SECONDARY EDUCATION. Breeonshire Committee's Outlook. A special meeting of the Breconshire Education Committee was held at Brecon on Friday to consider recommendations from the Higher Education Sub-Com- mittee proposed to be submitted to the Departmental Committee now inquiring into the organisation of secondary educa- tion in Wales. There were present- Prof. Jos. Jones (chairman), and Mrs Jones, the Revs. Canon Finucane, Prin. Lewis, H. W. Lewis, E. Rowland and W. Llewelyn, the Hon. R. C. Devereux, Messrs. A. Beckwith, H. A. Christy, J. D. D. Evans, Morgan Morgan, David Powell, T. Price, W. S. Miller, J. T. Boucher, L. Jones, J. L. Davies, G. C. Christopher, Edgar Morgan, H. H. Wat- kins, H. Williams, Jas. Powell, W. J. Rawlings, E. Griffiths, D. Fisher, and Idris Davies. The following draft of questions and answers was eventually adopted, being that submitted by the committee with a few modifications Qiiestioit.-Doeg that part of the pre- sent organisation of secondary education in Wales which is determined by the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, 1889, and the county schemes made under it, hamper the development of secondary education, and, if so, what changes are necessary in order to enable the develop- ment to proceed freely both as regards the new provision and the curriculum of schools ? Answer.-Secondary schools set up under the Intermediate Education Act are partly controlled by the Local Educa- tion Authority and partly by Local Governors. This dualism of control hampers the promotion of secondary education. All secondary schools should be subject to the control of one body, so that uniformity-where uniformity is necessary—e.g., as regards staffing, stipends of teachers, &c., might obtain. In case a policy of differentiation of curriculum be desirable, such a policy should be adopted by a central body capable of considering the requirements of the county as a whole. 0.—Does the present organisation of secondary education in Wales hamper its proper co-ordination with other stages or branches of education, and, if so, what changes are considered necessary ? A.-Under the present system it is difficult, if not impossible, to co-ordinate secondary education with other stages or branches of education. This lack of co- ordination between different kinds or grades of education is the glaring defect of our system. In view of the require- ments of the new Act it is more urgent than ever to bring about this co-ordina- tion. This cannot be effectually done unless there is one authority in charge of education in all its grades and branches. Elementary education cannot be properly organised without due regard being bad to secondary education. Q —The provision, administration, and methods of award of scholarships, and the question of the provision of adequate accommodation in hostels ? A .-The present provision of scholar- ships is hopelessly inadequate. Their number should be determined by the number of persons who are anxious and able to pursue a course of secondary education. All children should receive whole time education up to 16. provided that there is a State subsidy in the case of necessitous families. The method of selecting secondary school pupils on the result of a written examination is un- satisfactory. Hostels should be provided where necessary in connection with secondary schools, so that pupils who have to live away from home might be properly looked after. Q -What is the best way of reconciling the excercise by a Local Education Authority of its duties (both educational and financial) under the Education Act, 1918, with the stimulation of local interest in the schools ? A.-Whereas there ought to be one county authority in charge of all grades and types of education, and therefore of all schools within the area, it is impor- fant that schools should be managed by district committees, including members co-opted because of their special interest in and knowledge of education, familiar with the locality, but subject to the Local Education Authority. Q.-Is it desirable to have a common system of inspection for all secondary schools forming part of the recognised public provision in Wales, and what should be the relation to this system of (a) the State (b) the Central Welsh Board (c) the University (d) the private schools or endowed schools not belonging to the recognised public provision of secondary schools. A.-T he Central Welsh Board exam-. ines and inspects for the Board of Education. But the latter reserves the right to inspect the schools apart from the Central Welsh Board. It is desirable in the interest of uniformity that there should be one system- of inspection for .all secondary schools and that a body conversant with Wales should be en- trusted with the examination of our secondary schools ? Q.-Is closer co-operation desirable between (l) county local education authorities and Part III Authorities of areas included in the county (2) ad- joining Counties or groups of Counties, and (3) the whole of Wales and if so, for what purpose ? A.-It is very desirable that better understanding and closer co-operation should be brought about between Local Education Authorities. Adjoining -counties should co-operate in the setting
TXUUUI^—UM1» HJIHJ> If H-" f" r 1|T- HI „V<;» ;T-If'Æ'dI'J.fnt.¡.<i.¡¡t.&WI' S Lc i JU';j r\.l lif LLOYD3 BANK LIMITED, I with which is amalgamated g THE CAPITAL & COUNTIES BANK, LTD. HEAD OFFICE: 71, LOMBARD STREET, E.C. 3. I SAVINGS RANK DEPARTMENT. I I The services of the Bank, with over 1,400 Offices in England and || Wales, are at the disposal of the public for the deposit of savings, j however small. Interest ?s allowed, and withdrawals net exceeding | I 15 in amount can be made without notice. Fdl particulars can | j J be obtained on application at any of the Bank s Offices. t Affiliated j THE NATIONAL BASK OF SCOTLAND, LTD. THE 5-ONtOK' AND RIVER PLATE BANK. LTD. | Ai-ixUtary j ,■ i LLCYDS AND NATIONAL PROVINCIAL FOREIGN BAiK Li-UTD: i | .■ "r"! I- "tirir;.inBTii-yiSr L~ I
.T.he ress are he th C;1, lHill d. kiiov-, s she owes to her and she pays them well. She encourages every, capable man to become an inde- a pendent farmer, free. him I 160 fertile acres free. SB For free maps, pamphlets, official information m apply Superintendent of Emigration, 11-13, Charing « Cross, London, S.W. 1, or to Canadian Govt.^Smigra* H ffli tion St. Birmingham; Museum St.York; ^54, B 52, BaJdwin St., 310, High St., Bangor; sj St", Aberdeen 44, DawBoa « St., Belfast. IB A
Severe Nerve and Stomach Trouble. Neuritis, NiMir-tigia, and In- digestion Cured by Dr. Cassell's abl«jts. Mrs. W illiafu. A hvyn Cottage' t, Whitby, neitw, U¡,> 't" :—"Attei an attick ,i pi u 1 >1!o leit very weak and nervous. cvnnHtniHS I cpuld not keep still for nerves, n i wotHe than all 1 could not sleep I had lit le desire for foo s, d" I did >rot pun was sure to foil' W mi'luver the kidnevs. I sufle Uo wirh lietifactit-s like neuralgia, nn left aim chere was a dull, gn w pilin (. eutitin), which becaim- s i-i) it tailed my arm suddenly. Th- i. • li^fKfiou had become so bad that HI) •>elI.was ulcerated. I kept.trying"- another,but without be>fir- ? I Dr. Tablets. Tbm, M i' f rune, The indigest- ion lessened, mi. f till in a short. tinn- I « scureri. Dr. Casse ) 'H( the perfect modern floviii, ii, -i-v b»r Nervous Breakdown, N ■ F,;Itit e, Neuritis, Malnutritinr, \V 1 1, A æ-ni., Sleep- lessness, Indigestion, Kidney Trouble, 'i Dd Prematuif* Decay Specially Suitable for isursniy mothers and women of m; g. Sold by chemists and stores in all ptr s of the world. Prices: Is. 3<i. <nii 3" tfhv 3s. t-izd being the inor, economical. Free information OT any cise sent on request Dr. C'. Limited, Chester Road, M .• Chester, Eng. I
I Opportunities for Employment Of all the aspirations of Labour, the demand of some form of insurance against unemployment appeals most forcibly to the entire community. The problem must be faced with courage and frankness, and the choice must be made as to whether the worker is to exist by the grant of State dole, or to live in com- fort and happiness through the guarantee of regular employment at remunerative rates of wages. Lord Weir, in a presid- ential address delivered before the Institute of Marine Engineers, uttered an emphatic warning against "the artificial system of doles and out-of-work allow- ances" He added "the only cure for unemployment", is opportunities for employment," and those opportunities for which Lord Weir pleads can only be brought about by the existence of a sound economic system based upon the needs of the nation and of industry. A LESSON FROM THE UNITED STATES. It will be within the recollection 6f many that in the early days of the war, the nation suddenly awakened to the fact that tungsten was a commodity of vital importance, without which the war could not be successfully waged. What the nation has also realised is that tungsten is of equal importance to our peace industries. At a time when we are still undecided how to treat key industries, it is instructive to turiJvto the United States of America, and find how different- ly such industries are treated there. There is before the American Legislature a measure for increasing the import duty on steel containing a tungsten content, as well as on tungsten ore. A represent- ative British mannfacturer, who is in close touch with the position, stated in the course of an interview the other day, that if the measure passes, as in all probability it will, "it will be a serious matter for Sheffied high speed steel makers, a considerable part of whose trade has been done with the States." The securing of new markets, or the ex- pansion of existing ones, will not be so easy in the future, owing to the fact that duringthe war, when our hands were exceed- ingly full, we taught some of our allies how to make high speed steel, with the result that they now require very much less from us, and may presently need none but that produced by themselves. This will be one of the problems that British manufacturers will have to solve. But the solution to this, as to other problems, will cot be so easy as long as the policy governing industry remains in a state of chaos. HOW INDUSTRIES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED. The result of the divergence during the war of West African palm kernel exports almost wholly to the United Kingdom instead of mainly to Germany has had important industrial results The margarine industry has developed in England to vast proportions, and the margarine factory extensions, which under pre-war conditions would have taken place on the Continent, have been transferred to the United Kingdom, employing many thousands of people, and cheapening our butter substitutes. Palm kernel oil is used in the soap and candle industries, two important pros- perous British industries, while the residue of the kernels is valuable as oil cake for cattle feeding. The problem of how to retain this importation of palm kernels for the United Kingdom was solved by the decision to impose a duty of f2 per ton on kernels consigned to non-British ports, and it is in conse- quence of this wise policy that various 1 industries have been established so successfully. Now that some merchants are agitating in favour of the removal of the export duty, it is useful to refer to the Government Committee which was appointed to study the relation of oil seeds to British industries. This Committee included, in addition to dis- tinguished departmental chiefs, represen- tatives of the Chambers of Commerce in London, Liverpool and Manchester. The most important consideration before the Committee was that after the war "the bulk of trade in margarine and cattle cake would revert to Germany in the absence of specific measures to the contrary." The committee went a step further and made the following recom- mendation :—"The imposition at an early daie, in the several West African Colonies, of an export duty of not less than JE2 per ton on all palm kernels exported from British West Africa, the duty to continue during the war and for five years afterwards, and to be remitted on all kernels shipped to and crushed in any part of the British Empire. If a duty of X2 per ton be found insufficient to divert the trade to this country, the amount should be raised until the duty is adequate to effect its purpose, and this determination should be made clear from the outset."
))! !) J Pt?iLf. GAROEN st.- ja N Mr. 1. BtirL>er writes, Dec. 10th:—" With your Pr;ze H Seeds t tis Season' I wou 18 First Pnz- 9 Second D Prizes, 5 Third Prizes. Also won First Prize for M Ve^tttaole Garden, the Couuciia Challenge H Cup aud Purse anda further ff Ad H Challenge Cup for most First jy Prizes Your Peerless Oaion ytk & W k also took,* x-irst Prizes in W A MMMSmUf B oll GIBBS' GRE\ r M itmaf spe-^JieiOF0PR7Z:C 9 0fi^GARDENSEI £ i:>Storl9«)isNOiV S READY. Send for YOUR FREEconv. B tktUpr GIRBs SEEDS have alt been well harvested ■ and are looking splendid. Both germination purity are excellent. THOUSANDS OF GROWER^ BB IN WALES testify that GIBBS' PRIZE SEEDS ir. ■ B the BEST in the WORLD. 50,000 testimonia.s. ■ N IC.T OIBBS,? X H.S ThePrizeSsod.man, ■ EAST riNCHLEY. Please post early. J f I, I I Come to the Shop I THAT LOOKS AHEAD. | s I Month's ago we looked ahead and saw the rise in costs in the second year after the Armistice. j We bought early therefore, choosing our Stocks | carefully, purchasing them in just the quan- t tities and from the sources which gave us the most favourable terms. For proof of this ) SEE OUR CHRISTMAS DI.SPLAY. Gloves Handkerchiefs, Ties, Mufflers, r,jj j Blouses, Fancy Linens,Cushions, Furs,&c DAVID JONES, & Co., j TALGARTH. Ihe F'rm that Va!ue Su!:t. 1 II « (PATEN1S AND ALL RIGHTS RESERVED IN ALL COUNTRIES). Two Tablespoonsful of "N.P.S." VINEGAR And Water will make a Pint of Beautiful MALTED VINEGAR at a cost of 2d. only. It is Silly to pay more 4 kinds—(1) Table or Household. 2) Sauce, a Real Good Sauce in itself. (3) Pickling, Ready Spiced. (4) Salad, Sweeten M with Saccharin. All Water White, or Pale Straw, Amber, Brown and Dark Colors. For all Purposes, Home, Hotel, Institutional.. Manufacturing, Army and Navy, Shipping, Export, Fryers, Peas. Oysters &c All 1 one price. ) NO TROUBLE.-Make Viregar as yon want it. Always Fresh. Not a Substitute. Absolutely Pure. Treble Distilled. Malted after Distillation, preserving the Digestive m and Nutritious Properties of the Malt, which no other Vinegars do. No Preservatives. Will Keep. 2 1 Prices per Bottle :-9d, 10-1d., 1/ 1/2, 1/6, 1/8, 2/ 2/6, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 13/2, 26/- and 51/ The larger the Size the Cheaper. From ail Chemists, Grocers, Oil and Colour Men, &c or 2/6 size and up direct, Post Paid (makes It to 3 gallons). Ask or Send for—AND SEE YOU GET IT. TRADE DISCOUNT :-For £ 2 £5 £ 10 JE25 jEoO £100 worth. 1 3 9 4/- 4/3 4/6 4/9 51- in the £ j In Bulk Quantities of 2 5 10 25 50 J00 gallons j Trade Prices 24/- 23/6 23/- 22/6 22/- 21/- pergall. (One Gallon makes 15 to 30 Gallons). j Sample Half-gallon for 13/- delivered (makes 71 to 16 gallons). All Delivery, Bottles, Casks. Packages. Cases, Insurance, Show and Handbills, Directions Free. No Free Samples. No Delay. Delivered quickest way. Always Cash with Order. (Deduct 3d. in the -P). Merchants and Agents are allowed a further Discount of 71 per cent. from all above net Wholesale Prices. Only Makers in the Wopld-N.P.S. VINEGAR Co. (Regd.), Licensed Vinegar Makers, BOSTON, Eng. Telegrams: "AVIN," Boston. Bankers N.P. & U. Bank of England, Boston (Cross P.O., Cheqnes, &c.) Sole Wholesale Cash Buying Agents Wanted in all districts where not represented. Highly Remunerative, other important lines to follow. Write A VIN," Boston. ■ CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. CHRISTMAS ON THE BRITISH RIVIERA. !II FAST TRAINS. I by the WYE VALLEY and UPPER SEVERN ROUTE (via Talyllyn and Moat Lane) as under CARDIFF (Taff Vale) dep. 10 55 a.m. Aberdovey arr. 5 0 p.m. CARDIFF (Rhvmney) „ 11 0 a.m. Towvn 5 8 MERTHYR (B. & M.) „ 12 10 p.m. Barmouth 5 36 Builth Wells arr. 222 Harlech 6 0 Llandrindod Wells „ 1 40 „ Pwllheli 7 2" (L. &-N.W.) Aberystwyth „ 5 15 „ t I Tea and Corridor Service between Moat Lane and Aberystwyth. gar The Cardigan Bay Coast is a desirable Winter Resort, the temperature comparing favourably with the South Coast Watering Places. Hetc is Sivitzciland cxccllcd. —\ idc Press. S. WILLIAMSON, Oswestry, Dec.,J919^ General Manager. No More Rheumatism. Budden's Rheumatic Blood Salts, the certain remedy for Gout, Rheumatism, Gouty Eczema. Lumbago, and Kidney Diseases, caused by the presence of uric acid in the system. This salt purifies the blood and drives out of the system the uric acid. For constipation and its attendant evils it's an excellent remedy. Bottle Is. 3d. post extra. Prepared only by Budden and Co., Limited, Chemists, Liverpool, and sold by Mr Tudor, Chemist, Brecon, and Mr Lloyd, Chemist, Carmarthen j O.K. UNION MOTOR CYCLES. 38gs. Nett at Works. Early deliveries can be giveiu. SOLE AGENTS- FRYER BROS. & CO., P.O. 49. BRECON.
up of border schools which children from such counties might attend. It should also be possible for children whose parents remove from one county to another, to continue to receive free secondary education. THE DISCUSSION. There was a long discussion before £ he recommendations were adopted. The Chairman reviewed the history of secondary education in Wales, and re- marked that the system whereby the local governors looked after certain things and the county councils looked after other things had entirely broken down. Further problems arose under the Act of 1918, the essence of which was unification and co-ordination. They had to provide education for children between 14 and 18, and they would have to consider whethey they could use the intermediate school system for that pur- pose. Then there was the national question. The Departmental Committee was holding an inquiry with a view to the formation of a national system in Wales. There were three bodies govern- ing education in Wales at present, and it was obvious some effort should be made to be build up a national system. Prin. Lewis and Mr Beckwith had prepared a statement for their consideration in the form of evidence to go before the De- partmental Committee, and all who had read it would feel that they were under a great obligation to those two gentlemen and to the County Finance Clerk (who prepared the finance section) for the ex- cellent summary of the facts they had presented and the recommendations they had made. They would ask Principal Lewis and Mr Beckwith to present the evidence in person to the committee if necessary: the work could not be in better hands. (Hear, hear). Princ. Lewis, in moving the adoption of the recommendations of the Higher, Education Committee, drew attention to the various sections of the long statement accompanying them. He particularly pointed out, with regard to the future control of secondary schools, that the suggestion was\ that the district com- mittees should consist of local members of the Education Committee and of per- sons co-opted in virtue of their special interest in and understanding of secondary education. At present they had district committees responsible for elementary education and bodies of governors re- sponsible for secondary education. If the proposal materialised they would have district committees in charge of education, elementary and secondary. The sub-committee were in favour of giving all children up to the age of 16 whole-time education. It was quite possible that years would elapse before they would have a system of education permitting that, but he thought they ought to keep that object in view and whatever arrangements they made in the meantime should be such as would help them when they felt that a further step could be taken. It was generally ad- mitted that the State ought to help every boy and girl who could profit by secondary education, but the committee contended that all children, whatever their future occupation or profession, would be the better for it. (Hear, hear). The effect of elementary education was largely lost unless they continued the education beyond 14 and (according to the com- mittee's contention) at least up to 16. TVIATT also iVinnaht, that as much attention "J -0-- should be given to the boys and girls of average intelligence as to those of special parts. With regard to the county schools entrance scholarship examination educa- tionists were unanimous in condemning it but if they gave secondary education to all up to 16, there would be no necessity for any process of selection. The free places system had been hopelessly unsatisfactory, but if the age was raised to 16 the only question would be who should have free places beyond 'that age. The suggestion that a Welsh board of education should be established was influenced by the devolution proposal, which would make the solution of that problem comparatively easy, because it might be assumed that on the establish- ment of a Welsh Parliament, there would be a minister of education who would work through a board. (Hear, hear.) Mr Beckwith, in seconding the motion, said that Principal Lewis was responsi- ble for the very able report before them and should have the whole of the credit, He entirely agreed with the report from end to end.. Education mtast be real and not superficial, and it was a parody to talk of its being finished at 14 years of age. Partial education was a dangerous t thing, and it was to the interest of the community that education should be made real and carried as far as possible. I They had now done with ladders" and I had the "broad highway," and he did not like the distinction between elemen- tary and secondary education. (Hear, hear.) They were one, and it wai for I that reason they were fortunate in Wales in having a system of continuation. j It was, however, very partial, j because many parts of the country had been practically cut off from its benefits by their remoteness. They benefits by their remoteness. They now foresaw the establishment of j continuation or intermediate schools in every district in that county, bringing every district in that county, bringing j education within reasonable reach of every child and unless that was done- if they only provided higher elementary schools-they would not be giving the children the advantages they ought to get. He firmly believed that when the people saw the benefits the child attend- ing whole time up to 16 received as against the benefits received from part- time attendance, the objections to it would quickly disappear, and they would get voluntary attendance. But they must provide facilities for half-time education, and the way to do that was first of all to take over the intermediate schools as part of the definite education of the child, and put up similar schools in those districts not yet supplied. He very much sympathised with the aspir- ations that had been mentioned to him by various working men and Labour leaders, that their children should have the same kind of advantages as were offered in the public schools. The Duke of Wellington's phrase about the winning of the Battle of Waterloo on the playing fields of Eton applied to all playgrounds, and when a boy learnt to play in the right way, learnt to take every rub in good part, and to take defeat in good part, he had learnt a great deal that would help him in future life. That was what they got from the corporate life of a large school, and they wanted to bring that advantage to every child in the county. (Applause), WHERE THEORY AND PRACTICE CLASH. Mr Miller pleaded for consideration of the numerous cases of agricultural la- bourers and small farmers with large families, who could not afford to let their sons attend school up to 16. The Secretary stated that the Act provided that assistance could be granted in a necessitous case to enable a child to be retained at school. In the course of further question and answer it transpired that this assistance would be in respect to the one child and would not be given towards the main- tenance of the family by way of com- pensation for the loss of the child's earnings. Mr Miller argued that here the theoretical and the practical clashed, and he thought assistance should be given where the need arose, because education was for the benefit of the nation. He further contended that if a child was compelled to attend school up to the age of 16, the technical side of education should be attended to between 14 and 16. Mr Rawlings remarked that under the present system there was a lot of marking time before the child got the real benefit of secondary education. The curricula of the secondary schools must be altered if the children were to benefit up to 16 there must be a continuous course of education The Chairman That can be arranged. Mr J. D. D. Evans By placing the work under one management you would be. able to provide for that. Mr Boucher emphasised the difficulty pointed out by Mr Miller and asserted that it was impossible for a large num- ber of people to allow their children to remain at school until they were 16, because they could not maintain them. Any aid grant to be useful would have to amount to the total cost of the boy's maintenance, and was it likely the State was going to undertake such a burden as that ? Further, they were going to keep the boy at school at the time when he was most fitted and anxious to improve himself in manual labour. Mr David Powell said the plan for part time attendance between 14 and 18 appealed to him, because he was con- nected with two apprenticeship chafities in Brecon which had done a great amount of good for many years past. The boys were apprenticed at 14 and finished at 18, and if they had to go to school till they were 16 they would not finish their apprenticeship till they were 20. He thought the co nmittee woujd agree with him that a b <y ought to finish his apprenticeship before that
age. If the apprenticeship began at 14, the learning of the trade and the con- tinuation of education would go on together, and at 18 the lad would be ready for a man's career. Mr Idris Davies said the Labour Party and the Trades Unions were unauimonsly in favour of whole time education up to the age of 16. Mr J. D. D. Evans Does that apply to the Agricultural Labourers' Union ? Mr Idris Davies was not certain, but the Trades Union Conference passed it. Mr Evans: It is a very important point in this county. Mr Idris Davies proposed and the Rev. E. Rowland seconded the addition of words to the recommendation calling on the State to subsidise necessitous families in order that whole time education up to 16 might be barried out. Mr Beckwith thought that, except in rural areas, there would be no occasion for a subsidy. The members of trade unions felt that they could afford to let their children have the benefit of education up to 16, provided it was free. He sympathised very much with what Mr Miller and Mr Boucher had said, because it was a practical question, but it was intended to help the part-time pupils by giving technical education- agriculture, carpentry, cooking and house- wook would come in. The Hon. R. C. Devereux suggested that it would be better to make a more general addition to the recommendation, such as provided that no hardship is entailed," than to go so .far as to coirfmit the State to compensation. Mr Davies replied that the objection to that form of addition was that they might get the child exempted from school, and he wanted equality of oppor- tunity. Dr Colston Williams thought that if they had a dual system the part-time students would pet the inferior teachers and there would be another class distinc- tion, between the boy for wohm the parent made sacrifices and the boy who had to be an early wage earner. (Hear, hear.) With regard to subsidies to families, with the rare exception of widows, they would act against the raising of the level of wages. Mr Idris Davies's rider was eventually accepted, and the whole of the recom- I mendations adopted as given above. I Principal Lewis and Messrs Beckwith, Miller and Jas. Powell were appointed to attend a conference to be held by the Departmental Committee at Swansea on January 9th.