(Satkrthtg. "'F-_r_r-r' [If any reader who is in difficulty with reference to his garden, will write direct to the -ad- dress given beneath, his queries will be an swered, free of charge, and by return of post —EDITOR]. Home correspondents omit to add their names, or merely end with initials. In these cases it is obviously impossible to reply.-E.K.T. THE FLOWER GARDEN IN JANUARY. ACHIMENES. A few bulbs may be started now in shallow pans of light, sandy soil, mixed with peat, in a warm greenhouse or slight bottom heat. Transplant to pots in a warm greenhouse when an inch high. CANNAS. The seeds of these splendid half hardy peren- nials, being exceedingly hard, should be soaked in tepid water before being sown in a tempera- ture of about 70 degrees. Cover with li ins. 2 of soil, and supply abundant moisture. Pot the seedlings, which appear irregularly and at long intervals, when they have made two leaves, and keep the plants in a temperature of about 60 degrees, potting on as may be necessary till June. CINERARIAS. These plants should have air whenever con- sistent with safety, and they must be turned towards the light regularly to prevent the flowers all facing one way. Mildew is caused by slopping water about the house, and can usually be prevented by carefully watering towards the middle of the day. CYCLAMENS. A fine show of blossom will still be available, and the flowering period of beauty may be extended by immersing the pots for about half an hour in tepid water occasionally. For suc- cessional purposes a sowing may be made now. Use pots or pans of light, sandy soil, pressing the seeds into the surface an inch apart, and covering them with soil in a temperature of about 65 degrees in a warm moist corner of the greenhouse. The seed germinates slowly and most irregularly. Transfer the seedlings singly bo very small pots, and move on as necessary, being careful to only about half bury the corms, so as to leave their crowns above the surface of the soil. GLOXINIAS. For early flowering from June onwards, sow For early flowering from June onwards, sow now in clean and specially well drained pots of tine soil, covering the seeds very lightly only. Water carefully, and place the pots in a warm, moist, and shaded position, in a temperature of about 70 degrees. Sprinkle slightly with water daily, being very careful to avoid damping off. As soon as the seedlings become large enough to handle, prick them out an inch apart into other pots. Pot singly, of course, and grow on without a check in a shaded position, and a moist temperature of from 60 to 65, until the flowers begin to expand, when the atmosphere must be kept dry. HOLLYHOCKS. These ground border flowers can be grown as annuals or biennials. Sow in a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees in well drained sandy soil, and cover the seeds very lightly. Prick out the seedlings an inch apart when an inch high into other pots of porous soil, just deeply enough for the leaves to come into contact with the soil. Pot singly during March, and harden off gradually, preparatory to planting out in early May, when the weather is settled. PETUNIAS. Make a sowing towards the end of the month to produce plants for indoor decoration, scat- tering the seeds thin on an even surface of firm, finely sifted soil, and covering it lightly with nearly pure sand. Place in a temperature of nearly 60 degrees, and keep the pots or pans moist. Maintain a uniform temperature, being very careful to exclude draughts. Prick off the seedlings before they become crowded into pans or boxes of light soil, so that the lowest leaves just touch the surface, and sprinkle regularly with water. Move singly to small pots in April. VERBENAS. Plants raised from seeds run very little risk of injury from insects and disease. Sow now or in February in light soil in a warm pit or frame. Prick out the seedlings round the edges of small pots when they ara;a few weeks old, and as soon as established plsfce them near the glass in a well ventilated frame. Pot on singly at about the end of March, and plant out towards the middle or end of May.
ROSES DURING JANUARY. Strong liquid manure may be put on rose beds during light frosts, as it then sinks far and rapidly into the ground. Fine manure may be prepared by placing a bushel of old cow manure, that has been carefully preserved and not washed by rain, in a barrel of water. After standing for two or three days, and being occasionally stirred, the liquid may be diluted with four times its volume of water. After strong winds it is necessary to examine the protective covering of tea roses; and to see that standard trees have not broken away from their stakes. Planting should be completed as weather permits. For cottage gardens, where an abundant and certain yield of flowers is desired without much trouble, the following are probably the best twelve kinds:—Abel Grand, Alfred Colomb, Dupuy Jamain, Edward Morren, John Hopper, Jules Margottin, La France, Madame Isaac Pereire, Mrs. John Laing, Paul Neyron, Thomas Mills, and Ulrich Brunner.
IN THE GREENHOUSE. The temperature must not be allowed to fall below 40 degrees at any time, neither must the plants be stimulated by heat and much water. From 50 to 55 degrees by day, with a fall of 10 degrees at night, is a safe temperature to be aimed at. Admit air freely whenever consist- ent with safety. If the weather be damp out. side, raise the indoor temperature a few degrees above that of the outside air by fire heat. Water sparingly and when plants actually require it. Remove all dead leaves as they appear, keeping the foliage as clean as practic- able. Tobaceo-water or soapy quassia water will be found an efficient weapon for the destruction of green-fly, but fumigation with some commercial preparation of tobacco is, perhaps, the most convenient remedy. An occasional fumigation is valuable whether green-fly be present or not, since prevention is always better than cure. Mealy-bug is a most troublesome pest just now, and remedial measures should be taken before the enemy gets a good foothold. Hard and repeated syringing very much disturbs the domestic economy of the pests, and when affected plants are too delicate or fragile to endure this treat- ment, spray them by means of an atomizer with a solution of pyrethrum and alcohol, prepared by dissolving four ounces of powder in one gill of alcohol, and adding 12 gallons of water. 1!1 Fir tree oil is an eftective application.
IN PIT AND FRAME. Provide plenty of coverings against severe frost. Protect auriculas from frost and rain, giving plenty of air when it is not actually freezing. Remove decayed leaves, and be very •careful not to over-water the plants. Shift calceolarias if necessary, fumigating them now and then as a preventive of green-fly. Shrubby and half-hardy kinds only need protection dur- ing frost, abundance of air being given at other times. Give carnations and pieotees free ven- tilation excepting during frost. Water only when the plants are really dry. it is import- ant to remove decaying leaves. Examine dahlia tubers, and separate decayed from sound ones. Cut away decayed parts entirely, being careful to dry each cut surface as soon as possible. Prune resting fuchsias, repotting them in rich, sandy soil, and afterwards start- ing them into growth in gentlo heat. Continue removing hvicinths from under ashes, exposing them gradually to the full light. Those intend- ed for late flowering. should be kept as cool as possible. E. KEMP TOOGOOD, F.R.H.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The Royal Seed Establishment, Southampton.
WEEKLY NOTES. The Anglo Egyptian Convention amounts to something more than a Protectorate, but it can hardly be said to give precise definition to our position in the Soudan. Its chief impor- tance is the declaration that the Soudan in- cludes all the territory south of Wady Haifa, which was at any time subject to the Egyptian Government. In other respects, it simply gives formal expression to Lord Cromer's recent announcement at Khartoum. Nominally there is to be a joint British and Egyptian sovereign- ty, but supreme authority will be vested in the Governor General, who cannot be appointed or removed without the consent of the British Government. The administration of the re- covered territory will be distinct from that of Egypt proper, and there will be no Consular Jurisdiction, and no foreign Consuls will be allowed, except with the permission of the British authorities. The Soudan will now have its own fiscal system, but in matters of trade and residence the 'open door' policy will be adhered to, and no special privileges will be accorded to the subjects of any particular power or powers. The British and Egyptian flags will float side by side over (the Soudan, which is now formally declared to include the whole of the Bahr el Ghazal, as well as Darfar and Kordofan. But Egypt's share in the sovereignty over this territory seems to be recognised as merely a matter of courtesy, while the Sultan's supposed Suzerainty is not mentioned at all. Lord Kitchener will be the first Governor-General, who will be in supreme authority overall internal affairs, the British claim to the exercise of this power, beinJ based upon the' right of conquest,' andgthe military and financial sacrifices which this country has made for uhe recovery of the Soudan. —o— Mr. Cecil Rhodes is as usual only making a short stay in this country. He wants to be back at the Cape in March, and in the mean- time proposes to visit Egypt, possibly going as far as Khartoum. One of the objects of his visit to this country is to obtain Government assistance for the completion of the Trans-Con tinenfcal Railway, which is to eventually form a continuous line from Cairo to the Cape. The total distance is about 6,000 miles, but the Egyptian railway will soon be completed as far as Khartoum, thus covering a good stretch of the distance, while the South African line has its present terminus at Bulawayo. To connect these two places, Mr. Rhodes estimates that about 3,250 miles require to be bridged. The cost of this he calculates will not be less than ten millions sterling, and Mr. Rhodes wants the Government to guarantee the interest so that the money can be borrowed upon the most favourable terms. o- If the Trans-Continental Railway from Cairo to the cape is ever completed, the journey would occupy ten days at an average speed of twenty six miles an hour. Whether the line would serve any purpose for which the Govern- ment should incur the liability of a guarantee is not a little problematical. It is not like the Uganda Railway, which was undertaken with a definite and pressing object in view. Except that it is part and parcel of a long-cherished idea, there does not seem to be any particular demand for a through railway, and it is not easy to see how it can be made to pay. It could never become a serious competitor as a passenger route between Europe and South Africa, and its trade possibilities are also ham- pered by the fact that commerce with Central Africa will eventually find shorter routes to the coast. At present, the way is barred by the interposing German or Belgian territory on either side of Lake Tanganyika. Mr. Rhodes does not anticipate any difficulties on this score, but even so the railway seems a little superfluous in running side by side with the 400 miles of water carriage afforded by this great inland sea. An all British route does not necessarily mean a continuous railway, and it seems an altogether sanguine view that the Government will regard it of sufficient impor tance to justify a State guarantee, except per- haps over some portions of the line, with some strictly qualifying provisions attached to any such assistance. -0- Those about to emigrate to South Africa are warned of the excessive cost of living in that part of the world. Things are very different there, as compared with the low cost of the necessaries of life in this country; and at the cape single men with salaries of from E150 to £200 a year have ahard straggle to make both ends meet. Recent complaints from railway employees have led to a special inquiry into the subject, and evidence was taken from a number of witnesses employed in the Railway Department, and in the Public Works, Post Office, and Customs Department. This showed that the cost of bare board and lodging for a single man was from £7 to £ 8 per month in the chief centres, such as Cape Town, Port Eliza- beth, Kimberley, and East London. With the greatest care one person may manage to get along upon 9150 a year, but for a married man, with a family, f,3 or f,4 a week means terribly straitened [circumstances. In Cape Town, where it is almost a matter or necessity to live in the suburbs, which involves the expense of a daily railway journey, a house of thiee rooms, with a kitchen, commands not less than 94 per month. House room is not much cheaper in the other leading cities, but it is dear food which is the chief item in the cost of living. The fostering of this state of things by a Pro- tectionist policy checks immigration, and though it suits the farmers, it is the chief draw- back to the industrial development of South Africa. —o— France is just now giving special attention to the development of the submarine torpedo boat. While the Czar proposes that such things should be forbidden among the nations, the French are jubilant over the success they claim to have achieved with this new engine of destruction. There is, of course, nothing novel in the idea of submarine navigation. More than a cen- tury ago there were under-water vessels driven by hand power; and in the war of 1812, the Americans made an unsuccessful attack upon a British frigate by these means. In the last twenty years, however, several countriesjhave been endeavouring to perfect the idea by the aid of modern science, and France seems to have persevered sufficiently to bring practical results well within the possibility of accom- plishment. She has two types of submarine boats, one intended for Coast Defence, and the other for use in the open sea. It is, of course, one thing to build submergible, vessels, and another thing to make use of them in naval warfare. Their chief difficulty seems to be their 'blindness,' or inability to take observa- tions without coming to the surface. But there is no doubt that this drawback will be over- come; and so far, the experiments go to show that there is nothing insuperable in the problem of submarine navigation. The question is how, and in what way, they can be used in naval strategy. Our neighbours evidently think they have found a short cut to arrive upon equal terms with the British Navy, but in any case we may be sure that the introduction of sub. marine boats will speedily lead to inventions specially designed for their destruction. -0- Lord Cranborne dropped a hint the other day that the Volunteers must be prepared for changes and developments, which, though they might not be popular, would be designed for the better organisation of the force. Every- body knows that it is deficient in many essen- tials, but it is chiefly the fault of the War Office, which has always treated the Volunteers as the Cinderella of the military servies. The I Artillery, which has next to no field guns, never by any chance works with the infantry in divisional manoeuvres. The force has no cavalry, and the yeomanry is practically in- Capable, from lack of training, of doing cavalry work in the field. A certain number of per- functory company and battalion drills in a year, do not make men into soldiers. The fact is, the authorities have never given the force a chance to show the stuff that is in it; and as it is assuredly the aim of most volunteers to be worthy Ethe name of soldiers, there is no fear that the suggested improvements will be un- popular, provided they are framed on sensible and practical lines. —o— The Volunteer force will shortly complete the fortieth year of its existence. The preli- minary arrangements were made in the pre- vious year; but it was not until the 12th of May, 1859, that General Peel, then Secretary of War, issued the authority to the Lords Lieutenants of the Counties to allow the rais- ing of Volunteer Corps, which were then limited to a hundred rank and file. At first, the Volunteers were an object of ridicule to the Regulars, who expressed the opinion that they were playing at soldiers; but in the following year the formation of battalions was found desirable, and the limitation as to numbers was removed. When the first returns were made at the end of 1860, there was a total of 119,146 Volunteers enrolled, of whom 106,443 were declared to be efficient. Since then the movement has steadily grown in popularity with all classes, as has also the efficient percen- tage of its members. The most recent returns showed that we had an army of 231,798 citizen soldiers enrolled, of whom no less ohan 224,206, or 95.15 per cent were efficient. -0- .From all parts of the country there are com- plaints of the increase in the cost of labour and material in the building trades. Wageshave gone up to an unprecedented level, and it seems that less work is done per hour than used to be the case-an opposite effect to that which was prophesied on the shortening of the working day. Formerly, a good bricklayer would set from 800 to 1,000 bricks a day, and it now seems to be the rule of the trade to restrict the number to half. Just now the plasterers are indulging in a series of high handed practices, with considerable risk of bringing about a big lock out in the building trades. They have withdrawn their men from some workshops, because the foremen managers are not on the Union, while they have black listed other firms, and will apparently only allow one apprentice for every seven journeymen, so as to reduce competition. The fact seems to be that the men are suffering from too much prosperity and not satisfied with this, are putting forward all sorts of unreasonable demands. It is a short sighted policy, and it is this sort of thing thit is so completely altering the public view of trades unionism generally. If it is to be used to enforce tyrannical demands, then public sympathy is likely to drift over to the new Employers Federation, which such action has brought already into the field, and is likely to still further consolidate. It also ;has other results, as the architects are endeavouring to do without the plasterers, -and the bricklayer might consider that far more wonderful ^things have been invented and applied than ajbrick setting machine.
BATTLE IN ECUADOR. Tbc New York Herald's correspondent at Guaya- quil telegraphs as follows: A battle has been fought between the revolutionists and the Govern- ment forces at San Ancaja. The fighting lasted all day, the victory remaining with the Government side. More than 400 men were killed and 300 wounded. Four hundred insurgents were taken prisoners."
THE CROWN AND THE CHARTERED COMPANY. Papers relating to the government of Rhodesia have been issued, setting forth the actual status of the company in relation to the Crown, which can at any time inspect their papers, including minutes of evidence and telegrams, and suspend officials. There will be a High Court, with full jurisdiction over all the territory. The following wilt show the spirit of consideration in which native feeling is dealt with In civil cases between natives the High Court and the magistrates' courts shall be guided by native law so far as that law is not re- pugnant to natural justice or morality, or to any order made by her Majesty in Council, or to any proclamation or ordinance. In any such case the Court may obtain the assistance of one or two native assessors, to advise the Court upon native law and customs, but the decision'of the Court shall be given by the judge or magistrate alone. If in any civil case between natives a question arises as to the effect of a marriage contracted, according to native law or custom, by a native in the lifetime of one or more other wives married to him according to native law or custom, the Court may treat such marriage as valid for all civil purposes, in so far as polygamous marriages are recognised by the said native law or custom.
MRS. GORDON-BAILLIE RELEASED FROM PRISON. Mrs. Gordon-Baillie was released from prison on January 25, after serving a sentence of penal servi- tude for fraud, and reported herself at Scotland- yard. Mrs. Baillie was one of the most amazing adventuresses of the century. She was known as Mary Ann Bruce, Mrs. Knight Aston, Mrs. Melville White, Mrs. William Maitland, Mrs. Tasker Toler, as well as by the name by which a dozen years ago she became the most discussed woman in Great Britain, and under which in 1894 she was sent to penal servitude for a variety of impositions. The romance connected with her was associated with the late Sir R. Buck- worth King, who was infatuated with the woman, who was once described by a London journalist as a most charming lady possessing that fortuitous form and feature which happily conceal age." Sir Robert thought so too, for he gave her heaps of money and offered her his hand and heart, but she preferred an operatic tenor, and went to Australia. When a petition was filed on Sir Richard's be- half, his liabilities were found to consist mainly of' bills, and reached thousands. Mrs. Gordon Baillie had been as irresistible as he had been irresponsible. She once hoodwinked the Melbourne Punch, which in 1887 solemnly announced that she was the last of an old and distinguished family-on the Gordon side, a descendant of a line of soldiers, and on the other of the great Johanna Baillie." In Scotland in the early seventies she was- known as Miss Bruce Sutherland. She used to sing hymns to perfection, and even repeat verbatim the sermons she. used to hear at Kirk. She turned out (says the Daily Mail) to be something like the lady debt-raiser in Harold Frederic's Illumination."
ENTOMBED NAVVY'S PRAYER. The rescue party, who were endeavouring to re- cover the body of Brown, the navvy who was en- tombed by a fall whilst engaged sinking a shaft in connection with the Meoiv Valley Railway at Privett were successful on Jan. 25 in finding the body of the unfortunate man 60ft. below the surface. James Owen, the man who was rescued alive, states- that Brown made an attempt to get out, but another fall of earth occurred. He then said "good-be"to Owen, and repeated the Lord's Prayer. Owen has now re- covered from the effects of his 53 hours' imprison- ment, and hopes to be able to resume work shortly.
AT the request of Senor Salmeson and several other Spanish Republicans, Senor Sagasta has pro- mised to submit to the next Cabinet Council a pro- posal for the amnesty of the Anarchists still detained at Monjuich. TilE Canadian Government will not reduce the Yukon gold royalty, which is to remain as it was- namely, 10 per cent. on the gross output; but the amount exempted is to be increased to 5000dols. per claim annually. TIlE new electric organ, which has been presented to St. Michael's Church, Chester-squnre, London, by Mr. A. J. G. Cross, was opened on Saturday by Mr. Tertius Noble, the organist of York Minster. Teacher: 'What is a fort V Pupil: 'A place for soldiers to live ia.' Teacher: 'And a fortress?' Pupil: A place for soldiers' wive.s to live in/ 'k
THE MARRIAGE OF MADAME PATTI. Madame Patti was married on January 25 at Brecon to Baron Cederstrom, of Sweden, among many manifestations of popular rejoicing. The wedding party left Craig-y-Nos Castle soon after nine o'clock, and thence drove in the brilliant sunshine to Penwyllt Station, where a special train was waiting to convey the party to Brecon. Many of the villagers, among whom Madame Patti is a great favourite, had I assembled in the vicinity of Penwyllt Station, and gave ringing cheers as the lady and her friends entered the train shortly after half-past nine o'clock. A few minutes after ten o'clock the special train steamed into the station, and a moment later the party alighted. The station had been gaily de- corated, and the mayor, town clerk, and corporation had assembled on the platform. Madame Patti was attired in dove-coloured satin, with cape to match, and mauve bonnet. She carried a bouquet of orchids. After a brief welcome by the mayor the party was escorted to the carriages. Previous to the arrival of the train the band of the 3rd battalion South Wales Borderers had been playing patriotic airs, and it now headed the procession, which was formed in the following order First carriage: Baron Cederstrom, Baron Rolf Cederstrom (the best man), the Mayor of Brecon, the town clerk. Second carriage: Mr. and Mrs. Wilhelm Ganz and Miss Woodford. Third car- riage: Miss Ganz, Miss A. Ganz, Mr. Harrison, and Mr. W. A. Hart. Fourth carriage: Miss K. Bauer- meister, Mr. Thorndike, Mr. E. Rube. Fifth carriage: Madame Patti Nicolini, Sir George Faudel Phillips, Bart., and Lady Faudel Phillips. Around the bride's carriage marched an escort of the fire brigade. The vicinity of the station was densely crowded, and as the bride emerged from the station and entered her carriage ringing cheers broke forth, to which Mdme. Patti, who looked radiantly happy, bowed repeatedly. The procession passed up Free-street, the Bulwarks, High street, and Wheat street, the whole of the route being decorated with Venetian masts, from which hung festoons and streamers. In due course the procession arrived at the church, at the entrance to which the bridal party were welcomed by the local magistracy. The interior was crowded with privileged visitors. Here the ceremony was performed, according to the ritual of the Roman Catholic Church, with the omis- sion of the mass. The bride was given away by Sir George Faudel-Phillips. Hymns were sung during the service. The ceremony over the procession re- formed and proceeded to the station, the Baron and Baroness Cederstrom this time being in the leading carriage. A moment later they had entered the saloon, in which the wedding breakfast had been prepared, and punctually at 11.30 the train steamed out of the station for London amid ringing cheers. The bride and bridegroom left England next day for the south of France.
CHARITABLE BEQUESTS. Mr. D. Aitchison, of Maidenhead Thicket, has be- queathed £ 10,000 to the Aged and Infirm Ministers' Fund of the Church of Scotland, £ 10,000 to Mel- bourne University, Y.5000 to Edinburgh Infirmary, £ 5000 to the Gordon Boys' Home, and £ 500 each to the Royal Hospital for Incurables, ,the British Home for Incurables, and the National Lifeboat Institu- tion.
THE VENEZUELAN BOUNDARY ARBITRATION. Owing to the immense mass of documents that have been put in, this arbitration is expected to last for several months. The Attorney-General, with Mr. G. R. Askwith, as counsel for Great Britain, and Mr. Buchanan, British Minister at Darmstadt and agent for the British Government in the arbitration, left London for Paris on Mondayforthe formal open- ing of the arbitration, which will then be adjourned to the middle of May.
PUBLIC MEN ON PUBLIC MATTERS. MR. BALFOUR ON RELIGIOUS DIFFICULTIES. Mr. A. J. Balfour, writing to a constituent in East Manchester on the subject of University educa- tion in Ireland, expresses the conviction that it is the religious difficulty alone which at present blocks the way. He believes the people of this country will not accept any plan which would have the effect of strengthening a form of religion to which they are, in the main, strongly opposed at the expense of one to which, in the main, they are no less strongly attached. Nor is it likely that any scheme, even though its adoption would leave the balance of religious parties unaffected, will be pala- table which confers on one particular de- nomination privileges refused to all others. But it seems quite possible to devise a plan which is not open to these objections. After setting forth the reasons why, in his judgment, the expe- dient of leaving the one existing teaching University in Ireland-Trinity College-to meet, by a natural process of expansion, the growing educational needs of the country would not be successful, Mr. Balfour proceeds to suggest that the plan which seems best to solve the University problem, both for the Presby- terians and other Protestants in the north and for Irish Roman Catholics generally, is to establish by a single Act two new teaching Universities-one in Dublin and one in Belfast—on precisely similar lines, and differing in no particular excepting the names of the gentlemen first appointed to serve on their respective governing bodies. As the University in Belfast would absorb the existing Queen's College, the governing body of the new in- stitution should be so constituted as to be a continua- tion of the old. As the Dublin University is designed to attract those Roman Catholics who now hold aloof from University life altogether, its governing body as first constituted should no doubt, in the main, be of their own way of thinking. But both Universities would be rigidly subject to the Test Acts; all scholarships and fellowships paid out of public funds would be open to competition irrespec- tive of creed no public endowment would be given to chairs in philosophy, theology, or modern history; professors would have the right of appeal against unjust dismissal; and the number of clergy on the governing body would be strictly limited. A university so constituted would, in Mr. Balfour's belief, meet the need of Roman Catholics, but it would not be a Roman Catholic University, except in the sense that Trinity College and the new university in Belfast would be Protestant, and in that case there would be in Ireland two Protestant Universities to one Roman Catholic. Mr. Balfour holds that this scheme would confer no exceptional privilege on any particular denomination, and that there is nothing in it which should give umbrage to Protes- tants. He admits that no satisfactory assurance may be forthcoming that it will satisfy the wishes of those for whose educational benefit it is specially designed. If so it seems useless to press it further. But as a Unionist, as a lover of education, and as a Protestant, he hopes that an adequate University system will be granted to Ireland, and granted soon, on the lines he indicates. Mr. Balfour closes with an intimation that in regard to this question he has no right to speak for any one but himself.
I LORD GEORGE HAMILTON ON INDIA. Lord George Hamilton, speaking on January 25 at Chiswick, deplored the declension and impractic- ability of present day criticism of Indian administra- tion inside and outside Parliament, and dwelt on the satisfactory condition and prospects of India just now. By the automatic influence of good trade and a high exchange the currency difficulty was solving itself, and he trusted we were within measurable dis- tance of an effective gold standard.
LORD KIMBERLEY AT WYMONDIIAM. Lord Kimberley, speaking on January 25 at Wy- mondham, expressed his great regret at the retire- ment of Sir W. Harcourt from the Liberal leadership in the House of Commons, and at Mr. Morley's with- drawal from the active counsels of the party. He stigmatised as barren and unprofitable the discussion as to the difference between a "jingo and a Little Englander pointed out that even Mr. Gladstone, in the course of his career, had added not a few terri- tories to the Empire and contended that it was a grievous mistake to suppose that peace could always be best preserved by maintaining a humble and forbearing attitude. In regard to foreign affairs, he urged that further authoritative in- formation was needed as to the policy of the Government in China ahd in the Soudan. Discuss- ing the difficulties in the Church, he said the laity of this country would never be ruled by priests, and if the Bishops could not stop the sacredotal excesses there might be a mutiny of the laity that would hasten disestablishment. The effect of the new Local Government Act in Ireland would probably be to give additional strength and stimulus to the Home Rule movement. Having failed in a persevering and vigorous attempt to carry Home Rule, the Liberals were free to choose their own time for again actively bringing it forward; but that did not at all imply I that they had receded from the principle. 1
FASHIONABLE WEDDING. Lady Winifred Clements, eldest daughter of the Countess of Leitrim, was married in London on Saturday afternoon in St. George's Church, Hanover- square, to Mr. Arthur H. Renshaw, youngest son of the late Mr. T. C. Renshaw, Q.C. The bride, who was escorted up the aisle and given away by her brother, the Earl of Leitrim, wore a rich white satin wedding dress, embroidered with opal, dia- mond, and pearl jewelling, the bodice and sleeves being of white mousseline de soie, slightly draped with little bouquets of orange blossom, which nestled in the snowy folds. The court train was of ivory moire in ray-like stripes. A veil of antique needlepoint lace was worn over a coronet of orange blossoms, and a bouquet of orchids and white violets was carried. Eleven bridesmaids were in attendance —the Ladies Hilda and Kathleen Clements, Lady Dorothy Legge, Lady Bertha Anson, the Hon. Mabel Coke, Hon. Norah Strutt, Hon. Lillian Baring, Miss Renshaw, Miss Marjorie Ren- shaw, Miss Hamilton, and Miss Stewart Cox. They were dressed in poppy-red crepe de chine, with undulating insertions of guipure lace. The hats were Madame de Maintenon shape, all black. Major Jenkins, of the Rifle Brigade, attended the bridegroom as best man. The Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, performed the ceremony, assisted by the Rev. Page Roberts, Residentiary Canon of Canterbury, and the music rendered consisted of the hymns "Pleasant are Thy Courts above," "Oh, Perfect Love," and Angels ever bright and fair." Among those present were the Countess of Leitrim, the Earl and Countess of Dartmouth, the Earl and Countess of Halsbury and Lady Evelyn Giffard, the Countess of Lichfield, Vis- count and Viscountess Coke, Evelyn Countess Bat- hurst, Lady Louisa Hamilton, Lady Belper, Lord and Lady Mostyn, and many others. The Countess of Leitrim held a reception after the ceremony at her London residence in Portman-square.
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RECOLLECTIONS OF MADAME PATTI'S LIFE WITH THE MARQUIS DE CAUX. Madame Patti's first marriage was not fortunate. Mrs. Crawford, the well-known Paris correspondent of Truth, writes The late Marquis de Caux was a mere creature of prey, and he looked it. I never saw an eye that more expressed the habit of taking in the general aspect and particular points of the roulette or the baccarat table, or of a racehorse as it was being led round the weighing ground. He struck me as a vulgar-looking fellow, with the hard, penetrating eye that will discern a pigeon' at a glance. The lower part of the face bespoke base instincts. But he had a fine appearance of style when riding as an equerry baside the Emperor Napoleon's carriage. The Marquis de Caux's want of fortune gave him time to manage, but always for his own exclusive profit, the fortune of Patti, so long as she remained with him. She had a gold mine in her throat, and he laid hands on the gold. She once came in tears to a friend of mine with a casket filled with the diamonds she had harvested in a Russian tour. Will you keep them for me ?' she said. If you do not, the Marquis de Caux will have all the diamonds taken out and paste substituted.' When they were at Baden-Baden in the days of the gambling-tables, he used to be at the Casino door before it was opened in the morning. All the money he staked came out of Patti's earnings. When Alexander II. learned what kind of a person this marquis was, he ordered his exclusion from the coulisses of the Imperial Opera House at St. Peters- burg whenever Patti was singing there. The marquis showed resentment, but the order was not rescinded. Patti was really a poor woman when she and De Caux separated. Her present fortune has been made since."
I TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE IN MEXICO. An earthquake lasting three minutes occurred in Mexico shortly after five on the afternoon of January 24. The earth movement was partly from north-east to south-west, and partly from north-west to south-east. More than 200 buildings were seriously damaged, and 10 houses completely col- lapsed. More than a hundred persons were injured, and a great panic prevailed.
THE VENEZUELAN FRONTIER. The Commission for the delimitation of the Anglo- Venezuelan frontier held a preliminary meeting in Paris on January 25. Professor de Martens, the umpire, presided, and Lord Justice Collins, the British arbitrator, with Mr. Justice Brewer, the United States arbitrator, were present. A formal welcome having been accorded to the Commissioners, Sir R. Webster, the Attorney-General, thanked the French Government for its courtesy and hospitality. The proceedings were adjourned till May 25, when they will be conducted in public.
PERJURY BY PRISONERS. At Taunton Assizes, on Saturday, Mr.. Justice Grantham, in charging the grand jury, referred to a charge of perjury against two men, alleged to have been committed by them in giving evidence on their own behalf when charged with poaching. He said that if a man committed perjury to save himself, it was just as much perjury as if he committed it in any other case. But if everyone were indicted who committed perjury in these circumstances, the judges would have to be on circuit nearly the whole year. The two prisoners subsequently pleaded guilty to the charge against them, and were each sentenced to two months'hard labour.
THE BARKING DISASTER. It, was ascertained upon inquiry of the Barking public o/lices in East-street that the Calamity Fund for the sufferers by the recent disastrous explosion at Messrs. Hewett's yard had reached nearly Y-1000. It is calculated that a sum of nearly 0006 will be required to adequately provide for the families of those who lost their lives. The whole cost of the funerals of the ten victims, amounting in all to close upon E120, has been defrayed by Messrs. Hewitt, while the firm is paying the widows and relatives an amount equal to the wages earned by the deceased previous to the sad calamity. The injured men and boys are also receiving their pay as usual. It has L--en decided by the local authorities, subject to the consent of Messrs. Hewitt and Co. being ob- tained, to erect the huge boiler plate which crashed through the house in Gascoigne-road occupied by the baker, Mr. Decker, as a memento of the disaster. The plate, which weighs nearly a ton, and stands some 10ft. in height, is to be erected either in the local cemetery or recreation ground, and upon it will be engraved the names of those who lost their lives. The collection made by Mr. Decker on behalf of the relief fund through exhibiting the truant iron mass to his kitchen has so far reached nearly £ 100.
CHARMED WITH THE QUEEN. PRESIDENT YGLESIAS TALKS OF HIS OSBORNE VISIT. The New York World's London correspondent cables an interesting interview with Senor Yglesias, President of Costa Rica, in which he described his recent reception by and luncheon with the Queen at Osborne. Senor Yglesias found the Queen a charming con- versationalist, full of tact, and remarkably well in- formed on matters interesting to Americans. Her Majesty was anxious," said the President, "after discussing Costa Rica, to learn my impres- n sions of England. I told her I admired the energy and bustling activity of the English people, but I confessed I did not like the hardness which the Englishman shows in making bargains. The Queen smiled genially, putting me at my case. I compared the Englishman's severity in commercial matters with American methods. "Her Majesty showed great interest in America, and asked me whether I knew the United States well. I described my travels, and she said, They are a wonderful people,' making the remark in a tone as though she regretted she had never visited America. Her admiration for the United States is the result of her thorough knowledge of the American people and American ways. "It is easy now to understand why the English and American aristocracies are so fond of mingling together." Senor Yglesias was enthusiastic in describing the personality of the Queen. Osborne has a homelike atmosphere," he said, and in the presence of that good and great woman, with her silvery hair and smiling, motherly face, you cannot help feeling at home. The Queen must have done everything to I' ensure my having an enjoyable holiday in London while nothing that the Prince of Wales could do ha, been neglected."