To Clean Oilcloth. Carefully sweep it free from dust, then rub with a cloth dipped in hot milk, and afterwards rub ■with a dry cloth. Beeswax and turpentine is also good for polishing oilcloth, and will prolong its wear. This is rubbed on a piece of flannel, and polished with dry dusters. Another simple and useful mode is to rub the oilcloth with a rag dipped in paraffin. Open the doors aud windows after this, and the odour will very quickly depart. In China, tea is prepared in the same cup in which it is drunk. Boiling water is poured into the cup, which contains a good pinch of tea. It is at once covered with a saucer, and the infusion is regarded as made when the leaves are at the bottom of the cup. The tea should be taken boiling hot, and the Chinese have a way of drinking it without raising the saucer. When one is fatigued a cup of boiling tea strengthens and refreshes more than beer. Besides, the idea of taking a hot drink for refreshment is well known in the far East; in the tea houses each customer has at his side a napkin and hot water to bathe his face.
Tea. In China, tea is prepared in the same cup in which it is drunk. Boiling water is poured into the cup, which contains a good pinch of tea. It is at once covered with a saucer, and the infusion is regarded as made when the leaves are at the bottom of the cup. The tea should be taken boiling hot, and the Chinese have a way of drinking it without raising the saucer. When one is fatigued a cup of boiling tea strengthens and refreshes more than beer. Besides, the idea of taking a hot drink for refreshment is well known in the far East; in the tea houses each customer has at his side a napkin and hot water to bathe his face.
At Worship-street, Elizabeth Roberts, shop- I The Sale of Adulterated Butter keeper, of Bonners-street, Bethnal Green, was summoned under the fifth section of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act for seling as butter an article which contained 81 per cent, of foreign fat, to the prejudice of the purchaser.—The prosecution was at the instance of the Vestry of Bethnal Green, for which Mr. Avory appeared Mr. W. T. Ricketts, solicitor, (lefeiided.- Chief Sanitary Inspector Foote proved that in January last the defendant was fined 40s., and in April £ 10 and costs. A fine of £ 20 was imposed. — Annie Evans, provision dealer, of Roman-road and Green-street, Bethnal Green, was fined £10 for selling butter which contained 92 per cent, of margarine.—Evan Davies, 3. Garden-street. Hackney-road, for selling "butter" which contained 92per cent. of mar- garine, was fined £2 and 42s costs; and Daniel Kelleher, of 375, Hackney-road for selling butter" which was adulterated to the extent of 30per cent., was ordered to pay £ 2 and 14s. costs, no conviction being recorded against the last named defendant.
Vegetable Garden. Tomatoes in the open air are now growing rapidly, and must be confined to a single stem by the removal of all side shoots. It is a mistake to plant in very rich land. Get the plants into sturdy growth, and a truss or two of fruit set; then begin to fee I, first by a mulch of manure, and afterwards by the aid of liquid stimulants. Under glass a second crop may be obtained uv allowing some of the vonng shoots to be left for training on after the fruits have been ripened, stopping them when one trus-i of bloom has been produced. Fill up all spare frames with something profitable. Cucum- bers, Melons, Tomatoes, Capsicums, &c., may be used. and after these are cleared off in autumn the frames will come in again for Violets and we have known a frame full of dwarf French Beans come in useful in the autumn, especially if there comes an early frost to cut oft those unprotected outside. The Beans may be planted end of July or first week in August in early districts, and the lights kept off till required for shelter. Whenever frost is ex- pected a very early kind of Bean should be planted. In sowing Teas now sow a second early with the late marrow. No Fins Ultra is a splendid old sort for autumn, and when the pods have been picked off close a very good second crop is often obtained when the plants are not too much crowded and are well nourished. Get out Celery as fast as possible.
Sewage Farm Milk. Some t-fio ago. in reply to an inquiry relating to the safety of sewage-fed dairy produce for human consumption, reference was made to the Aldershot Sewage Farm, and to questions in Parlia- ment relating to its sale to the troops, and the adverse report of the Aldershot medical officer of health. Since then Dr. F. W. Andrews, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, has made an elaborate report on the condition of the farm and the dairy maintained upon it, which may be of interest. He speaks favourably of existing sewage farms in Birmingham and other places, of the great care with which they are managed, and says:- The risk run under present conditions appear to me no greater than those incurred at any town milk-shop where a sewer ventilator chances to open in the street within 50 yards of its door. I am unable to find any conditions on the farm liable to render the milk produced therefrom more danger- ous for human consumption than that from any other well-managed sewage farm, and no evil results have yet been proved to occur from sewage- fed dairy produce as a whole. The manager has BO exclusive privileges, and he is permitted to sell to the troops only. The milk and butter may be bought or not at will. So far the demand for it appears to be increasing, The butter is retailed at Is. per pound, and the milk at 3d. a quart. The ordinary price charged by milk vendors in the camp is 4d a quart." A parliamentary paper has just been issued con- taining the report by Dr. F. W. Andrews, sanitary officer to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, on the con- dition of the Aldershot Camp sewage farm and of the dairy maintained upon it. This report is the outcome of the recent agitation which arose when the manager of the farm was accorded the right to sell milk and butter in the Aldershot Camp on the some terms as any other vendor. Finding that milk was largely produced upon the muncipal sewage farms of many of our large tows, Dr. Andrews put himself in communication with the medical officers of health Birmingham, Nottingham and Reading, and cites these centres to show that dairy produce from sewage farms has been sold extensively for many years without any deleteri- ous effects. In fact, Dr Andrews was able to find no case in which dairy produce has caused disease on account of its coming from sewage farms. A short history of the Aldershot farm is given. It was originally started in 1864, but at a period fell into disrepute through the mismanage- ment of a certain lessee, and it is on this account that a prejudice has arisen against the produce of the farm. After a careful examination of the present arrangement and working of the faim, Dr. Andrews was not able to find ano conditions on the farm liable to render the milk produced thereon more dangerous for human consumption than that from other well-managed sewage farms, while as a whole, no evil results have yet been proved to occur from sewage-fed dairy produce. It is further noted that, of the 28 dairies of which the owners applied for passes to allow them to sell milk in Aldershot Barracks, six, when inspected in 1898, were found insanitary in construction or water supply.
Outdoor Gardens. There is always something to propagate or to transplant where a good collection of hardy plants is grown. The best time to divide the double White Rocket is as soon as it breaks when cut down after flowering. If divided then, and planted on a fresh bed, every bit will grow, and soon get estab- 1 lished. Pink pipings may be inserted now under bandlights in a shady border. The old-fashioned florists with whom I was acquainted in my young days excavated the soil 8 inches deep, placed a large rhubarb-leaf at the bottom, and filled in with specially prepared compost of a light, fairly sandy nature, with a little clean sand on top. Into this the pipings were thrust, and it was rate to have a failure. It may not be necessary to go to much trouble to strike a few Pinks. The old florists had a reason for all they did, and they certainly could strike and grow laced pinks. No time should be lost now in prickling off Wallflowers and other bardy plants sown in April.
The Charlock. Addfwyn Cadafarth yn egin." TALIESIN. On Tuesday last a large party of influential farmers attended a demonstration on charlock spraying at Beverley on the farm of Mr. Thomas Dickens. The crop was oats, the charlock being very tall and strong. The operation was watched with interest and keenly criticised. This is one of the final demonstrations that have been arranged for and carried out by members of the staff of the Yorkshire College. In all about 20 demonstrations have been given during the last few weeks. There has "been a most unusual amount of interest shown in this work, and the demand for demonstrations and information has been greater than the York- shire College could meet. Two sprayers have been constantly at work. Both sulphate of iron and sulphate of copper have been made use of. Acting upon the experience gained last year in one or two preliminary trials, very much stronger solutions were used than those generally recommended. 'As the trials have been extensive and conducted under a variety of conditions, the results are likely to yield a large amount of reliable information. The demonstrations have been conducted by Mr. Haydon and Mr. Barton. It was explained at the demon- stration t Lt when the staff have been able to examine and report npon the results at the various centres, a result of the whole work will be fur- nished.
MERIONETH COUNTY GOVERNING BODY. QUARTERLY MEETING AT BARMOUTH. The quarterly meeting of the Merioneth County Intermediate Governing Body was held at the Police Station, Barmouth, on Thursday. There were present: Dr. Edward Jones (chairman), Dr. Roger Hughes (Bala), Mr. E. P. Jones (Festiniog), Mr. J. Lloyd Owen (Bala), Mr. John Davies (Dyffryn), Mr. Andreas Roberts (Festiniog), Mrs. Rowlands (Towyn), and Mrs. Burton (Bala), with Mr. R. Jones Griffith (clerk), and Mr. E. D. Jones (headmaster of the Barmouth Intermediate School). CHIEF INSPECTOR'S STATEMENT. Mr. Owen Owen, M.A., the Chief Inspector, attended, and made a statement relative to matters of interest connected with the Intermediate Schools of the county. The representatives of the press present were told to regard it as private. It transpired that the number of scholars at the schools during the past year had been 439 (214 boys and 225 girls), which. Mr. Owen stated, by a strange coincidence, was exactly the same number as in the preceding year. At the close the Chair- man thanked Mr. Owen for attending. ABSENT MEMBERS. It was announced that letters expressing regret at inability to attend through unavoidable causes had been received from Mrs. Price, Rhiwlas, Bala; Professor Ellis Edwards, Bala College; Rev. T. Mortimer Green, Registrar, Aberystwyth College; Mr. A. Osmond Williams. Borthwen, Penrhyn- deudraeth; and Mr. H. Haydn Jones, Towyn. RESIGNATION. A letter was read from Professor W. Rhys Roberts, of Bangor University College, intimating his intention to resign his office of governor, owing to pressure of other engagements, which made it impossible for him to attend the meetings. The resignation was accepted with regret. THE LATE MR. TOM ELLIS, M.P. Letters had been received from Mr. and Mrs. Ellis, of Cynlas, and Mrs. T. E. Ellis, of Cowley- street, Westminster, acknowledging the resolution of sympathy passed on the occasion of the death of Mr. Tom Ellis, M.P. TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. A letter was read from the Clerk to the County Council, stating that the following recommenda- tions of the County Governing Body had been adopted by the County Council:—" That a rate of -id. in the £ be levied under the Technical Instruction Act; that the Aberystwyth College be requested to provide five travelling dairying classes in the following places: Corwen, Traws- fynydd, Llwvngwril. Dinas Mawddwv, and Llan- bedr; that two scholarships of P,10 each be awarded to young women to be held at Aberystwyth College in advanced dairying and cheese-making classes that five scholarships for young men to be held at Aberystwyth College be awarded to the value of £10 with the object of attending lectures in agriculture at the coliege; that the balance of the technical rate be equally divided between the school districts in the county; and that in the event of there being a lack of applicants the money voted should be added to and form' part of the balance." The Clerk presented a list of marks gained by students at short course examinations in agri- culture at Aberystwyth College, from which it appeared that four Aberystwyth students were placed 14th, 15th, and 24th in the list, two former obtaining special certificates. A letter was read from Mr. Mortimer Green, suggesting that arrangements should be made for examinations for advanced dairy scholarships ten- able at Aberystwyth College. Mr. E. P. Jones asked whether pupils of Dr. Williams's School—the only county school where dairying was taught—would be eligible to compete. Farmers who had only received instructions in elementary dairying by means of travelling classes would be placed at a disadvantage when competing with pupils of a school like Dr. Williams's. The Chairman pointed out that the Governing Body had promised at their last meeting to throw the examinations open to Dr. Williams's School, and they could not now go behind that promise Nor could they, he added, very well offer restricted scholarships. Mrs. Burton agreed with Mr. E. P. Jones that those girls who had left school for years could not compete with girls who were in school now. She saw some of the examination papers at Towyn. Half of them could not express themselves. Mr. Evans doubted if they would benefit after getting a scholarship by going to Aberystwyth. Mr. Davies then moved that the examination be thrown off. Mrs. Burton seconded the proposition which was carried. Mr. E. P. Jones observing that it would be the means of killing the dairy schools in the county. CLERK'S LEGAL CHARGES. The Clerk read reports from members of the committee appointed to investigate his (the clerk's) legal bill of costs in respect to conveyances, &c., amounting to £63 4s. Od. Mr. W. P. Evans wrote recommending the Governing Body to sanction the payment of the bills, as he considered it reason-' able, and there was no item in it to which they could object. Mr. Hadyn Jones, however, wrote in a different strain, and suggested that P,10 be knocked off the bill, and stating that even then the clerk would be well paid." He instanced the Barmouth account, and added that this should be the last legal account against the Governing Body. The Clerk explained how the bill was made up. The work in Barmouth, he said, was five or six times more than the work in Towyn. The bill was thus—charges, jMO disbursements, £ 23 4s. Od. Mr. E. P. Jones asked how much of the bill they could charge against the Building Fund. The Chairman: The whole. Mr. Jones Shall we have any other expense of this description that will go against that fund ? The Clerk: There is another conveyance. Mr. Roberts remarked that they ought to be satisfied with the clerk's explanation. cl Mr. Davies, proposed, and Mr. E. P. Jones, seconded that the bill be paid-carried unani- mously. BARMOUTH SCHOOL. A letter was read from the Barmouth School Managers, applying for the loan of balance of building fund, which amounted to E184 at a low rate of interest. The Chairman said that he would prefer lending the amount to the Barmouth Managers at a nominal rate of interest to having it as a sinking fund. He suggested, however, that at present the matter be left in abeyance, that it was agreed to do so. ° LLANEGRTN CHARITY. The Clerk intimated that he had received cheques from Mr. Arthur Hughes in respect of Llanegryn Charity, but not the full payment. The matter was left in the hands of the clerk. This was all the business.
ABERFFRWD. BI-MONTHLY MEETING.—The bi-monthly meet- ing of the Sunday Schools of the Cynon district was held in the above place on Sunday, 25th inst., under the presidency of the Rev. W. G. Harries (Cynon). At 10 o'clock the children were catechised on the "Life of Christ" by the President and the Secretary (Mr H. T. Joseph). At 11 o'clock a business meeting of delegates was held. The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. The statistical report for the two months, which was submitted, showed that there had been a decrease in the amount of work done in the schools. Five new teachers were enrolled, viz., Joseph Morgan, John Lewis Powell, John Lloyd, William Williams, and Evan Richard Jenkins, all of whom are total abstainers. A report was also presented of the yearly meeting of the Sunday Schools of North Cardiganshire, which was held at Llangwryfon in May. It transpired that the Cynon district stood first in respect to amount of work done. A report of the singing festival held at Cwmystwyth was handed in by Mr. Alban Lewis, Llanafan (the secretary), and con- sidered satisfactory from a financial point of view, showing a favourable balance of 14s. A committee was apoointed to make arrangements for the ne-srt, festival, the Committee to meet at Trisant on July 28th. The three" visitors" of the schools, who should have produced their report for the past year, failed to do so, and the Secretary was requested to write and request them to hand it in at the next meeting at Cwmystwyth. The Trea- surer (Mr. David Jones, The Rest), also presented his report, which showed that some schools had not paid their yearly subscriptions towards the expenses of the annual meeting of the Sunday School. A notice of motion was given by Mr. Morgan (Y Glynydd) to the effect that in future the delegates at the bi-monthly meeting during their visit to a school, should examine the condition of the school from the books of the teachers. The Secretary was requested to write letters of condolence to Mrs. Evan Richards (Aberffrwd), and Mrs. Hughes (Trisant), in their recent bereavements.
BARMOUTH. APPOINTMENT.—At a meeting of the Executive in London, the Rev. J. Gwynoro Davies, J.P., of Bar- mouth, was elected a corresponding secretary to the Nonconformist Political Council to act in the Calvin- istic Methodist Church of Wales.
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. [BY A VILLAGE SCHOOLMASTER.] Ever since the publicotion of H.M. Inspectors' reports on the condition of attendance at our day schools, and the low position of Cardiganshire in that respect, mnch has been said by prominent educationists on public platform and through the press on the deplorable low average of attendances in Wales. Some find fault with the system, some with the magistrates, some with the attendance officers, and some with the members of School Boards. The system is declared to be unsuitable for Wales with its scattered homes in rural districts the magistrates are accused of being too lenient, and not alwrys in touch with the school authorities when enforcing the compulsory clauses of the Education Act; the attendance officers are denounced heedless and incapable |in consequence of the scant renumeration given them; and the army of School Board members being mostly persons dependent on parents of school children are accredited with carrying out their duties with one eye on popularity and the other on their own bread and cheese. To be a School Board mem- ber and csurageously carry out the provisions of the Act is not all honey these days, if the school attendance is to be such as will secure the approval of My Lords." If many knew of the time sacri- ficed by School Board members in attending meet- ings and considering how best to secure improve- ment in the attendance, less adverse criticism would be made oy the public, and the magistrates would certainly be less ready to dispose of cases brought before them with the simple "order to attend" verdict. This common verdict is on a- par with case dismissed," for the accused, through not being fined, march out of court jubilantly boasting that the case ended in their favour, for they had neither been fined nor ordered to pay any costs. The School Board, finding that after all the worry, the persuasive devices adopted, the expense of publish- ing pamphlets in English and the vernacular in order to get the sympathy of parents to the side of education and to respect the law, get despondent and know not how to proceed with other defaulters The defaulting fraternity on the other hand grows in courage and in number, ahd gets doubly stupid to the legitimate requests of the school authorities. The attendance officer is, however, once more despatched with notices for negligent parents to appear before the Board. These printed forms, which are necessary appendages to every school board and which have cost money, are in the face of the attendance officer either torn in pieces or thrown into the fire. The day of meeting arrives, and the members throw up their work to attend, yea, and to wait expectantly for an hour in order to give a chance to the delinquents to pour forth eloquently their mixture of venom and repentance on the heads of the assembled faithful members. But woe! no one puts in appearance, and the board proceeds to deal with the most flagrant cases. The officer is instructed to prosecute. Information and summonses are filled in, and off tramps the attend- ance officer, sometimes for miles to secure the sig- nature of a J.P. The episode closes at petty sessions day with an order to attend." Then comes a repetition of the farce, and each scene follows the other like the seasons of the year. No members enjoy instituting proceedings against parents who are their neighbours, but when forced to do so after lexhausting all other resources, the School Board authority should expect the support of the Bench, who should not be affected by the plausible excuses, well studied and prepared for the occasion by unwilling and often lazy and negligent parents who make slaves of their children to satisfy their own ease, and freedom to congregate at each others houses, and join in every sort of clap-trap. Dressing thir children, breakfasting them, and see- ing them off in time and proper trim to mix with other children, is, unfortunately, more than some jrnothers care to do. But when these again appear before the magistrates their training in these dens of gossip and black-varnishing makes them experts in formulating touching excuses, such as large family, small earnings, &:c. Not a word is said about late rising from bed, irregularity of meals, and other causes which lead to the non- appearance of the children at school. Until cases are rigidly dealt with by the magistrates parents will not interest themselves in the regular attend- ance of their children at school, nor will the authority of the School Board be respected. Com- plaints are often made of high School Board rates. Why not reduce them then through enforcing regular attendance when each child brings in about 80s a year to the school fund ? With regular attendance the master and teachers could perform their work much more efficiently, instead of, as at present, strain their energies in repeating the same lessons day after day and week after week to some irregular school swallows who return afresh one after the other from their truant haunts. The regular children, poor creatures, have to suffer at the expense of the irregulars, let alone time spent in everlasting making absentee lists ready for attendance officers and frequent Board meetings. They say Mid-Cardiganshire is as bad as any part of the country as regards low attendance at schools, and reports in press show that an energetic effort is about being made to improve it. All bail to the day, say I, and the Great Unpaid should remember that the cases brought before them have been thoroughly and ccnscientiously sifted before insti- tuting proceedings. Then more substantial fines will be inflicted. The negligent parent who is summoned will not attend the Board meeting to explain the situation. The School Board is treated with scorn, but these delinquents glory in strutting to Tregaron or Rhayadr and other sessions like jwckdaws in peacock feathers, and earnestly set forth their fictitious plea. A few lines in each school district would bring up the attendance to its proper level, and the children would be better educated, their discipline and tone improved, the rates would be saved, and those in authority respected. The picture may not be on the whole an attractive one, but it is not overpainted, and with pride and joy I say that the great majority of parents value education at its true worth, and strive hard to send their children regularly to school. But why should the few be allowed to spot the whole character of Gallant Little Wales ? Let the owers that be reply.
MACHYNLLETH. SCHOOL BOARD.—The Rev. W. S. Jones presided over a meeting of the Board on Thursday. In March the Clerk was directed to draw the attention of the Towyn and Pennal School Board to the fact that more than thirty children from their district were attending the Machynlleth Schools, and asking that thfy should arrange to contribnte towards the cost of the maintenance of staff, &c. In the case of Towyn and Pennal Board refusing to pay a fixed sum per head per child, the Machynlleth Board would apply for power to make Pennal parish a contributory part of the Machynlleth district.—The Clerk now reported that the Fannal authorities had consented to a pay- ment of j31 8s. per child per annum. An agreement to this effect was presented and approved. An agree- ment to this agreement to this effect was presented and approved. The Board appointed Miss. M. Owen, of Llanelly, assistant mistress infants' department.
ABERAYRON. HOLY TRINITY CHURCH.-The annual Choral Festival was held on Thursday. Only three choirs took part this year, those of Llansantffraid, Llan- dewi and Aberayron. The choir of Llanrhystyd owing to the illness of Mr. Richards, choirmaster, was unable to join. A festival for the lower part of the Deanery will be held at Llanarth in August. The trainer and conductor as usual was Mr. J. Jones, who did his work to the satisfaction of all. The services were sung by the Vicar of Llansant- ffraid and the curate of Llanarth. At the morning service instead of a sermon the Rev. B. Parry Griffiths, M.A., rector of Manordivy gave an in- struction on the Te Deum and Benedictus. The departure was much commended, and the instruc- tion greatly appreciated. Mr. Griffiths preached at the afternoon a most suitable sermon. The following clergy were also present, and most of them took part in the service Canon Evans, Revs. D. Richards, Llansilio; T. M. Williams, Llanarth; T. Evans, Llanrhystyd; J. M. Griffiths, E. W. Evans, Llandebie; and D. W. Davies, Llandewi, hon, sec., Miss Davies, London House, was the organist.
THE ✓ "iuecsi) GflzeccG," PRINTERIES, BRIDGE STREET & GRAY'S INN ROAD ABERYSTWYTH.
"Tom Brown." On Saturday the Archbishop of Canterbury un- veiled at Rugby a statue of Tom Hughes, who, as the author of Tom Brown's Schooldays," assisted to make the school and its famous head master, Arnold, known throughout the civilised world. The statue is of marble; on the pedestal is the name of Hughes, with the date of his birth and death, and with the notification that he was the author of Tom Brown." Underneath is the inscription, Watch ye, stand fast in the faith. Quit you like men. Be strong."
Something New. America is the country of great ideas, and the latest is in the direction of solving one phase of the eternal servant question. Nursemaids, like house- maids, are hard to obtain, and when secured but few have a proper knowledge of their duties. In Boston a school of nursemaids has lately been started. The pupils are taught the care of children, both physically and mentally. The curriculum includes bathing, dressing, the diet, moral and in- tellectual training, what sort of stories to tell the youngsters, and Kindergarten games.
Science and Literature. WHAT MR. BALFOUR SAYS. As for the controversy which goes on between the advocates of science and the advocates of litera- ture, I really have hardly patience to speak of it, because it seems to me, as I have sometimes heard the two sides stated, utterly absurd. I cannot really conceive that any man, however enamoured of scientific method, should for a moment under- value that insight into human nature, and the interests which have always stirred human nature, and the manner in which those interests have been transformed by men of genius from time to time in the imaginative crucible of literature-I cannot imagine that such a training should be under- valued even by the most rigid advocate of scientific method. On the other hand, is it credible that in these days there should any man be found who should undervalue that curiosity about the world in which we live which science cannot indeed satisfy, but towards the satisfaction of which, after all, science is the only minister? There is a method of studying science, and there is a method of studying classical literature, or modern litera- ture, which no doubt, has educational value to no man—a method of study which may indeed benefit mankind in the sense that it increases knowledge, but which does nothing for the student, either to satisfy his imaginative curiosity, or to strengthen his imaginative appreciation of his fellow man. You may study chemistry, and you may study Greek versification, in a spirit which will leave you as barren and poor after you have done it as it found you before you began it; but after all, if we are to make the best of that insight into the physical world which from day to day is extending under the magic touch of men of science, it is surely folly that any man should think that he has done the best for himself until he has drunk as deeply as he may of both sources of inspiration.
IW The State's Stupidity. Dr. Macnamara, M.L.S.B., delivered an address on Saturday, before the annual conference of Somerset Federation of Teachers, on Rural Edu- cation. He said that the State had shown the most scandalous disregard towards the education of the rural children. In the villages children were to a large extent educational outlanders. They were fobbed off with the services of one- fifth or one-sixth of a worried and wearied certi- ficated teacher; they were rushed out of school almost before entering their teens to scare crows in unphilosophic discontent for a while, and then to slouch into the towns with hopes that turned to ashes in the mouth. After its stupid fashion the State financed the little rural school, with its thirty children, on the same scale per child as the big urban school of 300. The result was starvation all round, especially for the head teacher; for thirty children or 300 children the "establish- ment charge to be met was the same. Only in the country it was not met. The whole result was that, whilst throughout England and Wales in 1898 the sum of £ 2 7s. 7d. was spent on each child's education, the typically rural county of Somerset could only spring E2 2s., leaving out the county boroughs of Bath and Bristol. Argyllshire spent £3 7s. 8d. a child Sutherland £ 3 4s. Id. That was why so many Scotchmen were exiles from their native heaths, in excellent positions, and at big salaries. As a direct result of their disregard of education, the annual cost of maintenance of each prisoner in Shepton Mallet Gaol was over £ 48. That was to say they were educating twenty.two children at the same cost as they were repressing one of a former generation's neglected children. How empty Shepton Mallet might have been now if they had only meant business in the education question! Dr. Macnamara went on to point out that as a result of the niggardly expenditures on educa- tion in rural districts thirty-four per cent. only of the teachers of the county of Somerset were properly qualified for their work, under the Lon- don Board the percentage being eighty-one. What was -needed was that the State should finance these village schools much more liberally, 14 ear- mark," as a first charge upon its subvention, the wage of the certificated teacher, and reform the system of management by both the little school board and the irresponsible denominational school managers. As to the new scheme of attendance, hastily incorporated in Mr. Robson's Factory Half- Time Bill, Dr. Macnamara expressed profound re- gret that Mr. Robson had bought off the agricult- ural opposition to his originally excellent reform for the factory half-timer with a crude and ill-con- ceived scheme under which from eleven years of age village children need only make 250 attend- ances a year out of a possible 440. Everything considered, this new-fangled scheme meant pro- bable disorganisation and disaster.
Voluntary School Subscriptions SERIOUS DECREASE. At the meeting of the governing body of the Lincoln Diocesian of Voluntary Schools, held in the Chapter House, Lincoln Cathedral, Canon Wilde (honorary secretary) read a letter from the Educa- tion Department pointing out that the voluntary subscriptions to schools in connection with the Association during the year ended December 31st, 1898, amounted to E15,297 10s. 4d., as against E16,099 9s 2d in the year 1897, an apparent defici- ency of Z800. In view of the marked decline the Education Department desired that the ques- tion of the due maintenance of the voluntary sub- scriptions should receive the special con- sideration of the governing body. The Dean said it was a grave charge against the Association that while they had been recommend- ing grants they had been allowing the voluntary subscriptions to decline. He believed it must be pure misapprehension on the part of the Depart- ment, as it seemed quite incredible tfrere should be a falling off of L800 in a year, when in Lin- coln alone this year there had been raised £ 700 more than bad been raised before. Managers of schools should be put on their guard for the future with respect to making their returns to the Department on the same principle that the returns were made to that Association. He expressed the opinion that unless that were done discrepancies would arise and a wrong interpretation might be placed upon them. el
Imperfections of Welsh Edu- cation. Mr. Tom John delivered an address to a meeting of the Snowdon Teachers' Association at Carnarvon on Saturday on The State and the Education of Children." He said that it must be confessed that Wales bad not had very enlightened views as to the value of education-at any rate, education did not hold in Wales the pre-eminent position which it ought to hold. In educational matters Scotland were frequently held up as an example to Wales, but he could not for one moment allow that Scotch- men were cleverer and brighter than Welshmen when he remembered that the idol of Scotch philosophers to-day was Professor Harry Jones (hear, hear). The secret of the matter was opportunity. He proceeded to say that elementary schools must be on a good sound basis before it was possible to build a lasting superstructure of intermediate and higher education. He was glad to find that the intermediate schools were doing better year after year. The Carnarvon county schools, which were eight in number, were very well staffed, the proportion of teachers being one to sixteen scholars. But there was a great disparity between that and the number of teachers supplied for the elementary schools. At Carnarvon Boys' Board School, for instance, the proportion of qualified teachers was one to every seventy of the children. This, he maintained, was wrong in principle, because it meant that those children who had the least home advantages were treated with the greatest amount of neglect in the matter of school teaching.
[NOTE.—We have pleasure in stating that a short article will appear here weekly from the pen of Philip Sydney. It will, as a rule, deal with some topic of local interest other than the purely theological and political. Communications for the writer's consideration may be sent to him c/o Editor, "Welsh Gazette.] VIII.—ST. MARY'S (WELSH) CHURCH. Has not the time arrived for the Welsh Church to remove to a building in a more prominent part of the town, and to use the present church for a second congregation or possibly a mission church ? For the size of the town, the Welsh Church is greatly at a discount in both site and accommoda- tion, considering that the Nonconformists have nine places of worship, with congregations varying from 700 to 100, to one for the Welsh Church, but certainly a good one, with a congregation number- ing 278 on the occasion of my visit. To strangers and visitors, St. Mary's is surely hard to find, standing in its side street, out of the beaten track. On the other hand, most of the chapels occupv very prominent sites, which command easy observa- tion. Judging from the congregation worshipping in St. Mary's, and the zeal of its leaders, it should not be at all a difficult task to erect a second Welsh church in this town before the twentieth century is many years old. Few services can be more hearty and at the same time reverent, than St. Mary's. There are unmistakable signs of life and reality there; the worshippers are essentially of the working class- that backbone of our land—and of all ages grey heads not a few, being balanced by youths and maidens, who hold the near future in their hands. Built in or about the year 1865, and consecrated by the late Bishop Thirlwall, of memory revered and precious, St. Maiy's has had no small share in the life of the town. The church consists of chancel, nave of five arches, and two small side aisles. Over the chancel is the motto :—" Nid oes yma ond Ty i Dduw A dyina Borth y Nefoedd." The communion table is visible from all sittings, which are free and open benches. On the super table are a simple cross and two vases of flowers. The three-light coloured window in the chancel is part of the chancel window of the old St. Michael's Church; in the left aisle being the window representing St. Mary and St. David, placed there by worshippers and other friends to the memory of the late Dean Philips, of St. David's, who for a quarter of a century was the loved vicar of Aberystwyth, and mainly responsible for the building of this church. The choir is both strong and good, consisting of men and boy., on one side, and women and girl's on the other. It is not surpliced. From the beginning it has had for its teacher Mr. John Williams, who, in his mellow old age, still wields the baton with power, and gives his choir a practice after evening service. It should be noticed in passing, that many of the local G.P.O. officials are in the choir, and all the choristers take a hearty interest in their work. The Psalms are rendered in the old manner, verse by verse between minister and people. The organist is Miss Griffiths, daughter of Mr. Tom Griffiths, so long a faithful worshipper and office bearer, who is assiduous in his attention to the wants of all the worshippers. The hymn book in use is that recently compiled by Daniel Lewis Lloyd, D.D., Bishop of Bangor. One of the hymns sung in the service under notice was Newman's 11 Lead, kindly Light," translated h into Welsh by J. Arthur Jackson, B.A.. who has also translated hymns by E Chatterton Dix, Faber, James Montgomery, and other composers. Owing tothe lofty and high pitched roof, the ventilation is much superior to many other local places of worship,. The preacher who took the whole service as well, was the Rev. J. Lloyd, one of the curates under Archdeacon Prothero. Taking for his text St. Matthew, xx, 13, his sermon was delivered clearly, and with a fluency most pleasing to the hearer. Every word in it, as well as in the reading of the lessons, was able to be heard, a feature alas more rare than it ought to be, when Colleges pay no small amount of attention to voice management and delivery. The Archdeacon takes his turn in the services here as well as at St Michael's and one can see his hand and his thought in all the details of the services and Church matters. PHILIP SIDNEY.
[This column is devoted to contributions on Local Antiquites, Folklore, Place Names, etc.] The First Book Printed in Wales. From time to time there has been consider- able controversy as to the first book printed in Wales, and to the locale of the first printing press in Wales.. The earliest allusion to printing in Wales is to be found and believe in the Martin- Mar Prelate Tracts sometimes attributed to John Penry. In one of them mention is made of a cer- tain John Thackwell, a Popish printer of books in the Welsh language. The Government is aecused of harbouring John Thackwell and of allowing him to print books in Wales, while at the same time siezing and destroying the printing press and plant of Waldergrave, the Brownist printer and un- prisoning Waldegrave himself. It is curious that no mention is made of John Thackwell in any book on Printing, and that none of his books seem to have been preserved. Considering this fact and also the state of Wales at the time, it is nearly certain that the writers of the Martin-Mar Prelate Tracts were mistaken, though they may have had some grounds for their objection that Popish books in the Welsh language were circulated in Wales. In fact, it is well known teat about that time (1588) various Popish books were in currency in the oountry, e.g., Dr. Griffith Roberts' Welsh Grammar, 1567; the Athrawiaeth Grist'nogol of 1568, and notably the Drych Cristionogawl of 1585. It has also been asserted that a printing press found its way into Wales at the time of the civil war, and that pamphlets were printed at Newtown, in Mont- gomeryshire. This fact has not been clearly proved, and even had it been a difference should be d awn bntween a mere travelling press and a fixed printing press existing not for Government purposes but solely for the printing of books. Hitherto it has been thought that the first Welsh Printing Press was fixed at Adpar or Trefhedyn in fardiganshire, a village on the Cardiganshire side of theTeifi, opposite Newcastle Emlyn. It has also been asserted by the best known and most compe- tent twelsh Bibliogrophers that a :book called "Eglurhad o Gatechism Byraf y Gymanfa o waith Thomas Vincent" was the first book printed at their press. However, I recently dis- covered rn earlier book printed' at the Trefhedyn press in 1718. It has the following title and colophon:— Can ar Fesur Triban ynghylch Cydwybod a'i Chynheddfau Argraphwyd yn Nhre-Hedyn, gan Isaac Carter yn y Flwyddyn 1718." It is a small pamphlet of eight pages and consists of a poem on The Conscience." The first verse runs as follows:- A garo'n fyw'n ddibryder, Mewn heddweh ac esmwythder, Cad wed ef yn bur ar wau Gydwybod lan bob amser. In the Llyfryddiaeth y Cymru," Rowlands makes mention of an edition of Holl Ddyledswydd Dyn." printed at Wrexham in 1718, but it has lately been proved almost to a certainfy that no such book was ever published, so that the above mentioned little tract has the honour of represent- ing what Lewis Morrss called "Morwyndod yr Argraffwasg yn Nghymru," It is gratifying to our self-esteem to find that the first printing press in Wales should have been established in Cardigan- shire. Though they started withia treat on Con- science, Welsh printers do not seem to have had a very close connection with the imputies of con- science since, let us hope the proprietor of the Welsh Gazette," the most recent of publishers and printers, will keep to the original motto. C.C.
THE COCKETT TUNNEL COLLAPSE. It is said on good authority that it is in the highest degree improbable that the accident to the Cockett Tunnel will in any way facilitate the placing of Swansea on the main line. When the Mayor of Swansea waited upon the directors some time ago he mentioned E500,000 as the sum for which the change could be made, but, however anxious the directors might be to help Swansea- and some of them certainly would like to do so- they have not many half-millions to spare on a work which would bring little return. Mr. Inglis, the Chief Engineer to the Great Western Railway, said the cause of the fall was a rotten piece of ground above. From 400 to 500 tons had fallen. He thought there was little chance of more falling. The tunnel would certainly be repaired. Mr. Allen said that the whole damage was contained in a space lest; than 20ft. square. He did not think the Board of Trade would require to interfere in the matter, as there had been no loss of life. The prejudice, if any, to the tunnel would disappear in time.
CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEKLY AND FORTNIGHTLY EXCURSIONS. Commencing Wednesday, May 24th, and every I Wednesday in June, July and August, Cheap Weekly and Fortnightly Tickets will be issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Dolgelley, Barmouth, Harlech, Portmadoc, Cricc- ieth, Pwllheli, Machynlleth, Llanidloes, Rhayader, Builth Wells, Newtown, Montgomery, Oswestry, Ellesmere and Wrexham, to London (Euston and Paddington), available for the return on the following Wednesday or Wednesday week. Similar Tickets will be issued from London dur- ing the same period, available for return on the following Monday, Wednesday, Monday week or Wednesday week. C. S. DENNIS, General Manager. Owestry, May, 1899.
CAMBRIAN RAILWAYS. WEEK-END TICKETS are issued every FRIDAY and SATURDAY from all L. ic N. W. and G. W. Stations in LONDON TO ABERDOVEY, ABERYST- WYTH, DOLGELLEY, AND BARMOUTH. Available for return on the following Sunday (where train service permits) Monday, or Tuesday. For full particular see small hand bills. CHEAP WEEK END EXCURSION TICKETS ARE NOW ISSUED ON EVERY FRIDAY AND SATURDAY TO "'Birmingham, *Wolverhampton, "'Walsall, Peter- borough, *Leicester, "'Derby, *Burton-on-Trent, ""Stafford, ""Coventry, Manchester, Preston, Black- burn, Bolton, Leeds, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Birkenhead, Wigan and Warrington z;1 FROM Oswestry, Llanymynech, Llanfyllin, Montgomery, Welshpool, Newtown, Llanidloes, Machynlleth, Borth, Aberystwyth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Portmadoc, Penrhyndeudraeth, Criccieth, and Pwlheli, Simhar tickets are issued from Aberystwyth, Borth, Aberdovey, Towyn, Barmouth, Dolgelley, Harlech, Penrhyndeudraeth, Portmadoc, Criccieth, and Pwllheli to SHREWSBURY. *Tickets to these Stations are not issued from Welshpool.; Passengers return OR the Monday or Tuesday following issue of ticket. THOUSAND-MILE TICKETS. The Cambrian Railways Company issue FIRST CLASS 1,000 and 500 MILE TICKETS, the coupons of which enable the purchasers to travel between Stations on the Cambrian Railways during the period for which the tickets are available until the coupons are exhausted. The price of each is P.5 5s Od 1,000 miles, and £ 2 17s 6d, 500 miles being about lid per mile. Application for the 1,000 or 500 mile tickets must be made in writing, giving the full name and address of the purchaser and accompanied by a remittance, to Mr W. H. Gough, Superintendent of the Line, Cambrian Railways, Oswestry (cheques to be made payable to the Cambrian Co. or order), from whom also books containing 100 certificates for authorising the use of the tickets by purchasers' family, guests, or employees can be obtained, price 6d each book; remittance to accompany order. C. S. DENNISS, General Manager. Oswestry, March 1899. 1 Good, Cbeap, ØJt Quick printing EXECUTED AT THB = 6aztttt = Printeries, PRICES ON APPLICATION. Posters. Handbills. Memorial Cards. I Orders by Post receive prompt and careful attention. Business Notices. TAILORING ESTABLISHMENT, 1 S T*im ftTREET' A BERYSTW'YTH. DAVID JAMES. Suitings,. Coatings, Trouserings, &c., in the best fashion and at reasonable prices. Cricketing and Boating Suits made to order on the Shortest Notice. FOR WELSH WOOLLEN GOODS GO TO ■ROWLAND MORGAN, LONDON HOUSE, ABERYSTWYTH. WM. THOMAS, COAL AND LIME MERCHANT, ABERYSTWYTH. BRICKS, SLATES & PIPES of every description always in Stock. DAVID MORGAN, DRAPERY AND MILLINERY ESTABLISHMENT, 18, TRIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTIL DAVID EVANS, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER & OPTICIAN, 399 GAT D ARKGATE s T., ABERYSTWYTH, (Opposite the Lion Royal Hotel,) Invites your attention to his Choice Stock of JEWELLERY, Comprising all the Latest Designs and mast Fashion- able Patterns in GOLD, SILVER, PEBBLES & JET. SILVER PLATE SUITABLE FOR PRESENTATIONS. GOLD AND SILVER WATCHES J IN GREAT VARIETY. H. H. DA YIE S, PHOTOGRAPHER. PIER STREET, (Removed one door above.) ABERYSTWYTH. HH. D., having removed to larger premises^ • begs to inform the public generally that b* is now enabled, with the be ter facilities at hi* disposal, to execute all orders p omptly. In thanking his numerous patronisers for their kiØ()'! support in the past, he trusts that his care an attention will merit a continuance of the same. — —— MRS. M. E. J) A VIES. CONFECTIONER. pIER STREET, A BERYSTWYT 1 HAVING given up the Confectionery business begs to thank her numerous customers to* their past support and to state that she will sti^ retain her DINING ROOMS which she trusts will continue to receive a share pubHc patronage. I. AND G. LLOYD9 COACHBUILDERS, ALFRED PLACE, ABERYSTWYTH. 1 Carriages made to order on the shortest notice. Experienced Men kept for all Branched CARRIAGES FOR SALE. SUMMER FASHIONS. C. M. WILLIAMS BEGS respectfully to announce that he is nOv showing a good selection of NEW GOODS SUITABLE FOR THE PRESENT SEASON. NEW HATS AND BONNETS. NEW MILLINERY. J|EW FEATHRRS AND FLOWERS. ~J^"EW RIBBONS AND LACES. NEW DRESS MATERIALS. NEW GOWNS AND SILK SCARFS. NEW SILK UMBRELLAS, &c. NOTED HOUSE FOR STYLISH HATS AND BONNETS. SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO MOURNING ORDERS. GENTS' NEWEST SHAPES IN HATS AND CAPS, TIES, SCARES COLLARS, CUFFS, &C. Inspection respectfully invited. C. M. WILLIAMS, GENERAL JJKAPERY JfSTABLISHMENT, 1 10. PIER STREET, ABERYSTWYTH.