MISHAP TO A RHYL COACHING PARTY. AXLE OF A FOUR-IN-HAND BREAKS. At Pensarn, Abergele, to-day week, an unfor- tunate accident befel a four-in-hand coach from Rhyl, which was returning with passengers from Llandudno. When opposite the brickfields at Pensarn, the front axle of the coach broke and the horses taking fright attempted to bolt, one of them being dragged under the vehicle. Ed- ward Williams, Penucha, who was close by at the time, however, managed to pull them up. The fourteen passengers slid into the roadway, but, fortunately, no one was seriously injured, a sprained ankle sustained by Miss Chihvell, a well-known teacher of dancing, being the gravest of the casualties. Two youths, named John Evans, of Edgefield Villa, and David Jones, Golden Grove, who were in a small cart driving towards the accident, im- mediately drove back to tke Cambrian Hotel, Pensarn, and telephoned to Dr. Peter Jones, who arrived promptly on the scene in his motor car, and attended to the injured, who were afterwards taken to Rhyl, some in the doctor's motor, and some in carriages. Several visitors at Pensarn rendered valuable first-aid to the passengers.
NORTH WALES TEACHERS IN GERMANY. About fifty teachers from the primary schools of JNortb' Wakts ha\-e just, concluded a visit to the Rhine. At (Jologna they were received in the Rathau.s by the ll;rgomast.cr,' Horr Lacue, who extended a hearty welcome to the parly. Tina objects, of int-rest in the city wero in- spected under tho guidance of Dr. Carpenter, of Bonn University. In the evening the tea.ch- ers were cntiirtain-ed in the gardens of the Hotel No:d by the British con^ui, Ivlr C. A. Niesson, C.V.O., who alluded to the good effect 011 international concord resulting from visits of this kind. A similar welome was accorded to the teachers on reaching Coblentz, where, under the guidance of Captain Warder and Dr. Arnold Schiller, tilt) pincipal sights of the town were visiled. Excursions to Rudosheim, Ems, and Ehrenbreitstein wero arranged. A ball took place at Pfaffendorf. Th, excursion was under the auspices of the Flint County Teachers' Association.
Workmen engaged in excavations 20ft. below the surface of a street in tho city of London have discovered another portion ot the Roman wall. Excavations were continued carefully un- til a poition of he wall 62ft. long, Ott. deep, and 8it. 6in. wide was disclosed to view. A tunnel more than a mile in length, and said to be the longest in existence for use by municipal electric buriaou car lines has just bi.*en opened lor a by tiie Genoa Sticet Railway Gompany. it uonnecis Genoa wth the adjacent large commune 01 Kivar^lo and short- ens the tUsiunoe by ij mii-s. Mr John Pupieit, treasurer of the L.B. and S.O. Railway, who iuus IUSL retired after 48 years' service, had tne responsible task of deal- ing w-th a vast amount of ohe company's money. The wages bill aione, with wXch he ha.d to deal amounted to Z17,000 weekly. In the three wooks wlLciI nave elapsed since the "Gal4i Liook" of the \\hue Cuy was placed for signature by visi tors, no fewer than 80,000 persons have signed this un, que record and re- ceived in exchange a certificate sijairng thai they have vis-tod tiie Franco-British Exhibition.
I WTien Reply;ng to Advertim. |i mentfi, pie**e mention g I "THE PIONEER." I COUNTRY HOUSE | $LIGHTING. I _=====__ t H T H B "Ideal" Electric Lighting Outfits 3S Are specially designed for use in localities where skilled 2ij[ labour is difficult to obtain. They are simple in construct- 4C cL ion, of irreproachable workmanship, extremely compact, h J5 and offered at exceptionally low prices. With these plants ajjc electric light costs no more than oil lamps. 'i "LIGHT IN THE COUNTRY" 1$ £ T' gives full particular: and will be sent post free on appli- cati°n to | Willoughby Lance. | it 16, LLOYD STREET, near Town Hall, Llandudno. | ELECTRICAL & GENERAL ENGINEER. |
FETE AT LLANRWST. A VARIED AND INTERESTING PROGRAMME. -< SATISFACTORY SURPLUS. A highly suooc-sful fete was heki on Thursday on the Carreg Ednyfed Field, kindly leiit for the oooaa on by Mr Jones, The Hand, in aid of the n C.M. Organ Fund. The weather was perfect, wi:)h the result tliat from 600 to 700 pcrau-ns. attended, aiiiofwst whom were Sir Her- bert and Lady Roberts, Coionol lligson, J.P., and Aini Pnddie. Tne icoyai Oakley Silver Band was in attend- ance. aiM rendered selections during the aiter- noun. THE OPENING CEREMONY. Colonel lligson, in cleclar'ng tlie foto open, alluded to the •im|X>rU,-ice of unity ainonget tne Pl-otest.ant Ohurohe3. Ho considered it 4ii) hon- our afbd a pleasure to be abie to assist Scion in any way, and had grcat pleasure in dee lair wig the fete ODen. Sir J. Herbert Roberts, M.P., in a few re- marks. pa..d a hifrh tribute to Colonel Higi-on, and expressed the pleasure it afforded Lady Ro- 'is berts and h.mioif to be present to assist. Mr W. Hugliee, J.P., tiie chairina.ii of the Urban Council, in moving a vote of thanks to Colonel HI goon. ireferred to his broadmindodnests and readiness to assist aiJ denominations alike. Mr D. J. Williams, of the Council School, sooondod the motion, whioh was carried wktsi acclamaton. The same gentleman a]<so p.oposod and seconded a vote of thanks to Sir Herbert a.nd Lady Ro- berts for the.ir attendance and support, which was also carried midst ap;allse. Several young g'iris then sang beautifully the 1 ttle song, "Won't you buy my kttle floweiv," acoo.npaniod by the ba.nd, and weire warmly ap- ulauded. The remain.ng part of tho programme then proceeded ai;wo. Mr W. Lloyd Roberts, tho hon. secretary, is to be congratulated on the success, financially and otherwise, of the fete. He loft .110 etono unturned to bring this about, and that £ 40 were cleared by the day's proceedings was <lac in a larere meanu're to his efforts. The ladies who assisted him also worked with enthusiasm, and deserve tho highest Ookrnel Hlgswn, J.P.. and Sir J. Herbert Roberts, Bart., M.P., both subscribed (substantially towards the funds. Thanks are also due to the Rev. J, Farr, Miss Leigh ton, Mr Ghis'holm, Major and Mrs Piriddle, Mr and Mrs W J'uame, Station Housa; Mrs Owen, Brynynyr; Mrs IVeroc, Dyffryn Aur; Mris Owen, 13ridge-street; Mr Evans, Gwydr Cottage; Miss Dayies, Gwydir House; an-d Mrs Hughes, Gwernfor, for eifts of flowers while the ladies foivniriff the committee contributed the refreshments. The officials were :-C.oater.ing: President, Mrs Thomas, Frondeg; hon. secretary, Mrs Owen, Groe-nwioh House, and Mrs Williamis, Gwynfa; treasurer, Mrs Rogers Jones. Flowers and fruits, etc.: President, Mrs Owen, Brynynyr; secretary, Mrs J. llug'hee. Sporto: Prendent, Mr J. Davies, Wern; treasurer, Mr Non.nan Rogers Jonos; hon. secretary, Mr J. R. Cham- beTa. General secretary of the fete: Mr W. Lloyd Roberta. Avondale. THE STALL-HOLDERS. The following were in charge of tho staus:- Refreshment stall: Mrs Tnomas, Fron Deg; Mrs Dyffryn Aur; Mrs Roberts, Fron; Mrs W. H. Wiiliams, Station House; Mrs T. R. Jciiie-is; Mrs Williams, Gwynta; Mrs DLostm Evann, Bryndedwydd; Mrs Williams, Preswyi- fa; Mrs liodgf.iii; Mrs Hughes, Cambrian Vaults; Mrs Hughes, Church street; Mrs Ro- berts, Eagle's Hotel; Mrs Roberts, Tanlan; Mrv> Owen, Greonwich House; Mrs Roberts, Georwe-st. Mrs Williams, Ty Gwyn; Mrs D. J. Wilfiams, School House; Mrs W. Hughes, Gwernfor; Mrs H. Hughes, Dolwar; Mrs Rogens Jones: Mrs E. Jones, Carrington-terrace; Mrs Jenkins, George«troet; Mrs Roberts, Station- road; Mrs Jonea, Hand; Mra Jonm, Acecia House; assisted by Mr Philips, Mr C. O. Jones, Denbie'h street; Mr T. R. Parry, do.; Messrs J. E. jona-, North and South Wales Bank; Ro- bert Williams, Gwydr House, and J. Davies, Wern Flower stall: Mrs Owen, Brynynyr; Mrs J. Hughes. Denbigh-street: Mrs Evar.s, George- street- Mrs Jenkins, Eirianfa; Mrvi Roberts, Cartrefle; Mrs (Dr.) Lloyd Williams; Mrs D. Jones, Watling-street, and Mrs Chambers, Min- afon Flower stall: Misse.9 Gwynet.h Robertis, Eagle's Hotel; Madge and Florie Jenkins; Menai Wil- liams, School House; Madge Chambers, Min. afon; Evans, George-street; Mona Wil- Jia<imv Regent House; K. Hughes, 6tation-road; Doris Roberts, Gartrcfle; Mary Hughes, Cam- brian Mary Owen, Greenwich House, and Haearie Jones. Hand. Shooting' gallery Messrs R. G. Owen and J. Williams, Gwynfa. Gate: Mr E. Jonea. Badges: Misses Let-a Jones, Gwladys Williams, Er. 'd TV.omos and Mrs Davies, Worn. T.cket sellers: Mosrs Walter Roberts and T. Thontaa. Field stewards: Messrs D. J. Williams, Sciiool Hou3e; E. Hughes, Union House; Evan Pughe. Tudor Williams, and John Hughes. CONCERT. An open-air ooncert under the charge of Mr Lloyd Roberts proved a great success. Mr D. D. Parry acted as accompanist. Solos were 'rendered by Mr Frod Roberts, Liverpool; Miss Jones, Ty Newydd, Lionfac-log, Anglesey; Miss Lou.sa Roberts, Holynead, and Mr VVaikrn WU- lia.ms. Carnarvon; mandoline, Mr Baulos, Port- d norwre; quartette. "The Nantlle Glee Party," inciudiner Mr J. Jones. Mr J. Waiter Wiiliams, and Miss Williams, Tajys-irn, and M: Roberts, Stanley-crescent, Holyhead. Tho following ladies and gentlemen had also promised to oon. tribute to the programme if the weather con- ditions were unfavourable to the fete being held outride: Miss Myfanwv Jones, Carnarvon í Miss Jennie Roberts, llolyh iad: Miss Wdlianib, Portdinorw:c; Mia. Lewis, Bootlc, and Captain Jones. Amlwch. SPORTS. The snorts were under the supervis'on of Messrs O. Isgoed Jones. J.P., LI. Humphreys, J. Jenkins, Denn/s Robots Jones, and J. R. Chambers. a.1Hl created considerable amuse- ment. the pillow fights especially being keenly enioved. The results were as follows :-Hlgh jump (boys): 1, Dyfed Roberts. High jump (open): v 1. Norman Rogers Aonw. 100 yards race for boys: 1, Frank LJoyd. Egg and spoon race for ladies: 1, Miss Lcta Rogers Janes. Manx raoo for .K>VS 1, Owen Parry and D. Pritchard. r Manx race (open): 1. Arthur Richard* and A. Jones. l'dlow figtht: 1, A. Richards. Beji and willow: 1. Dvfed Roberts. Manx race for giris: 1, Nora and Nanoy Jotnets,
THE PAN-ANGLICAN THANKSGIVING FUND. A memorandum has been issued by the Primate stating the general lines upon which the alloca- tion of the Pan-Anglican Thanksgiving Fund should be based. Of the £ 345,000 contributed about £125,000 has been allotted in accordance .with the wish of the donors. The primary need is the better education and equipment of men and women for work in the mission-field. The committee have already made a grant of £ 15,000 towards the sum needed to re-place church buildings and property destroyed by tha earthquake in Jamaica. The thanksgiving fund is to be kept open until the end of the year.
Burglars entered Lord Wimborne's mansion at Putney, last week, and abstracted old pictures and prints to the value of several thousands of pounds.
A CHILD'S PARALYSIS. LITTLE BOY HELPLESS. THREE HOSPITALS FAIL. CURED BY DR, CASSELL'S TABLETS. Mrs Watts, of Sheep Street Lane, Etching- ham, Sussex, writes:—"Eighteen months ago my little boy developed Infantile Paralysis. He was so bad that he could not stand, so I took him to hospital, when he was put in a plaster of Paris jacket, but he was too weak to wear it> so the doctor took it off. Then I got him into another hospital, where he remained a long time, and yet another, but he got no better, so I took him home. He was practically helpless when I began Dr. Cassell's Tablets, but in three months he could run about, and is now quite well. All consider his cure a miracle." Dr. Cassell's Tablets can be got at any chem- ists for 10id, Is lgd, and 2s 9d (containing nearly 2 four times the 10d size), and are a perfect cure for children's weakness, and nerve, stomach, and Sidney troubles. HEPWORTHS, LTDi, Tailors & Gen t" s Outfitters. SPECIAL MIDSUMMER SHOW in all DepartmeD tS, THE PRICES ARE EIGHT, THE QUALITY AND DURABILITY OF. OUR GOODS COMMAND YOUR ESTEEMED OIIDERS. TAILORING DEPARTMENT. OUTFITTING DEPARTMENTS. MEN'S SUITS TO MEASURE, for hard wear, You want to see our immense Stock of all the latest 30/ 35/ 38/ 42/- MEN'S rz MEVS TUNIC SHIRTS M- N'S THS MEN'S TUNIC SHIRTS MEN'S SUITS TO MEASURE, Best Quality, riKs g MEN'S TUNIC SHIRTS N/ KF)/ NN/ F\ I/ MEN'S HVTS MEN'S BRACES lJ/"» OU/-» °°r> °°/- MEN'S- HATS S3 MEN'S BRACES rxr y- Si vt QUI, TT7^1 f 'A MEN'S HATS "5 MEN'S BRACES We Guarantee the Fd, Style and Workman^. M|_N,S CAps g. MEN,S HALp HOS]J MEN'S SUITS Ready to Wear, 21/ 26/ 30/ ^'1 LATES r COLOURINGS. MEN'S STRAWS JS MEIIS KNICKER HOSE TTNROITAr I FD VAI TJF MEN'S STRAWS £ MEN'S KNI< KTSR HOiE UNBYUALLTU VALULI. STRAWS A- MEN'S KNICKER HOSE BOYS' AND YOUTHS' SUITS MEN'S WHITE SHIRTS -ff MEWS FANCY HALF HOSK X)WXO J-IIU KJUXXO, MHN'S WHITE SH1KTS EL MEN'S FAN..Y HALF HOSE UP-TO-DATE! UP-TO-DATE I MEN'S WHITE SHIRTS MEN'S FANCY HALF liobs High=class Goods at Modern Prices. AT HEPWORTHS' LTD., "THE PARAGON, ô2, n/Iostyn Street, Llandudno; Station Road, Colwyn Bay and at Rhyl. _n_
THE HEALTH OF DENBIGH- SHIRE. AN INTERESTING REPORT. ANOTHER FALL IN THE BIRTH-RATE. A REDUCED DEATH-RATE. Dr. Steahouse Williams has prepared a wm- marv of the vital statistic** and heaitb rotorns contained in the annual reports of the district medical officers of health for the year 1907, wlmcti warrants the consideration of every ratepayer fciul resident in Denbighshire. Tho area ho deals wVlh includea seven urban and nine rural districts. varying in size and poDuiation. At the outaet, he provides a table which shows that the estimated population for the county for the tmiddiLe of 1907 was 142,702 persona of whom two-thirds rested in the rural districts; but "wh:an it is romembe-red that large portions of tOO Wrexham and C'h rk rural districts are practically urbaji in character, it becomes evi- dont that this proportion by no nieana repre- sents the actual urban and rural condinott.. un- der which the people live. And a/1 though there tis an increase of population on the census year in bolih rural and urban districts, the increase in the ruml districts is confined to those of Wrexham and OhfA, leaving a decrease in the real rural parts of the county. This snows that the continuous inflow of the population to the urban areas, and consequent reduction in the rictlv rural localities, is stili going on." The eatimvted inorease of he population for the vear 1906-7 was 1641 persons, equal to a perceniase increase of 1.1. BIRTH-RATE STILL PALLING. The number of births registered duiuig1 1907 in the whole county was 3635, a decrease of 178 on the previous year, when the number was 3813. In 1906 there were 86 fewer births than in 1905; thus, des-pite the fact that the population estimated from year to year dun.ng the last aix years has gone up 10,000 in number (1901, 131,582; 1907, 141,061), last year the rate was the lowest on rooord-27 per 1000 population. This vear it ia lower still. 25.43, compared with England and Wales, 26.3. "The diminution in the birth-rate in the county of Danbigh," says Dr. Williams, ''has stcadJy progressed now for some years, as indeed tit has done throughout the country. The Re aristrar-Creneral discusses this question in his annual report for 1905; he concludes that there are sufficient grounds for stating that during the Last 35 years approximately, about 17 per (cent, of the decline in the birth-rate is due to the decrease in the proportion oIf married women in the female population of ooncepbive ages, and about 10 Der oent. is due to the decrease in A- le,-it:tnacy, With reg'ard to the remaining. l5 per cent. of the decrease, although a proportion of the reduced fertility may be asoribed to the changes in the age constitution of married women, rherj car be iitile doubt that the greater cart is due to deliberate restriction off child bearing on the part of the people themselves. Some of the consequences of the decrease in the birth rate in thie. country are modified by a de. creasing death-rate; still the fact is significant that if a oomoanion be made among European countries, it is found that in the years 1880-82 there were no fewer than six States in wh:ch the fertility of nrives was less than that recorded in England and Wales; whereas i.n 1900-02 the rato of fertility among married women in England and Wales was, with the exoeption of France, lower than that in any other European oountrr." Another table has been prepared to show the Cumber of legitimate and illegitimate births; also the deaths of legitimate and illegitimate children under one year. Unfortunately, these factr. were not g,-ven in some of the reports, but so far as it goea his table demonstrates that from its earliest infancy the illegitimate child is band.capped in the race for life. REDUCED LEATH-RATE. The number of deaths registered in the county durinff 1907 was 2138. a decrease an 1906 of 141. This srives a grots death-rate of 14.9. It is ne- cessary. however, says Dr. Wiik-ams, to make coriectioni for iron-residents wiho have d.ed in thj D'iblic institutions in the vanous districts, Md for residents who have died whilst in inst'- twtions outside their districts. I am unaole to make this correction as preaise as it should 00, to SO»:IK» of the reports-nolabdy these of Aber- gele, Llangollen urban and rural, Ruthin rurai, and St. Asauh—deal with this matter in a very incomplete way. This has leen referred to by the laie Dr. Whit taker in hlis 6ummares for 1904 and 1905, and I entirely agree with him- that it would be of service if your committee could see its way to make arrangements tc ob- tain the returns of these deaths from the dis- trtctt.. mentioned. Making such corrections as I am able, the deaths number 2058, making a death-rate of 14.69, as compared with 15.4 for 1906 and 15.3 for 1905. The oorrectett number cf deaths last year was 2184. giving1 a decrease of 126. It wil be see.n from the section of infantile mortality that the decrease in the pumber of deaths of infants under one year is 175; from thi3 it is evident that the large drop in the oounty death-rate for this year is entirely due to the lessened infantile mortality. A further oc,rrect on is necessary for the age and sex dis- tribution. as the oounty contains a larger pro- portion of males and of the very young (amongst whom mortalsty is greatest) than in the whole oountrv. This I am able to do through the "«y of the Registrar-General, and the cor- rected figure is 13.81. This figure, it is gratify- ing to note, is much lower than previous years, and is also well below that of England and Wales. 0 INFANTILE MORTALITY: WELCOME REDUCTION. The number of deaths of infants under one year of ag<o amounted to 408 in 1907 as against 583 in 1906. This ia a most welcome reduction. The rate per thousand registered births tor the eountv :a 112. whtle in 1906 it 152. This is aiso below the rate for England and Wa'Ies for th-s vear. which is 118. Another table shows tho causes of deaths, and for comparison the figures of 1906 are given. "It will be seen," proceeds the report, "that diarrnoea and atrophy, which must-be classed as prevanubie oausea, aooount for 104, or one- fourth of the total number. Fortunately, thr-s is a smaller proportion than last year, when it was one thnrd. It will be seen too that the chioi diminution has taken place under these two headings, and although this may be partly due to increased sanitation it is unfortunately true that we must ascribe it ohiefly to the meteoro- logical conditions of last summer, which was wet and cold, whiist the summer of 1906 was hot and dry. For it is an accepted fact that increased activity of the micro-organisms pro- ducing emdemio diarrhoea is associated with a prolonged high temperature and a low rainfall. It i5. however, pleasing that in almost all the stated causes otf death there is a marked reduction from last year, as in their case the parr Diayed bv the weather is not so great. Dr. Fraser, in hia report for Llanrwst urban ;nc district, .includes an investigation into the deaths of 16 infants in 1906 and 1907. He states that of these nine were bottle-fed. Seven were weak from birth, one living" only fifteen minutes. In two instances the families suffered from poverty; three of the mothers wero in delicate health; and one was alcoholic. It Í6 probable that botde- feedinz. and other unfavourable circumstanoea, «uoh as povertv and carelessness as regards clothing and cleanliness, had eome share in raismg the death-rate among infants to the ab- normal height of 210 in 1906." Over one-third of the deaths occurred during g,he first month. AGE INCIDENCE OF INFANTILE DEATHS. Since writing the previous summary tho AoUiication ol Hirths Act, li^i, uaci cunie in o force. 1-hifl is an adoptive Act, and at any rato in the larger districts it is to be hoped that it will be adopted. Dr. Williams advocates this course very strongly with regard to Wvexham borough and rural district. By this method the medical officer of health will at once be brcugiit into contact with the new-born child, and be able to give valuable advice as to the best methods of feeding, etc. CHIEF CAUSES OF DEATH. Dealing with the chief causes of death, Dr. Williams states that, "Tie deaths from tuber- cular diseazes in the county give a rate of 1.36 per 1000 population. This is practically iden- tu.d with la-st year, 1.31, and is'slightly leas than that of Engfand and Wales. Last year the deaths from tubcrcular di'eases were nearly one-twelfth of the total deaths. This year, as the general death-rate has fallen, and the rate for tubercular diseases has remained constant, there has been a deorease in the proportion, and the deaths from tubercular diseases form one-tenth of the total rate. It is much to be regretted that the scheme for a sanatorium did not go through. < he plan proposed was not an expensive one, and the educational value of such an institution, quite anart trom the relief of suffering which it affords, would have been of great benefit to the health of the county. From the public health pointi of view it is the people at the working age periods who should e kept in an active condition, -tnd it is just at thaM ages that tubercular diseases kill. In this connection the medical officer of health for Ruthin rural gives sonvo interesting statis- tics. There have been fourteen deaths from tubercle in his district" during the past year; nine wero males with; an average age at death of 33 years, and five were female3 with an average age at death of 25; that is, they were all out off at the most useful period of their 11 -0,4. How long a period of incapacity for work had preceded their deaths wo do not know, neither have we any idea how many others were infected from them. It is satis- factory to note that in on," district an offer to disinfect after death has bM-n auoptcd. Un- fortunately, this has been coupled with the pro- viso that those who can pay must do so. This is a great mistake. The public tail to realise the importance of those matters, and the ulti- mate loss to the county from on? case infected through failure to disinfect is infinitely greater than the cost of many disinfections. The noccs- sity for notification, disinfocrion, and tho pro- per supervision of milch cows must once more bo urged. If notification coiud be obaincd. good work might be done by ho issue of pam- phlets pointing out the beit methods to avoid the risk of oonveyanco of infection to the friends of the sick person. These are points easy of accomplishment, and of great import- ance." RESPIRATORY DISEASES. These include pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, and other diseases of the respiratory organs. There were 359 deaths. of which 167 were duo to pneumonia, and 170 to bronchitis. L ist yeir there WC:1O 185 deaths from pneumonia, and 167 from bronchitis. The death rate is considerably higher in too rural districts than in the urban. CANCER. There were 153 deaths in the ounty this year, and only 130 last year. The death rate is ac- oondingly a. little higher this year—1.07 &3 0.9z. HEART DISEASES. In 1907 there were registered 274 deaths from these causes. Last year there were 258. HOSPITAL ACCOMMODATION. Cohvyn Bay and Wrexham borough and rural district are still the only authorities provided with hospital accommodation. 'Ihis is a serious state of affairs, especially for some of the more densely populated districts, ca efficient isola- tion in small cottages is impossible. The pro- vision of temporary isolation hospitals, after an epidemio has onoe started, is an unsatisfactory proceeding. Diphtheria, fortunately, has not been very prevalent. There was an outbreak in Llan- rwst Urban District in tho spring, giving rise to 11 cases. I must call attention, howevor, to the very large number of 21 deaths amongst the 107 ca., notified. This is a percentage ot 19.6. The present percentage in London is 9.6; whe'eas 14 years ago. imiiiodiat-ely before tho use of the antitoxin became general, it was 23.8 per oent. In the light of these facts, I con- sider it the urgent duty of each sanitary autho- rity to provide a free use of antitoxin, as is done in many places. I should like to repeat that the suggestion that the Council should provide facilities for bacteriological tests in the cases of diphtheria, typhoid fever, and phthisis has still not been carded out. Apart from an epidemio of influenza, which swept over tho country in the early part of tho year, there have been no very serious out- breaks. HOUSING. In St. Asaph rural new houses have been built and occupied without water ce: vacates. Old and dilapidated houses, which should be abolished, are inhabited; new and better houses arc not sufficiently numerous for the popula- tion. The obstructive archway in iivjorgelo still remains. In Glanconway five new houses have been erected during the yenr; mere are still overcrowded cottages in the district. Colwyn Bay reports a continuous increase of bouse OfGo' Otis perty; the demand for accommodation, espec- ially for the smaller sized dwellings, is keen. In the Borough of Ruthin more working-class property has been occupied this year than for some years, owing ten the public works in pro- gress in the town. A marked improvement is noted in each house, cTTicfly due to the efforts of one landlord. In Rutihm rural 40 dwellings have been improved, and six new houses of a satisfactory type have been Oroctecl. There are still many houses in an unsatisfactory condi- -tti n tion, but the dearth of proper aocoiititiod, o renders it difficult to deal with overcrowding. Improvements have been itiadc* in Uwclia'ed rural. In Llansilin rural one house, in which a death from diphtheria occurred, is very un- favourably reported upon. In Denbigh bor- ough gradual improvement is baking place; one new house has been erected, eight recon- structed, and twelve thoroughly rcpaiod, and provided wibh eflicient ventilation. WATER SUPPLY FAVOURABLE. The reports on the water supply are on the whole favourable, but in some places there are urgent demands for improvement. Immediate attention should be paid to Llanddulas and Rhydyvocl, in the St. Asaph rural district, the former is very inadequately supplied from Rhyl; the latter has no supply at all. The suggestion was made to ram up clean water from a well to be made by the side of the Dulas river, with the river water; and to distribute it from a re- ceiving tank through the hamlet. This scheme seemed to overcome many difficulties which pre- vail at present. It is not a costly one, and might be paid for without a loan. Llanrwst urban satisfactory. The Glan Conway plans are being prepared to supply the villages of Glan Conway and Brynrhys with water from the new Cowlvd main. In Colwyn Bay new works have been undertaken, and every effort is be'ng made to provide a sufficient supply. Ruthin borough, water supply good and plentiful. In Ruthin rural many improvements have been made, these comprise the completion of a good supply for Gelnai3 and Waen, Aberwheeler, a new supply at Nantglyn village, an excellent scheme on the Nantclwyd Estate at Llanelidan, and improve- ments in the supply of Derwen village. For the village and schools of Gyffylliog a scheme is under consideration. Nothing has been done for Maes- hafn, Llanferres, and Eryrys. The scheme for supplying Llangynhafal and Llandyrnog has failed, as the Local Government Board declined to pass the plans unless prepared by a fully quali- fied civil engineer, experienced in water supplies. The expenditure was too great for the districts. Boring operations have therefore been com- menced, and the prospects of success are said to be good. SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE. On the whole, the reports are favourable. At Rhydyvoel (St. Asaph rural) a new water supply is urgently needed; and when it is obtained, a sewerage scheme must be carried out to carry off the increase in the waste water. In Colwyn Bay a great effort has been made to deal with the sewage problem. Dr. Fraser reports that the "Sanitary Authority are to be congratulated upon the execution of this extensive scheme. The sewage, kept free from surface water, gravi- tates to a well, whence it is pumped into a covered reservoir, to hold 500,000 gallons, and is all discharged into the sea, within a period of three hours after high water. The point of dis- charge into the sea is at a depth varying, with the height of the tide, from 17 feet to 31 feet. The total cost has been £ 73,000." New sewers have been laid where necessary, and cesspools, closets, and privies have been abolished. At Ruthin borough a new sewer, screening cham- ber, and syphon are being constructed. These works do away with a length of sewer rendered faulty by the vibration on the railway. The town naturally lends itself to easy drainage, and no trouble is ever experienced with the sewers." Dr. Lewis, Denbigh borough, reports that the new system of drainage, now in use for over three years, is effioient in every way. Dr. Fraser, Llanrwst rural, in a special report, recommended that a proper drain with efficient ventilation be laid at Talycafn Bridge. DAIRIES AND COWSHEDS. Dealing with the regulations for dairies and cowsheds, Dr. Williams says:—Dr. Fraser has pro- vided special reports upon Llanrwst urban, Col- vvyn Bay, Llanrwst rural, and Glan Conway. In Llanrwst urban the model regulations of the Local Government Board came into force on October 1st, 1906. Dr. Fraser's report is dated May, 1907, on the whole the conditions are much better than those reported in the Wrexham dis- trict. Nineteen cowsheds are reported upon, with accommodation for 110 cows. Most of the oowsheds are substantially built, with good slated roofs. The inner surface of the walls and the floors in most cases are not constructed so that they can be properly cleansed. Only three have impervious floors. The interiors of six were found in a dirty condition. The air space per cow varied from about 330 to 1400 cubic feet. Seven cowsheds are without special means of lighting the interior by a window or skylight, and six have no means of ventilation when the doors are closed. As to water supply, seven are supplied with water from the Llanrwst mains. The remainder obtain water from streams where the water is of an unsafe character, or from wells from which the water has to be carried a considerable distance. In order to obtain a pro per supply of water suitable for all purposes, in eluding the washing of the hands of the milkers, the teats and udders of the cows, and the treat- ment of dairy utensils, it is advisable that the cow-keepers and the landowners should, by the co-operation of the Sanitary Authority, arrange for a supply of water from the public mains wher- ever this is practicable. In order to secure a proper supply to isolated farina it would be of great assistance if the authority could carry out extensions of the present water system. In the Llandudno urban and Conway rural districts ser- vice pipes to isolated dairy farms have been laid by the owners and occupiers a great distance, extending in some cases over 2000 feet. In Colwyn Bay, Dr. Fraser reports that improvements have been effected, and the authority has submitted a new set of regulations to the Local Government Board, and these have been approved. In Llan- rwst rural model regulations were adopted in 1906. In Glan Conway rural model regulations were adopted in the same year. At the County Council meeting, on Friday, letters were reported to have been received from Miss Mainwaring, of Galltfaenan, respecting the Llandyrnog and Llangwyfen water supply, urging the importance of at once proceeding with a scheme; and from Mr R. Humphreys Roberts, stating that with regard to the Llangynhafal water supply the engineers were being pressed to proceed with boring operations to provide a supply without further delay. The Council, on the committee's recommenda- tion, decided that "in view of the long delay in providing this district with a satisfactory supply of water, unless actual definite steps are taken without further delay to obtain a proper supply of water for Llandyrnog, Llangwyfen, and Llan- gynhafal, the Local Government Board be re- quested to hold an inquiry." A STRONG APPEAL BY THE LORD- LIEUTENANT. Colonel CORNWALLIS WEST (chairman of the Public Health Committee), in submitting the health report, said he always considered that an important matter. He would particularly urge every member of District Councils to give care- ful consideration to those reports, and he wished to impress upon the Clerk the advisability of sending a copy of the report now before them to all the members of the Sanitary Authorities in the county, for they were really the persons directly concerned, and it was the duty of the County Council to put a little extra life into the actions of the smaller authorities (hear, hear). It would be seen that the report on the birth and death rates during 1907 provided interesting reading. The birth rate was, he was sorry to say, very low, but it was an extraordinary and gratifying fact that the death rate was also decreasing (hear, hear). The latter was due to a certain extent to the reduced infantile mortality, and he (Colonel Cornwallis West) reallv believed that the im- provement in the intant mortality returns was due to the action taken by the County Council during the last, live years with regard to the dis- tribution of literature to mothers, acquainting them of the proper methods to rear their chil- dren (hear, hear). Amongst other suggestions made in the report was one to the effect that girls should be taught before leaving school the duties of maternity so far as the feeding of in- fants went, and he thought that a very impor- tant matter, because the infantile mortality was principally caused by the ignorance of mothers in tho duties of motherhood. With reference to tuberculous diseases, the Medical Officer very naturally expressed regret over the failure of the scheme for the provision of a Sanatorium for the county, but he made a suggestion which he (the speaker) thought warranted the careful considera- tion of the Council, namely, that the public authority should pay for any measures taken to clean and otherwise safeguard houses where death had taken place from tuberculosis. He hoped that suggestion would be acted upon. With regard to hospital accommodation, they would observe that very little progress had been made in the county to provide suitable accommodation to meet with possible outbreaks of smallpox or other infectious diseases; that was a very grave matter, for the majority of their towns, with the exception of Wrexham and Colwyn Bay, were practically unprotected. Continuing, Colonel Cornwallis West criticised strongly the inaction of the authorities over the domestic water sup- plies at Llangynhafal, Llangwyfen, and Llan- dyrnog. The inhabitants were complaining severely. One lady reported that she actually had to get up between four and five o'clock every morning in order that she could have water for domestic purposes before the cattle disturbed and got into it (laughter). He thought that a dis- graceful state of things to be allowed to exist (hear, hear). "I urge most strongly," said Col- onel Cornwallis West in conclusion, "that this Council expresses their hope and insist that the District Councils shall do their utmost, to see that the condition of things enumerated in this book shall not continue another month." ANOTHER WAY. Mr MAC. NICOLL remarked that the authori- ties had gone about the Llangynhafal scheme the wrong way. There was ample water in the dis- trict, but for some reason they had tried to get it by boring when an abundant supply could be obtained by gravitation. Mr GEO. CROMAR said he thought there had been a decided improvement in the sanitary con- dition of the county as a whole, and the active steps taken by the County Council had had a very good effect in bringing that about (hear, hear). Mr T. JONES stated that the Llangynhafal water supply scheme had been decided upon on the recommendation of the Engineer in charge, who now assured the local authority that they would be provided with a sufficient supply to meet the demands of the district. Colonel CORNWALLIS WEST further com- mented on the desirability of ensuring a pure milk supply throughout the county, and re- marked that in some of the small farms all sorts of things were to be found in the dairy. He had seen bits of bacon, a gooseberry tart's remains, and other things in one dairy—(laughter),—and in the interest of public health it was very neces- sary that the Council insisted upon periodical visits of farms by their medical officers, so that the cleanliness of dairies and water supplies could be assured. He was not quite satisfied that the water supply of the dairy school of the county was above suspicion, but he must reserve his re- marks on that question till a more suitable mo- ment had arrived. The report was referred to the Public Health Committee for full consideration.
FASHIONABLE WEDDING AT WEEXHAM. F ARQUHARSON-LEADBETTltil. At the W roxham Parish Church on Saturday Miss Mary Amethe Grisell Leadbetfcer, elder daughter of Major Lead better, Chief Constable of Denbighshire, was married. to Mr John Forbes Farquharson, son of Mr John Forbes Farquhanson, of Willesden, one of the King's Messengers. The best man was Mr William Keedle, of Willesden, and the only brideemaid was the bride's aisber.Misa Amethe Leadbittcr, who wore a dress of white ninon with a floral design in pale blue and pink and a large black hat trim- med with a cluster of pink loses, bride, who was given away by her father, was mar- ried in her travelling drcos of while cloth, trimmed with silk embroidery, her hat b n" f white chip trimmod with tiny pink roses and forg^-me-nots, and she carried a bouquet of white heather and sweet peas. The ceremony was performed by the Vicar of Wrexham, the Rev. Dan Davies. There was a reception at the residenoe of the bride's father after the oeremony, and subsequently the newly-wedded pair left for Devonshire, where the honeymoon will bo spent.
THE NATIONAL EISTEDDFOD. The arrangements in connection with the Na- tional Eisteddfod at Llangollen arc nearing com- pletion. The pavilion, built by Messrs L. II. Woodhouse and Co., Nottingham, and capable of holding nearly 15,000 people, is practically com- pleted. The catering arrangements are in the hands of Mr C. H. Foster, of Nantwich. The opportunity given to the subscribers to book the 30s season tickets has met with an exceptional response. These are now available to the general public. Applications to be made to the General Secretary, Eisteddfod Office, Llangollen.
CHILLED BY A SUMMER SHOWER. CHAS. FORDE'S BILE BEANS CUT SHORT A BAD ILLNESS. "At the end of last summer I oaught a chill in the country through being out in a shower," said Mrs F A. Cheeseman, of 4. Thorpe Street, Braunstone Gate, Leicester, to a "Leicester Guardian" reporter. "The chill brought" on a rheumatic attack, and I was confined to the house for several weeks, and was in the hands of the doctor for over a month. The doctors succeeded in patching me up so that I got about a bit after some months, but they did not cure me. Chas. Forde's Bile Beans drove out all the causes of the pain, and restored the full vigour and action of my joints. As I continued with tho use of the great family medicine my health improved in every respect, and by Christmastime of the same year I was as well as I am now, really in splen- did health, entirely cured by Chas. Forde's Bile Beans. Under doctors' treatment I always had a relapse. The cure by Chas. Forde's Bile Beans was .1 different—absolutely complete and last- ing."
PRUNING. BY GEO. CHISHOLM, HORTICULTURIST, LLANRWST. Natural laws are oonstant and unvar.ed in their operations. Our knowledge of natural laws is derived irom accurate observations of oauses and effects, and science offer,j the systematized explanation of these observations. The fcience of pruning therefore gives the explanation de- rived from the accumulated knowledge of ages of observations and experiences of effects, pro- duced by maniipuia'iion upon the branches and oilier portions cdt plants. When we take into oot)3 deration the lengthened period during W'iiKj.i pruning lias been practised, the general intelligence of the operators and the oountless repetitions of sxnilar processes ending tin similar rea,ilt.i. dt is reasonable enoug'h to presume that a sufficient number of facts have been observed to establish a complete eciance and determine principles, the practical application of which can be readilv understood and easily effected, but the rroquent and apparently oonflicting opinions tihat are constantly being expressed by cultivators and writers on tins subji-ct p ove that the operat on < £ pruning in i:is various applica- tions is not generally performed from an i,n- t -111 front standpoint. Pruning us an operation of muoh importance in the management of t'eco. a.nd complete success is not attained an fruit culture unless its principles are clearly under- stood. Plants; left to nature mainta'n a reci- procal action between the brandhes a.nd Toots, and every branch and leaif removed must ex- ercise and influence, either injurious or bene- fies al. therefore no one should remove a branch until satisfied of a reason for doing eo, a.nd for- seeine- the influence, and effects of sucl re- moval. It is the opinion of many fruiit growers that the most uniform and satisfactory crOl' of fru't are produced in orchards, where but littio, if any, pruning is given to trees. While it i truCJ that the injuries to lfru\t trees and the Josses to fruit growers from v.ciouu and alto- ;her unnecessary pruning cannot be estimated, yet it would be erroneous to assert that trees should not be pruned at all. It is aJways judicious to thin out the tops of trees whan tho branches become overcrowded—to thm out dead Qpiid weakly branches or to arrest the f' rowth of unrulv or misplaced shoots, but the system whtoh ï:s altogether too prevalent, of making an annual visit through the orchard, removing or short- ening branches as a matter of routine, and chppmsr the tape^ of shoots without any (special obioot in vKW.wfcl in a few iear.,4 cus-surotlly di- m-nish the fruiUjig capacity of the trees. TIME OF PRUNING. Tho season of pruning i$in some oases an ■important factor ia the management of treco. G-eiieralily, Any time during the winter or early sprang montiha is chosen lor pruning the orob- a'ds. Where the objeot is merely the thinning' out of thioklv branched trees the season is 01 not muoh i.mportance, and the work may be performed at any time when convenient, but when it is deemed expedient to remove certain branohes for the purpose of adding additional Vigour t<> Unowe retained, then much, will gained by pruning early in the winter, or as soon as the trees have matured tiie.r growth and beoo-nie deciduous. If pruned at this time the succeeding growths wdl be stronger than they would be if pruned later. This arisen from the circumstance that during winter plants colltinue to absorb nutriment by their roo'-s. This nu- triment is disseminated to all portions of the.r structure, thus increasing the $ZC and strengtli of the buds. As the flow of sal, .is ail w ays di- rected to the extreme pointsdf snoots, the high- est buds are most fully developed, »o that vviien pruning is delayed till spruig', and the points Or upper portions of branches removed at tha-l time, all the aocumulated food in these port/ions is destroyed, and to that extent the plant is weakened. On the other hand, when the pruning is performed early in the winter the bud* which axe retained Will benefit by the accumulated nutriment, which would otherw-se have been distributed over a. greater number, and those will, in consequence, start more v gor- ouslv in the spring, advance more rapidly in growth during summer, and their maturity will be mater ally hastened, a condition of great im- r)ortzi.Tie,e w-hen the summer seasons are rather limited for the perfeett.on of certain crop*. Late sprvng prunine has a decided influeiiee in re- tarding early summer growth; hence, the opera- tes ia sometimes purposely delayed until just berforo leaf in k in order to diminish early luxuri- anoe. Branches which have become diseased from the effects of or from any other cause should be removed 8n soon as ocserved, and tno healthy pwrt of the tree sprayed with some special preparation for such diseases. Prompt removal and spraying of these will check the further progress of the malady, which would otherwise destroy the tree. The action of sudden freezing of (immature and imperfectly ripened wood in the early winter 'is a fruitful souroe of disease. That apparently incurable nnaladv in plants Jcnown as "yellows" in the oanion of the writer is the result of sap con-, tam nation of these frozen points, the prompt removal and spraying of which will, he is con- v-noed. prevent the spread of the disease, and thus tavo the plants from speedy and ultimate destruction. "PRUNE IN SUMMER FOR FRUIT AND IN WINTER FOR WOOD," Perhaps no advice that has been given in fruit culture iii so vague and disappointing in its practical application as that embodied in the brief and apparently pithy words quoted aLwvo. It is evidently intended as a short, pract.cai rule capable of general use, producing a cer- tain. well-defined result, while in reality it IS a mere expedient that may be valuablo under some conditions, and is an operation of ex- periment rather than one of certainty. Tho principle upon which the advice "Prune in summer for fruit" II, based recognises barrenness in fruit trees as being the result of a predomi- i nacy of wood growth; also, that any process or manipulation tending to reduce abundant growth, so long 06 it does not seriously involve the health of the pla-nt, will favour the pro- duct ion otf flowers and fruit. By persisting in the removal of forage from tihe tree while it is in active growth its vitality will be weakened and its general health imrmiifvl hv the dcstruc- tion of roots, whioh always follows the destruc- tion of active foliage. There are van.ous processes applied in the management off plants which have for their ob- joct the better production of frid't. Some of these are known in horticulture under the teoh- nical term "dwarfidg, suoh as grafting the pear on quince stocks, which represses the wood growth of the former, a.nd has&eris its fruiting penod. Other export onts are these of root pruning, tying down branohes below a hori- zontal position, and that already mentioned, re- pressing growth bv the removal of foliage tear- ing summer, W:,9 last b«'ng the least definite or direct, because its usefulness depends upon con- ditions which cannot always be foreseen or con- trolled. In the practical application of summer pruning, difficulties and perplexities are en. countered, which, as already remarked, render the operation one of uncertain result. For ex- a.mpio, if the growing shoots of an apple or pear tree are chocked in their extension by rernovJig a porton of thEÚ points, say toward the latter part cf June, tlm lower buds on the shoots will be forced into growth, thus forming numerous side branches, whuoh havo no immediate con- nection wiih fru t.ng spurs, and whioh will sim- ply tend to a further thicket of twigs for re- moval an winter. But if the shoots are not checked in their extension untiil August, and the weather afterwards continues to be warm and dry, be probabilities are that the lower buds on these shoots wJl start into rathor feeble g'rowth or short spur-like shoots, which will ultimately fur.nitih fruiting buds. If, on the other hand, the seaaon ht-pperis to be wet, and cnfild weather prevails until edese to w'intor, these same shoots will lengthen into slender twigs whioh wili not thoroughly mature and which will be of no value whatever. The difficulty in reaching successful results lies :n the uncertainty as to the proper time to prune, because no two seasons are exactly alike, and also because trees vary in their vigor from year to year. Yet, upon this uncertain, in- definite. and constantly experimental procedure j «is founded the advice, "Prune in summer for (fruit." "Prune in winter for wood." A plant in a healthy growing condition will maintain proper balance between the roots and branohes, and anv destruction of either wiN to a certain extent destroy this natural balance., so that if aj oortion of the branohes is removed after the seasonal growth is matured the roots will to that extent have the preponderance; the buds bein" thus reduced. Those which are retained will receive increased vigour, and while the branches Droduced will be fewer in number they will be stronger in growth. It is questionable whether a greater aggregate of wood will be procured from the few buds than would have been furnished by the greater number provided no pruning had been done, but there is no question as to the fact thai a greater degree of vigour is imparted to the fewer buds. and that it is a well known and valuable exponent for increasing vigor of the growths of unhealthy and weak growing plants. To Buppose. however, that winter pruning, as a p practical rule, inoroases the quantity of timber in heaflthy trees « a fallacy. (To be. OOOltiJw.
TOO MUCH FLESH FOOD A Summer Warning to Meat- Eaters in Town, Country and Seaside. In the «' prime of summer time the best friend you can have is a sixpenny packet of Vi-Cocoa. Despite the lassi- tude usually felt in hot weather, this favourite food-beverage exceedingly re- freshes the whole system, stimulates and promotes the appetite, and greatly im- proves the digestion. To haymakers & harvesters, "scorch- ed with the suu and wet with the dew," Vi-Cocoa is a real boon. It is the ideal drink for the golfer and the cricketer it is as welcome at the seaside as it is on the mountain top and thanks to its highly nutritious and forti- fying properties, the pedestrian, the cyclist, and the scuiler may create new records by its aid. Vi-Cocoa, better than any other food- beverage, supplies in the highest degree the stamina necessary to enable one to cope with the heat ot summer, when this becomes excessive, and for this reason e alone it is invaluable to members of the territorial r. o zi army when undergoing their annual training. Six- pence spent on a packet of Vi-Cccoa will prove the best investment you ever made. 22032P