Thick Barley Water. Two ounces pearl barley, 1 quart water, the rind of half a lemon cut into thin strips, sugar to taste. Wa.h the barley, and put it in a saucepan with cold water. Boil for ten minutes, then throw the water away, and wash the barley. This is done to blanch the barley and prevent the drink from having a dark, unpleasant appearance. Put it into a. saucepan with the quart of water and the lemon- peel, and boil gently for two hours. Sweeten to taste, strain and serve. +»
Tapioca Rhubarb Pudding. Soak overnight in water enough to cover it. Peel rh ubarb and cut in small pioces; add half as uracil of the latter as you have tapioca, and plenty ot sugar stir well together, sprinkle a few bits of butte". over the top and bake. Spread a meringue over the top; place in a slow oven for it to set, but do not let it become yellow. Serve cold. Sub- stitute steamed rice for the tapioca and you have a 'delicious pudding either hot or cold. .0
Use of Lemons. Keep lemons in the house, if possible, as they are sure to be in demand for more purposes than one, and are very healthful. If lemons are placed in a jar covered with water, and the water is changed each day, they will keep as long as desired, and are as fresh when removed from the jar as when first. purchased. There are few things as efficacious for breaking up a cold as hot lemonade, taken just before bedtime. It is best, to render this more effective, to bathe the feet of the patient in hot -water and mustard, then give hot lemonade to drink. Put the patient to oed immediately after, there to remain well covered until morning, when unless there is something more serious than a cold the latter will have almost wholly disappeared, The juice of a lemon, taken in the morning while fasting, is often a preventive to those attacks to which bilious people are so fre- quently subjected. Lemon-juice rubbed over the hands each night before retiring will keep them soft and white. It is good for removing tan, and is a wonderful whitener of the skin. It is also excellent for taking out stains from the hands. A piece of lemon bound on a corn, changed for a fresh piece each day for three days, is said to loosen the corn that it may be easily removed. For clammy, moist hands, rub lemon juice, eau-de- cologne, or any spirit thoroughly into them, both inside and out, after washing, and use oatmeal instead of soap occasionally.
The Agricultural Returns. THE LAND. The agricultural returns for the year, 1898, show that Wales occupies the foremost position of the ^-three countries of Great Britain in recognising the importance of the Government statistics, for whereas the area of land on which the distribution of crops had to be estimated in the absence of direct information amounted in England in 4-3 per cent. of the cultivated surface, and in Scotland to 1-7 per cent., in Wales it was only 02 per cent. The total area of land and water is 56,772,009 acres, of which 32,477.000 acres are cultivated; of this surface 27,957,000 acres are farmed by tenants and 4,520,000 acres by the owners of the land. The extent of the surface in the occupation of the owners is thus less thnn in any year since 1898. The extent GL land under c rops and grass in 1898 was 43,000 less than last year which was also about the same acreage less than the year before. This decrease, amounting since 1892 to over 200,000 acres, is due in part at least to a technical transferences from the category of permanent pastuie to that of mountain and heath land, the dividing line between which is necessarily arbitrary. Last year there was an unwonted increase in the arable land area, but this year the familiar movement in the contrary direction has been resumed, for there is now a loss of 90,000 acres under the plough and a gain of 47,COO acres of permanent grass. About half of the apparent increase of arable land shown in the preceding year was lost in 1898, but the loss occurred in England alone, Scotland and Wales slightly increasing their area of arable land. Wheat in 1898 covered 2,102,000 acres, showing an increase of 213,000, or 113 per cent., over 1897, and of 408,000, or 24-1 per cent., over 1898. Among the corn-growing counties of England Oxfordshire has apparently shown the greatest alacrity in reverting to wheat, the area under that cereal being in 1898 no less than 77 per cent. above 1895. The figures for the past five years are striking—1894, 1,928,000 acres; 1895, 1,417,000; 1896,1,964.000; 1897, 1,889,000; 1898, 2,102,000. The reduction in land under barley was 131 per cent., and in the case of Lincolnshire, the largest barley-growing county in 1897, no less than 25,326 acres was tranferred to wheat. In Scotland there was an increase of 4,888 acres under barley, attributed to an increased demand by distillers. Oats declined by 4 per cent., or 118,000 acres, in Great Britain. One Welsh and seven Scotch counties showed slight increases, but otherwise the reduction was general. About one-third of the potato area lost in 1897 was recovered in 1898, but the acreage of 525,000 is still 7 per cent. below the average. For the fifth year in succession a decrease appears in the land under turnips, and the area under vetches, cabbage, kohl-rabi, rape, and other green crops showed a total decrease of 14,000 acres, but lucerne again increased to a trifling extent. CROP YIELDS. The hay crop, both from seeds and meadow, ex- ceeded the average by 21 and 27 per cent. respectively wheat yielded 19 per cent. above the decennial average barley, 8 per cent.; potatoes, 7 per cent.; turnips and swedes were 11 per cent. below the averager The estimated wheat yield was 9,129,000 quarters, a greater quantity than has been returned in any year since 1890, when the ocres under the crop numbered 284,000 more. The yield per acre was 34 74 bushels. Lincoln showed the largest crop, returning an average of 38'59 bushels per acre; Monmouth yielded only 25-72 bushels. Barley gave an average of 35'75, larger (like that of wheat) than in any previous year since the product returns were first collected in 1884. Barley yields were heaviest in Kent, Lancaster, and Northumberland. Oats showed an average of 40-76 bushels, a result only exceeded in 1890 and 1894. Lincolnshire maintained its high standard with a crop of over 54 bushels per acre, but Norfolk with a crop of 53 bushels showed a relatively better result for the year, being seven bushels in excess of the normal standard of the county. The deficiency in turnips in England was even greater than would appear from the actual figures, for while in Scotland the yield was above the average, in England it was only 10 58 tons, or 2-31 less than average. Mangels exceeded the decennial average by 6 cwt.; Shropshire showed the largest crop, nearly 26 tons per acre, and Durham the smallest, 12 20. The hay crop of 1898 was a best on record." The estimated yield of clover hay in Great Britain was 33-65 cwt., being lowest in Wales; hay from permanent grass was estimated to yield a crop averaging 29*24 cwt. for Great Britain, being no less than 27 per cent above the average. LIVE STOCK. The slight decline noticed in the number of horses in 1897 has been followed by a further drop in. 1898; the decline appears in the "unbroken" class, which, until 1896, has shown a considerable advance, associated with the greater attention paid to the breeding of horses in this country. The decrease now shown is most marked among those hot exceeding one year, and must be held to indicate a further check in the expansion of horse-breeding previously noted. The figures for cattle are more satisfactory, the total showing an increase of 122,000 over 1897. which had exhibited an increase of less than 7000 on the preceding year. Nine out of the twelve Welsh counties returned fewer cattle than in 1897. Perhaps the most satisfactory feature was the aug- mentation of the number of young stock under one year old noticeable in the English and Welsh breeding counties. The proportion of cows to 1000 persons was, in 1871-5, 82, and is now only 83; y the proportion of other cattle was 134, and is now 113-so that even the recovery recorded in 1898 fails to replace the number per thousand of the population at the level shown. in the earlier years- a fact which is to be borne in mind as helping to explain the growing imports both of dairy produce and of beef. The sheep of Great Britain more than recovered the decline shown in 1897. About one- third of the increase of 403,000 was due to an augmentation of the breeding ewes and about two-thirds to an addition to the number of lambs living on June 4th. The total of sheep and lambs was in 1898, 26,743,000; the highest since 1893, when it was 27,231,000. The great reduction in the number of pigs referred to in last year's report was onVy partially recovered by an increase of 109,000 in those recorded in 1898. The total in 1898 is 2,451,000; in 1896 it was 2,879,000. PRICES. Note is made of the recovery in 1898 of the annual average price of British wheat to 34s. per quarter, a figure only twice exceeded in the last fifteen years. But the year closed with falling markets, and the last week of December showed an average of 26s. lid. The maximum weekly average of 48s. Id. had not been approached since 1898.
-rooa. LORD RENDEL ON THE Progress of Education IN THE PRINCIPALITY. Last Thursday Lord Rendel opened the new buildings of the County School at Llan- fyllin. Lord Rendel, who was cordially received, said that one and twenty years ago he thought they believed him when he told them then that he had a great ambition for Wales as Wales, a great faith in Wales as Wales, and he did not know that upon any subject his heart was warmer for and with Wales than on its determination to support not only its religious life but its educational life (applause). Of course, the situation in Wales as they saw it at that time was not a promising one. Many things were against Wales some that ought not to have existed. Wales had been pretty well stripped of her endowments, especially in regard to educa- tion. Wales had what was not altogether a misfortune; she had greater comparative want of wealth to contend with. She had not travelled on the same road as her great neighbour England in the path of the t, 17, accumulation of riches. She had the good of that as well as the bad, but when she desired to make public effort, then the pinch of narrower resources was felt, and Wales had already a burden unknown in England in anything like the same degree. She had the honourable burden of the maintenance of her own spiritual ministra- tions for the larger part (hear, hear.) How, then, should they wonder if twenty-one years ago the condition of Wales in regard to education might have not been unreasonably declared to be one of destitution—educa- tional destitution. He thought that was the telling expression used by the Committee appointed by Mr. Gladstone in 1880 and presided over with such signal ability by Lord Aberdare (hear, hear.) But to him —a presumptious outsider-it appeared that if there were disadvantages there were also advantages-advantnges which struck him all the more because lie belonged in that respect to an outside world. First of all, it seemed to him that the average of Welsh brains were brighter than the average of English brains (hear, hear.) They had some vulgar but expressive words which he hardly liked to use, but which gave a low idea of the quality of intelligence in the rural classes of England. Such words could never be applied to the Welsh peasant class. In the next place, in England there was a very large proportion of rural classes who were in a permanently depressed condition. He did not think that could be said, so far as intellectual life was concerned, to be true of almost any part of Wales. Then there was material, there was wealth for Wales, only requiring cultivation, and whether the desire to advance the intellectual life of Wales was well-founded or ill-founded, at any rate there was an imperative need that something should be done to work the precious minerals which lay in Wales in the shape of the superior intelligence of the Welsh people. He thought also that Wales possessed at that time, as it did now, a quality peculiar to itself. Wales possessed a more closely developed social life. They might hardly take much interest in observations of that kind from one who could not claim to be more than Welsh by adoption. Yet he made them because he was an impartial witness, and he supported his suggestion that Wales had the inestima- ble advantage of closer and higher and completer social organisation by referring to the success of her efforts in many directions, and to the success she had achieved in filling the gaps in the ladder of the educational equipment of the country. Twenty-one years ago there was in his mind even then the forecast of the situation resulting in what they now saw. He would take a long, and perhaps to them a welcome, leap from the remote past to the less remote past-the period when the Intermediate Education Act, with which they were more directly concerned, supplied the missing rung in the ladder (hear, hear). He did not believe himself that anyone outside Wales, and he was not quite sure that everyone within Wales quite foresaw the success of that Act, quite saw how completely it was justified in its inception and in its pas- sing as well by the efforts of those op- posed to many of them in politics as by the efforts of those who were associated more directly with popular causes. He did not think anybody foresaw how great the result would be within a comparatively limited time. Marking the ten years which had elapsed since the passing of that Act, it appeared to him surprising that Wales should have accomplished as it had done (hear, hear) They knew, most of them, knew what had been accomplished, but they would forgive him if he recapitulated. First of all, there were 95 of those intermediate schools in the Principality (hear, hear). Secondly, 88 of those were in full working condition, and had been inspected with good results. Those schools existed for no fewer than just 7,000 scholars, and no lesss than just £100,000 a year was devoted to them ex- clusive of fees. Fifty-five of them were equipped now with their own buildings, as they were so proud and thankful that that school there should be equipped—(hear, hear)—and no less than X283,000 had been spent on them, and half of that amount had been found by voluntary subscriptions (hear, hear). Libraries were begun, and there were no fewer than 13,000 different volumes in libraries belonging to the intermediate schools in Wales (hear, hear). Those were great results, and he wished to point out to them one feature about them which must not be overlooked. They had noble, and indeed, pious forefathers in the matter of education for the whole of these islands at one time. But they belonged to a different order of religious ideas; they were largely monastic in their vows and habits of life. Should they blame them if they excluded one-half of their fellow-creatures and the whole of the female sex altogether from the privileges of their educational efforts? They did so. Well, they had lived to see happier days. They were living in wiser times. They had given nothing to the one sex they had not also given to the other (hear, hear), and, believe him—if lie might venture to bring his own opinions before them, -they would not see for a long time the end of the good and cumulative result of giving equal liberty to boys and girls, to men and women, in the matter of education. He believed there was nothing more likely to lead directly and through elementary sources to the best social progress of the whole community in the future than the lift from childhood of the weaker sex to an equality in all intellectual matters with the stronger (hear, hear). While they spoke of the last ten years, he asked, should they say nothing of those to whom they owed that progress—those who had pulled the labouring oar ? He was a proud man in Llanfair that day—he was a proud man in Montgomeryshire. He did not want to make other people jealous he did not want other people to make him conceited but he thought a great deal of what Montgomery had done for all Wales (hear, hear). In many directions he saw it in that room. There they had Principal Roberts (hear, hear). There they had Mr. Humphreys- Owen (hear, hear). The best Act in the world would fall still-born unless the men were found who knew how to work it, and they must remember that their county mem- ber-the man who carried on the work he (Lord Rendel) imperfectly begun—was the chairman of the body which had organised and put into working trim the whole. Principal Roberts said he knew of no county which could boast of having given to the education of Wales within the last fifteen years three men of equal power and influence with Lord Rendel, Mr. Humphreys-Owen, and, if he might refer with respect to one who was no longer with them, the late Mr. Edward Da vies, of Llandinam.
[This column is devoted to contributions on Local Antiquites, Folklore, Place Names, etc
Wyau y Pasc. A all rai o'ch darllenwyr fv hysbysu am v Ddefod yn Aberteifi, Meirionydd, a Threfaklwvn Mae yn arferiad yn rhai lleoedd yn Sir Gaernaxfon anrhegu bechgyn y ffermyckl ag wyau adeg y Pasc, ly I ac mi garwn wybod a ydyw yr un ddefod yn bodoli yn y siroedd ereill a enwais. TAKDHWST.
Llangawsa. I have have never been able to find out the meaning of this name. It is variously spelt. Now-a-days, we see it mostly printed Llangawsai, and hear it pronounced, Llangawsa. I have heard that its proper name is Llaihgawsai. The mean- ing of llain is clear enough; but what is the mean- ing of "glwsai?" In a chapel document which I have seen, an old deacon who used to live at Llan- gawsai, is described as residing at Tanygowsa." This name like the previous one is quite as great a mystery to me. The old gentleman lived there 50 years ago or perhaps a little more. D.O.G. -*■
Pontcorry. Sir,—In your last weeks issue, I noticed a short paragraph on the above,—In describingthe locality of the above bridge, these words are in the article. It was at the entrance into the present Smith- field-road between the Board Schools, and Mill- street, again," less than 40 years a 4 ditch' the pynfarcli as it was called, ran along Lewis- terrace just in front of the entrace to the Railway Station, and the Board School." May I be allowed to correct the above. The py,-ifac-h was not a ditch," but a deep mill leet about five yards wide, of clear, and crystal-like water leaving the river Rheidol about 300 yards aiove I'lascrug (before the river was polluted) and from this mill leet, a great portion of the inhabitants of the town was supplied with water for drinking- purposes, carried to their houses in casks. Also the position of the Pontcorry Bridge, it was over the mill leet, where the the houses next to Waverley Temperance Hotel, now stand, in Mill- street, and not at the entrance to Smithfield-road as stated in the paragraph. I may also state that at the time referred to there were two wooden bridges crossing the mill leet., one opposite Lewis-terrace, then Mary-street and one opposite Brewer-street near a chalybeate well, which stood on the right hand side, near the entrance to Plascrug walk.—Yours, etc. LL.
Celtic Imagination in Welsh plant names. That familar old fashioned plant, the Bleeding Heart, which may be found in flower at the present time by many a wayside cottage has been favoured by many names in Wales. In the neighbourhood of Arthog and Dolgelley it is known as Y fuwch flith (the milch cow); in the neighbourhood of Glandovey and Eglwysfach it is called Ygocsen" (the cockle) and about Corris it is known as "Crogen" (pendant)? When the shape of the flower is taken into consideration, these Welsh names are not only very striking, but vary with the nrode of life and chief occupation of the people of the districts. Not a few of the cottagers on the estuary of the Dovey get their livelihood by gathering cockles, and it is no wonder their imagi- nation discovered a similarity between the flowers of Dielytra spectabilis and the edible bivalve. It need hardly be added that the peasants of Merioneth call it the Milch Cow on account of some amount of resemblance to the udder; the cottagers of Corris call it Crogen probably on account of its pendulous blossom resembling to a marked degree the trinkets suspended at the ears by young women. Another common garden plant, the Pansy, has two peculiar names in Welsh. In parts of Carnar- vonshire it is known as Y wraig weddw" (the widow) and in South Cardiganshire it goes by the name of Ofer garu (love in vain). In South Cardiganshire the red, and the white orchises which may be seen just now covering whole acres of moist meadow land, are called Cain ac Abel." The Larkspur is known as 14 Adda ac Efa in the neighbourhood of Corris. The country woman who gave me this name explained it by point- ing out to me Adam and Eve in hiding in the flower. They were represented by the curved stamens which are covered over by the hooded petal. When hay-making one cannot fail to notice the rattling, crisp sound of the hop-like seed of the Rattle. In Welsh these are known as "Clychau babis" (babies' bells), and "Arian y gweirwyr (haymakers' money). FIELDFARE.
PONTRHYDFENDIGAID. OBITUARY.—The death took place on Thursday last, of Mrs. Margaret Woosman, wife of John Woosman, platelayer M. & M. R. The deceased had only married about two years ago. The funeral, which was largely attended by relatives and friends, took place on Monday, the Vicar and the Rev. J. Bowen (C. M.) officiating. Great sympathy is felt for the young widower in his loss. PAJUSH COUNCIL.—A meeting of the Gwnnws Upper Parish Council was held Wednesday, June 7th inst. Mr. Edward Evans, J.P., was in the chair, and, as he was not present when elected at the annual meeting, he thanked the council for the honour, and trusted to be able to attend all the meetings. The Clerk presented his annual state- ment of account, which was examined and passed. Mr. William Rowlands gave notice that he would draw the attention of the council at its next sitting to the necessity of improving the public footpaths, and erect seats for use of visitors and others at suitable spots. Some of the elected members not having attended and signed the necessary declaration, the Clerk was instructed to request them to do so at next meeting. Mr. John Daniel Jones (Rock House) stated that since the telegraph service was about being completed, he thought the least this council could do, was to heartily thank three of its members, viz., the Chairman (Mr. Evans), their late chairman (Mr. Jones, Dolfawr), and Councillor Edward Jenkins, together with Mr. Joseph Jones (New Abbey), for the ready manner they volunteered their names as guarantors for the telegraph service. He moved that the thanks of the council bo accorded them. It was readily supported and passed. Mr. Evans replied and said it was only a work of pleasure with him to help his co-parishioners. Mr. Jones (Dolfawr) said that its establishment gave great satisfaction to him as it was a necessity. The Chairman then said that he could not allow that vote to pass without mentioning another name, viz. Mr. J. Rees, the secretary of the movement. He was sure they all felt that he had unstintingly worked to obtain the end now successfully within their reach. He proposed thanks to him, which Mr. Jones (Dolfawr) seconded, adding that the secretary never spared himself to carry out their wishes. Mr. J. Rees replied that he felt grateful his services were appreciated, and nothing gave him greater pleasure than to find that he could be of service to others. SCHOOL BOARD.—The ordinary meeting of this School Board was held on Thursday last, Mr. Jones Cefngaer, in the chair. The other members who attended were Messrs. Thomas Jones, Old Abbey, John T. Richards, and Jenkin Jenkins. The board being without a clerk, Mr. J. Rees, C.M., acted pro tem, and Mr. D. Williams, Abbey School, was also present. The chief business of the meeting was to consider the attendance list of the two schools for the half year ending May 31, and to arrange for a more effective method of dealing with habitual defaulters. It was resolved that the masters should report to the attendance officer all children who were absent 10 times or more during four weeks: and that the attendance officer should serve all parents of children who were absent ten times or more during the four weeks with notices to appear before the Board, except on cases of illness.—It was resolved that all children who leave school should be reported to the Board, with their age, attendance and qualifications foi withdrawal, and that the necessary forms be provided. SPECIAL MEETING-.—A special meeting was also held for the appointment of clerk. Two applica- ations were received, viz., Mr. Isaac Jones, Llwyn- gog, and Mr. S. Tregoning. Since the salaries named by both were about, if not really equal, the Board dealt with merits, and as Mr. Tregoning has been 23 years clerk to the Ystradmeurig School Board, his experience told in his favour and he was unanimously appointed.
School for a Prison. A new departure was proposed by the School Management Committee of the London School Board, who recommended that a letter be sent to the Home Secretary offering during the next Ses- sion to run an experimental evening continuation school at Her Majesty's Prison at Wormwood Scrubs for certain selected prisoners. This step was taken at the suggestion of Miss Honnor Morten.
Church Schools. It was a small but interesting meeting which assembled at the National Society's House, at Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, to discuss for the eighty-eighth time what may be done for and with Church schools. The Archbishop of Canterbury f presided. The report showed that there had been an increase in accommodation of 23,491, an in- crease in the number on registers of 12,795, an increase of average attendance numbering about 13,870. With all this, however, there was a decrease in subscriptions of £ 46,961; and it was added thatacertaifl number of schools,disappointed at the inadequacy of the special aid grant, had lost courage and succumbed to a school board.—The Archbishop of Canterbury called attention to the figures in the report, and lamented the surrender I of certain schools, but trusted this process would not go on much longer. Public opinion has been assured that if the Church schools disappeared religious education from elementary schools would also disappear. If the Church schools went, the religious instruction given in the Board schools would very soon dwindle away.—Lord Cranbrook moved a resolution affirming that the work of the National Society, which during the past year, in addition to its ordinary operations, gave assistance in the extension of church training colleges, was deserving of special approval. The second resolu- tion was-moved bvLord Cross, to the effect, t1" t it was the duty of all Churchmen to assist in the maintenance and extension of the present system of Church education throughout the country. Both resolutions were adopted.
The Ladder of Learning. A remarkable anil unique event has happened at the Mathematical Tripos at Cambridge this year. Not only is the Senior Wranglers!) ip bracketed between two students, but these students represent the-" nouvelles couches sociales whose presence at our Universities is transforming, and, as we hope and think, transforming for the better, the character of our seats of learning. One of the Senior Wranglers, Mr. George Birtwistle, began life as a poor boy at Burnley, his father having died when he was young, and his mother having to support her young children. The boy went to a Wesleyan day-school where ie acquired the rudiments of learning, and then secured a scholarship at the Burnley Grammar School, where his career was of a remarkable kind. He won two exhibitions which enabled him to go ,0 Owens College, Manchester, where he took a degree in science, and then he won an entrance scholarship at Pembroke College, Cambridge. And 1)¡L>W at the age of twenty-two the poor Burnley youth finds himself at the head of the learned and promising young men of England of the present year. His colleague in the Senior Wranglership, Ragbernath Paranjpye, is a Hindoo, educated at Poona and at the University of Bom- bay, where he secured a Government scholarship, and afterwards went to St. John's Cambridge, as a Foundation Scholar. His subtle Hindoo intellect, combined with hanl work, has enabled him to be- come Senior Wrangler, and we are glad to note that when the lists were read out in the Senate House this Hindoo triumph was greeted with enthusiasm. We think we are right in saying that this double event constitutes a very important fact. The career of Mr. George Birtwistle is the best illustration that could be found of the educational ladder leading from the primary school to the University, on the necessity for which we have so often insisted. Backward as England unhappily still is in comparison with Scotland, Germany, or Switzerland as regards educational methods, it is gratifying to find that such an ideal as the edu- cational reformer has in his mind can be realised in the case of Mr. George Birtwistle. The small Wesleyan day-school, the Burnley Grammar School, Owens College, Cambridge University, constitute a great educational chain, the links of which fit in with one another even better than one might expect. They correspond roughly with the primary school, the "gymnasium," the" realschulc," and the University of Germany. That culture of the mind by classical literature on which Mr. Bryce has very wisely insisted, and which a merely utilitarian ideal would ignore, is conveyed both through the grammar school, whose foundation culture is properly classical, and through the University, which still, with equal propriety, insists on a certain minimum of classical learning in all her pupils. The mind thus broadened and elevated is all the better fitted to grasp the problems of physics and pure mathematics studied both at Owens College and at Cambridge.But we are still a long way behind, and when we look at the career of Mr. George Birtwistle, we cannot help explaining, 0 si sic omnes" By omnes we mean every youth in England who has in him the capacity to profit by a prolonged course of intellectual training. We want to see such an educational ladder con- structed as will enable every youth of great and exceptional mental powers to proceed by a carefully graded system from primary school to University. Here is one youth who can do this by unusual force of intellect, and probably of character; but we want to see the method made more easy and more generally available.Primary education is im- proving. University education is improving, but we need a thorough overhauling, on a greater scale than has been attempted, of our secondary education. We have no desire to throw cold water on the new-born zeal for technical training, which we admit is of the highest importance. But mere technical training is not in itself education, and it is, moreover, all the more successful in actual material results when it has behind it educated students. That is the secret of French and Swiss success. It is not merely that the technical students of Germany and Switzerland have far better appliances and manual training than we have, but also that behind that technical training lies a background of mental culture rendering the student far more efficient because his intelligence has been drawn out. Let us have a good secondary system of education open to all, and forming the intermediate link between primary school and University, and a beneficial change will have been effected in English life. We cannot doubt that the presence of what we have termed "new social strata at Oxford and Cambridge will in every way benefit those institutions.The University is broadened, is rendered more human, and it approxi- mates far more nearly to the great ideal of the mediaeval University as it was understood at Paris, Bologna, and Oxford. That ideal was not a mere national class institution, far less a cramming institution, where capacity for getting up facts was to be tested. It was a place where, as Matthew Arnold said, the best that had been thought and known was to be studied, where a generous en- thusiasm for ideas and for the conduct of life was to be generated, where not mere learned machines but high-souled men were to be produced. It is true that Oxford and Cambridge have never encouraged the idea of mere pedantic learning for its own sake; perhaps they have erred too much the other way. But they have been narrow, they have been affected by class bias and by ecclesi- astical prejudice. Now they are humanised and broadened by the inclusion of new classes and the devotion to wider ideals, and the ladder of learning, from elementary school to University, is proving a powerful means of effecting this desirable end.— The Spectator."
ABERDOVEY. Wno is RESPONSIBLE ?-A corresponent writes: In your last issue a ratepayer complains of certain nuisances allowed to lie on the foreshore at Aber- dovey and makes allegations against the District Council and the Nuisance Inspector in regard thereto. I am sure that I am expressing the views of the inhabitants generally, when I say that the complaints referred to are exaggerated and I consider it my duty to defend the inspectôr or who does his work most creditably and to the entire satisfaction of the Council, who could never select a better officer for the post. Our vigilant and reliable Nuisance Inspector renders the town and district much more valuable service by looking thoroughly after the sanitary arrangements in the in the houses, and other important matters than bv looking fer empty jam pots, bottles, straw, and an occasional dead cat on the foreshore. Fortun- ately, Aberdovey can boast of having a class of visitors who do not resort to the beach in search of petty nuisances such as those described above and which, for obvious reasons are not deposited there in the presence of the Inspector, and, more- over, our visitors are too dignified a class to utter the expressions quoted in Ratepayer's" letter. I have no objection to having sanitary defects dis- cussed and indeed, if such are brought forward in the proper spirit; in fact much good may result from the ventilating of such subjects if it be done without bias or prejudice. In his letter Rate- payer says it is quite time for the Nuisance Inspector to do something for his money and give an account of his work to the Couucil. What an unfounded and random statement to make! Your readers will draw their own conclusions and fur- ther comment is unnecessary.
ROUND THE CHURCHES. .d. [NOTE.—We have pleasure in stating that a short article will appear here weekly from the pen of Philip Sidney. It will, as a rule, deal with some topic of local interest other than the purely theological and political. Communications for the writer's consideration may be sent to him c/o Editor. "Welsh Gazette."] VII.-BAKER STREET, CONGREGATIONAL (WELSH CHAPEL). This congregation owes its existence to the labours of the well known Rev Azariah Shadrach, who in the year 1810 began preaching in a. small room near the Rheidol bridge. In Januarv 1816 the worshippers removed to a small chapel in Bridge-street, which had been built by a, seceder from the Calvinistic Methodists. Here the society still continued to flourish and grow in numbers until 12 April 1818, when it again changed its place of worship for an old barn then standing in Queen-street. Here the society was formally con- stituted into an organised church on 30 May 1819; and by the 1 August 1821 it laid the foundation stone of the present chapel in Penmaesglas which was opened for divine worship on 11 May 1823. This was the home of the congregation until: it out- grew the accomodation, and was obliged to build another chapel in Baker-street, on ground which cost a large sum. The total expenditure on the Baker-street chapel was iE4464 8s. 51-fl, of which sum £ 340 Os. 8d. is still owing. The opening services brought several well-known ministers to Aberystwyth, amongst those who preached on the occasion being Dr. Owen Evans, D, M. Jenkins, Drs. Thomas Rees, Wm. Rees, and John. Thomas'. Three ministers only have held the pastorate of the church, viz., Azariah Shadrach, from its foundation. until his resignation on 16 August, 1835; John Saunders, who came from Buckley in Flints, and began his duties here in June 1836, continuing them till the last Sunday in April 1871, a day or two before his death on 27th April, aged 73; and the present deservedly esteemed pastor., Job Miles. who began his ministry here on 12th January, 4873, the recognition services being held on 12th and 13th February following. Shadrach was a man- of more than local note. He was born on, 24th June, 1774, near Fishguard, and died in January, 1844, in Aberystwyth, being buried in St. Michaels Churchyard, where his tombstone, originally a. raised one but now on a level with the greensward is to be seen. The inscription on it will repay perusal. He was esteemed by all men,, by none more than the Rev. J. Hughes-, v.icar of Llan- badarn, who constantly visited him and prayed with him in his last illness. Ten ministers bore the pall at his funeral, when the sermon was preached from Psalm xxxvii, 37, by John Saunders. His son Eliachim L. Shadrach, came from Doncaster in January, 1830, to assist his father in. his ruinistrv and remained in Aberystwyth until the end of 1834, when he accepted a. call to Darsley in Gloucestershire. When Mr. Miles settled here, the church membership was not more than 200. In January last it was 366. On the occasion of my worshipping with this congregation there was an attendance of 354 people, of whom some 250 com- municated. Mr. Miles, who deservedly occupies a high position in the body,, possesses the art of holding his hearer's attention during his forcible and well delivered sermons. Knowing exactly what he wants to say, his phrases fall in well con- sidered words, and at times he; mounts to fervour and enthusiasm with the-true hwyl" so dear to Welshmen. In connection with the membership it may be noted that no congregation suffered more than did this by the decline in the- mining and shipping industries, with which so, many of its adherents were connected. The U.C.W. is well represented, amongst the worshippers being Professor Anwyl, M.A., and numerous students, the proportion of men now occupying positions of trust in the Nonconforming ranks, who formerly worshipped here, being exceptionally large. The chapel is weSJ adapted with acoustic properties far better than its ventilation. Why keep windows closed on a hot summer evening ? Such a proceeding is, unhealthy for both preacher and congregation. The singing is hearty and well balanced, being led by a harmonium, one degree removed from the instrument of torture to which most harmoniums are related. Financially the congregation stands well, its income for 1896, as shewn in the audited and printed accounts was £381 8s. 8d, and its expendi- ture such as to permit of a balance of £99 14s. lid. being carried forward for current year. The debt on the building fund is also being regularly lessened in annual instalments, last year L100 4M. 4d. being devoted to that purpose. The old chapel in Penmaesglas is still used for Sunday School puiposes, the congregation wisely recognizing the importance of not losing its hold upon the district. Gan ddymuno llwyddiant i'r Eglwys. PHILIP SIDNEY.
A CARDI IN CHINA. Welshmen, as every native of the Principality knows, are to be found in every quarter of the globe, whether it be Greenland's icy mountains or India's coral strand. For instance, the Rev. Evan Morgan, son of Mr. D. Morgan, Postmaster, Llangeitho, is out in Shensi, China, where he is a missionary under the Baptist Society. He is also correspondent to the North China Herald," and forwards a proof of some of his contributions. One of the most in- teresting parts is that referring to the great Secret Society of China, the Kolao Hui, which it is said numbers in its ranks one third of the inhabitants of China. A serious attempt was made to arouse the people against the" foreign devil," and a Koloa leader went to the local official in Weinahsien and said that he had 1000 men ready to march to Pekin or anywhere else the official might wish to drive out the foreigner. The mandarin to whom this individual applied was, however, not sympathetic with the movement, and concluding that the prison was the safest place for the patriot he promptly clapped him and others into durance vile. It is pleasant to know that the price of a "foreign devil" is rising in China, when the letter was written, Tes 120 being offered for a man's head, and a level Tes 100 for a woman's or child's. With reference to the Empress's coup d'etat," Mr. Morgan says that it was received unfavourably, for the young Emperor was very popular. In strong contrast is the hate and detest in which Li Hung Chang is held, and he is universally known as the traitor." The sting of the letter is however in the tail, as follows :—" Since writing the above, I have heard that five leading members of the Kolao sect have been decapitated in the provincial capital." Who would not live in China.
WIT AND WISDOM. Traveller (sarcastically) How is the word mar- garine pronounced ? Hotel Waiter: I pronounce it "butter"; if I didn't, I should lose my place. What! you are on bad terms with your lawyer ? You used to say he took great interest in yonr _œ autLirs. Certainly. He took my interest first, and he has finished up by taking my capital also I have only my heart to give you, said the young lady to the lawyer who had just won her case for her. Apply to my clerk, he replied curtly it is he who receives the fees. An Irishman bad been served with a glass of whiskey and water. After having tasted it, he exclaimed: I say, governor, which did you put in first, the whiskey or the water ? What a question! the whiskey, of course. Ah! that's all right, said Pat! perhaps I shall come to it soon, then. An old sergeant in one of the Scottish regiments was one evening making his rounds to see if all the lights were out in the barrack-rooms. Having arrived at a room where he fancied he saw one shining, he called out: Just put out that light over there, and be quick about it. But, sergeant, it is the moon, cried a voice (com- ing from the end of the room). The sergeant, who was rather deaf, answered: What has that got to do with me ? Put it out! The judgment of Solomon was recently nearly enacted by a Transatlantic justice in Georgia. Two parents claimed the same negro baby, and the evi- dence was so even that the puzzled judge suddenly thought of the wise king's expedient. He seized the baby, pulled out a bowie knife from his belt, and proposed to halve the child. But both claim- ants rushed forward simultaneously crying, Boss, don't kill him. You may have him!" So the judge was as far from a decision as before. The members of a family in Scotland were watch- ing round the death-bed of the father. At last he lay perfectly still. The mother burst into tears, exclaiming, "He's gane at last, and I'll never be happy till I follow him I" Then, assuming a business-like tone, she added, We'll better hae the funeral on Wednesday, and we'll jist get Wully Paterson to make the coffin. Tho' he hasna been a friend of oors, yet But here they were startled by a voice from the bed moaning forth, If you get that cratur Wullie Paterson to make the coffin I'll no pit a fit in't."
CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. NONCONFORMIST CHOIR UNION FETE AND CONCERT, CRYSTAL PALACE, JUNE 17TH; GREATER BRITAIN EX- HIBITION, EARL'S COURT. On FRIDAY, JUNE 16th, 1899 Cheap Excursion Tickets WILL BE ISSUED TO LONDON Third Class Fares for the From Times of Double Journey. starting, 3 Days 6 Days p.m. Tickets. Tickets. Aberystwyth 12 30; 1 Bow Street 12 401 | *Llanfihangel. 12 45 f "lie L „ Borth 12 50| fl6S. 6d *Ynyslas 12 55/ *Ynyslas 12 55/ Glandovey 1 71 JQs Machynlleth 1 35 17s. I0" 12 45 10s' 0<L l&.6d. Cemmes Road 1 451 Llanbrynmair. 1 57 los. 16S. Carno" 2 11J > Dolwen 2 11 Llanidloes 2 5\ } Llandinam 2 18 -i a Caersws 2 241 lt>S» Moat Lane 2 32 9s. Newtown 2 47 j -I E fAbermule 2 561 r 1&S» Montgomery 3 3^ Children under 3 years of age, free; above 3 and under 12, half-price. Carriages will run through to London (EUSTON) PASSENGERS RETURN FROM LONDON (EUSTON) AS UNDER:- Three Days' Passengers at 8.50 p.m. on Monday, June 19th. Six Days' Passengers at 9.45 p.m, on Wednesday, June 21st. Passengers for Ynyslas and Llanfihangel alight at Borth on the return journey. fPassengers for Abermule go forward- from Welsh- pool at 9 10 a.m. on the return, journey. All informa tion regarding Excursion Trains and Tourist Arrangements on the Cambrian. Rail- ways can be obtained from Mr., W. H.. GiOUGH, superintendent of the line, Oswestry. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, June, 1899. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 2a.th, and every Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Abeidovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Crice- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery,, Oswestry, Ellesmere and Wrexbam, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. C. S. DENNIS, General Manager. Owestry, May, 1899. CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from. all L. 4c N. W. and G..W. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO ♦Birmingham, ""Wolverhampton, ♦Walsall, Peter- borough, Leicester, Derby, *Burton -on-Trent, .Stafford, *Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington FROM Oswestry, Llanyraynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraetb, Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Simi.ar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Oricoieth, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool. Passengers return OR the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. T H O U S A N D-MIL E TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is P,5 5s Od 1,000 miles, and £2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. c!1 Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for authorising the use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. Business Notices. TAILORING ESTABLISHMENT, JU pIER STREET,. A BERYSTWYTH. I)AYID JAMES. Suitings, Coatings, Trouserings, &c., in the best fashion and at reasonable prices. Cricketing and Boating Suits made to order on the Shortest Notice. FOR I; WELSH WOOLLEN GOODS GO TO ROWLAND MORGAN, LONDON HOUSE, ABERYSTWYTH. WM. THOMAS, COAL AND LIME MERCHANT, ABERYSTWYTH. BRICKS, SLATES & PIPES of every description always in Stock. DAVID MORGAN, DRAPERY AND MILLINERY ESTABLISHMENT, IS PIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. DAVID EVANS, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & OPTICIAN, 399 GREAT DÆRKGATE ST. ABERYSTWYTH, (Opposite the Lion Royal Hotel,) Invites your attention to his Choice Stock of i E IV E L I- E. R Y, Comprising all the Latest Designs and mast Fashion- able Patterns in GOLD, SILVER, PEBBLES & JET SILVER PLATE SUITABLE FOR PRESENTATIONS. GOLD AND SILVER WACHES IN GREAT VARIETY. H. H. DA VIES, PHOTOGEAPHER, PIER STREET, (Removed one door above.) ABERYSTWYTH. HH. D., having removed to larger premises, • begs to inform the public generally that he is now enabled, with the be ter facilities at hia disposal, to execute all orders p omptly. In thanking his numerous patronisers for their kind support in the past, he trusts that his care and attention will merit a continuance of the same. MRS. M. E. DAYIES, CONFECTIONER, pIER STREET, A BERYSTWYTH AVING given up the Confectionery business, JH. begs to thank her numerous customers for their past support and to state that she will still retain her DINING ROOMS which she trusts will continue to receive a share public patronage. 1. AND G. LLO YD, COACHBUILDERS, ALFRED PLACE, ABERYSTWYTH. Carriages made to order on the shortest notice. Experienced Men kept for all Branches, CARRIAGES FOR SALE. SUMMER FASHIONS. C. M. WILLIAMS BEGS respectfully to announce that he is ww showing a good selection of NEW GOODS SUITABLE FOR THE PRESENT SEASON. NEW HATS AND BONNETS. NEW MILLINERY. NEW FEATHRRS AND FLOWERS. NEW RIBBONS AND LACES. NEW DRESS MATERIALS. NEW GOWNS AND SILK SCARFS. NEW SILK UMBRELLAS, &c. NOTED HOUSE FOR STYLISH HATS AND BONNETS. SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO MOUEHIXG ORDERS. GENTS' NEWEST SHAPES IN HATS AND CAPS, TIES, SCARES COLLARS, CUFFS, &C. Inspection respectfully invited. C. M. WILLIAMS, G ENERAL DRAPERY E STABLISHMEIW, 10, PIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTH.