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: ELECTRICITY v. GAS.

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Rhannu

ELECTRICITY v. GAS. j (Contributed.) j With appetites still unsatisfied on the above question, the numerous readers of the "Ex- press" are, no doubt, still looking forward to i more comparisons of a practical character. Some of these are enumerated below :— i (1) The Osram lamp will burn singly on any voltage from 2 to 260. The fact of the lamp; being used on alternating current does not make any difference to their life. Recently, at one of the South Wales Electrical Distribution Company's substations at Pontypridd, four (I.ram lamps were tested, and they were all f-'oiug after 2,500 hours burning. The bulbs had not blackened at all, and the light was as good as when the lamps were first put on test. This test was severe as the current was alter- nating at a low frequency, also during the day- time largo variations in voltage take place, due to colliery motors stopping and starting in the immediate neighbourhood. This should dispel fallacy (1) in last week's issue. Again, on the street lighting in Canterbury, the average life has worked out at over 2,600 hours. At Bir- mingham, Osram lamps are being used with great success on alternating current with a fre- quency of 25 periods, which is more exacting than the usual frequency of 60 or more. (2) The cost of the lamps generally in use for hou'e lighting and shops varies from 2s. 6d. to 5s. 9d., the 32-c.p. lamps being 3s. 6d. each; (3) A comparison of the cost of the different systems, Osram lamps and Gas, is borne out by testimonials from different people who have tried the two systems. During 1907, a com- petitive trial, lasting over 13 days, took place at the Liberal Club, Windsor. The electric lighting equipment consisted of Osram lamps, while the Gas authorities used' high pressure burners with incandescent mantles. At the end of the 13 days, the cost fqr Gas was £1 8s. 3d., while the Electricity bill was only 16s. 2d. The consequence was that the general effect of the more distributed light obtained by the Osram lamps was so much appreciated, that the whole of the Club premises were wired for electric light. Messrs. Ensolls (Shirt Tailors, 285-7, New Cross-road, S.E.) state that in 1906 they were using 28 8 c.p. old style incandescent lamp with gas lamps outside, inside shops and all over the house. This last quarter they had 9 100-c.p. Osrams put outride, 4 50c.p. and 17 35-c-P. Osrains in the business, only burning gas in the house, viz.: Two gas fires, one cook- ing stove, and lighting all over the house. They shall have pleasure in recommending others to follow their example. 1906-G-as. L8 14a. 5d.; electricity, J68 14s. 6d.; total, £ 17 8s. lid- 1907—Gas, £ 4 13s. 4d. electricity. £ 5 13s. 5d. total, £10 6s. 9d. Saving on electricity with much better light, £ 3 Is. Id.; total saving on one quarter, JB7 2s. 2d. (4) Regarding the healthiness of electric light over ?as there is no question a/5 to electric light being foremost, despite assertions to the contrary. If gas is healthy, why is it that at the Gas Exhibition held at Olympia, fa.intnress and sickness were common amongst, the stall attendants and spectators, so much so that four large electric fans were fixed to remove the vitiated atmosphere. A tab!? compiled by Sir W. H. Preece shews that the decrease in ab- sentees at the GeneraJ Post Office, London, through ill-health was onough to pay for the total co-rt of lighting. When gas was used as an illuminant. the average number of days sick absence per officer employed was from 10.19 to 13.56, whereas with electric light it was only 7.83 to 9.22 days- Messrs. Suttons. seed mer- chants, Reading, also state that the adoption of the electric light has resulted in greater im- munity from illness amongst their employees in the busy season, and a reduction of at least 10 degrees in the temperature of several of the departments. Professor Marchant, of the Liverpool University, in a course of lecture.s on illumination, gave some figures shewing the vitiation wh:ch takes place in an ordinary room, and gave the following figures relating to gas: —Coal Gas Batswing burners: Burns per hour cubic feet, 5.5; candle power, 16; cubic feet, oxygen burned. 4.5; vitiation in number of adult persons, 5. Agand burners: Burns per hour, cubic feet, 4.8; candle power, 16; cubic feet, oxygen burned, 5.8; vitiiation in number of adult persons, 4.3. Regenerative burners: Burns per hour, cubic feet. 3.2; candle power, 32; cubic feet, oxygen burnsd, 3.6; vitiation in number of adult persons. 2.8. Welsbach burn ers: Burns per hour, cubic feet, 3.5; candle power, 50 (initial); cubic f-jet, oxygen burned. 4.1; vitiation in number of adult persons, 3. Dr. Marchant pointed out that the Welsbach mantle tested was a good one, but even then the candle power after 300 hours' burning was only 30 c.p. W,ith electric light, of coursa, no oxygen was consumed. The late Dr. Letheby, in his report on the coal gas supplied to the City of London, gives instances of the destruc- tive nature of the fumes which arise from gas burners, and the following quotation is worthy of notice: "Enormous damage has been done to the binding of books in the libraries of the Athenteum Club, the London Institution, and the Royal College of Surgeons." In the first- named, wherever the books had been exposed to the atmosphere containing the vapours of burnt, gas, they were as rotten as tinder; indeed, it often happened that the covers gave way in attempting to remove a book from it-? place on the shelf. If the vapours of burnt gas will do so much harm to inanimate objects, what will they do ie. the delicate lung tissue of the person genera-ily breathing them? (5) Respecting the up-keep of Osram lamps and rras mantles in a certain large city, 12 school- lighted with gas at 2s. 2d. per '1.000 I cubic feet, the total gas bill was £ 384 8s., and the totar renewals and cleaning bill (done by the Gas Company at a cheap rate through fear of losing the lighting) was £ 190 lis. 2d., or about 5Q per cent. of the gas bill. Moreover, as this allowance was found to be inadequate, the cleaning and renewing periods have been increased in number by 33 per cent. Tak».nfr the assumed figures from last week's "Express" for the up-keep of Osram lamps, we find that it only comes to 43.6 per cent. This, of course. woulfÍ be reduced to 38.1 per cent. by taking the lamps at their proper price of 39. 6d. Then illowing for their life being extended to. 1.500 hour-5, which is more than exceeded in practise, [his percentage up keep will still further be re- rluced to 15.4. The nbove figures show that Osram lamps ran rnor3 than hold their own both in coit of up-keep and economy of cur rent,

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