* for exhaustion, and each length has a steam-erigim; and air pump of its own to exhaust it. The inventors propose at first to try lengths of about a mile, but to increase or diminish the distance, according as expe- rience shall determine the one or the other course to be the most economical. For the half mile ou which they are experimenting, one engine of 1 G horse fpower is found amply sufficient. Supposing, then, one of the separating valves of a section of the air chamber- that behind the piston—to be opened, and the at- mosphere freely admitted in that direction, while the valve of the opposite side is closed, and a steam-engine and air pump applied to exhaust the air from the intermediate space, this result necessarily follows:- The piston is moved forward by the pressure of the atmosphere, and the vertical arm which rises from it. follows in the slit or top, forcing aside, as it advances, the leather valve, and drawing after it, the driving carriage, with which it is immediately connected. Close behind the vertical arm there comes a small wheel, which presses the leather valve down as far as the arm clears it; and after that wheel cornea a heating iron, (heated from a small furnace in the driving carriage,) which re-melts the bee's-wax and tallow, that had been broken up by the lifting of the valve, and makes the valve once more air-tight, and ready for a repetition of the preceding process by any succeeding carriage or train. In two trips, the average speed realised was 30 miles an hour; in a third 35 miles and in a fourth, when Prince Albert was present, no less than 40. The weight of the driven carriage and persons upoa it, varied from 5 to 8 tons. The 15th Century—" It was" says M. Guizot, "a period of voyages, travels, enterprizes, discoveries, and inventions of every kind. It was the time of the Portuguese expeditions along the coasts of Africa, of the discovery of the new passage to India by the Cape of Good Hope, by Vasco de Gama; of the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus; of the wonderful extension of European Commerce. A thousand new inventions started up; others already known, but confined within a narrow sphere, became popular and in general use. Gunpowder changed the system of war; the compass changed the system of navigation. Painting in oil was invented, and filled Europe with master-pieces of art. Engraving on copper, invented in 1406, multiplied, and diffused them. Paper made of linen became common. Finally, between 1436 and 1452 was invented printing- printing, the theme of so many declamations and common-places, but to whose merits and effects no common-places or declamations will ever be able to to justice." IMPORTANT DISCOVERY.-Mr. John Wimbridge, of Presteign, has discovered a chemical process by means of which steel may be so hardened as to cut glass more easily than the diamond.
As quick, pursuing, skipped the tinkling flock, And kids high bounding danced from rock to rock. He sung, when darted from Jehovah's throne, How light primeval, driving darkness, shone; How brooding dove-like on the flooded earth, To Seas and Continents great God gave birth; With flowers and fruits, and groves adorn'd the ground And bade with life congenial both abound; His own bright image stamp'd on nobler Man, And gave him power the works of God to scan, Then told what ills from disobedience flow, The thorn and labor and eternal woe; And though corruption all creation pains, Revival promis'd from the Fall remains. How once all earth by dreadful flood was drown'd, One only just, one only steadfast found, When waters rising with resistless shock Burst the foundation of primeval rock. Rent mounts asunder, whirl'd the crags afar, And wrench'd each ponderous foundation bar, Midst steeps impending dark abysses cleft, And blue Cerberian lakes, subsiding, left. Then Vengeance first found rest, and Grace divine Stretch'd in the clouds, the Bow's empurpled sign. Then Triads high reveal'd, which told the place The Fathers chose, on earth's reviving face. Who first admiring cloud-capt Cambria's height Sought the sweet valley and retiring site; Who first renown'd in arms, invaders slew, Who first each art and Life's improvement knew. Then told each science, taught them how to till The grateful valley and the garner fill; For various purpose named what plants are good, What leaves for healing, and what roots for food. Instructed Mariners betimes to know, What signs portentous brooding tempests shew, What stars to follow, and what planets fear, And where the course in which most safe to steer. Pronounced what time it were unwise to sail, When Sun eclipsed in heaven, or moon should fail. Not Atlas self was famed on Libya's shore So well the paths of Ocean to explore. Then tuning higher in grand prophetic lay, He sung the glory of the future day, When Roman Arms and Caesar's self should feel The edge resistless of Britannic steel; And freedom fix on Mona last, her throne, And Ancient Britons still unvanqujslÙI own. Foretold Cadwaller's and Llewellin's race, And mighty kings who British thrones should grace; And Cambrian bards high-gifted to inspire, To rouse to virtue, and with courage fire, And sacred Druids who retired should rove, And hold high converse in majestic grove, And frequent meeting by pale lunar light In solemn silence move mysterious rite, And hij.li piled temples rear on Cader's height, Till Britain's rival thrones in one should blend, And sacred Friendship all dissention end, Her wiser laws the favor'd island teach, And Grace divine to furthest nations preach, One undivided arm the realm extend, And all aggressors to her footstool bend. Thus sung the bard in high majestic strain, And mothers hush'd their infants in the plain; All nature gladdened, and the throng entranced, Or listen'd eager, or, exulting, danced. And still the chair, the mount still keeps his name, And Idris lives in everlasting fame; And oft, as shepherds tell, his spirit walks Along the summit, and gigantic stalks, The genius of the mountain—often stands And beckoning signifies his high commands. Oft visiting by night his loved retreat, With inspiration gifts his ancient seat. Great Mountain, early seat of British kings, Which many a high-born bard enraptured sings, Who can describe thy throne's exalted seat, And mighty Ocean rolling at thy feet ? The throne, a dark abyss, deep shadows hide, Which cliffs advancing fling on either side; The summit arch'd, in rear majestic bends, And chaos rude of rock beneath descends. Not more horrific dread Vesuvius towers, Nor flames from Crater more stupendous showers, Not stern Olympus bolder brow projects, Nor rocks impending more sublime erects, Not torrents grander from Parnassus flow, Nor brighter lakes expand in chasms below, So nature form'd thee in gigantic mould, Or Deluge or Volcano rent of old Or Earth, high heaving, with resistless shock So tore and shatter'd thy primeval rock. Great Mountain, thou remainest still the same As when old Idris first pronounced thy name. Above vicissitude, unmoved, secure, Through countless years, thy wilds the same endure, No golden harvests there, nor meadows green, But, growth of ages, dreary heath is seen. And solemn is the view, when sullen Night Plays on thy summit with uncertain light. And shades swift fleeting mock the watchful eye, Intent thy royal features to descry, And wild wind, sweeping all the ridge, complains How widely wasting Desolation reigns, And sighing, seems to tell of days of yore, And happier ages which return no more, And bids the mighty wanderer behold The Temple, once a palace, now a fold, While oft renewed in hollow dying tones From rock to rock, the solemn Echo moans. One only work exempt from sad decay, And shining brighter to eternal day, One work unfading hast thou seen on earth Since first the great Creator gave thee birth. Nor such a work the early sons of Grace, Nor first of Christian kings, of British race; Nor such a work, the Briton still more high Who saw in heaven, the royal standard fly, And struck Rome's eagles, and to Rome proclaim'd, That HE who rules the world, is JESUS named, Nor Britons who, by Roman pontiffs seal'd, The Gospel open'd, and the Faith reveal'd, Saw such a work as this, so grand, so sure, A work which shall bevond all time endure, THE BOOK OF LIFE an angel bearing high, And shouting loud Salvation through the sky. Not Druids horrid rites, nor dreadful fane, Nor temples of high Rome so sure remain, As great Jehovah's work THE BIBLE stands And like the fountain BALA wide expand. From works like these old Britain's glory springs, While Britain labors with the King of kings, While Cambria's vales, and Albion's plains proclaim, In glorious unity, Jehovah's name As Sister Olives procuring heavenly grace, As golden lamps in God's most holy place, And may they witness till the world shall own, That worthy is the Lamb who fills the throne. B.