.=-=- Business Notices. j A -F m > WELSH TWEEDS AND HOMESPUNS BEAT THE WORLD FOR HARD WEAR t^u DIRECT FROM THE MILLS. &M&3L ROYAL EISTEDDFOD rRAIIF, NEARK. ABERYSTWYTH, 1865. IBHlMlfflPP PRIZE MEDALS. CHESTER, 1866. lKg*l £ > ESTABLISHED OVER /SBMEh CESTCKY AND HALF. PATRONISED BY H.R.H. PRINCESS OF WALES ALSO NOBILITY, CLERGY AND GENTRY THROUGHOUT THE UNITED KINGDOM. Also Her Majesty the 4h Empress of Austria. Guaranteed Hand-Spun and Hand-Woven fiom Pure Mountain Wool Only. The only RELIABLE MATERIALS for Cycling, Golfing, Travelling, Fishing, Shooting, Walking, and General Wear. Beautifully Soft, Durable and Warm—suitable for Ladies, and Gents' Wear and ati Seasons and Climates. ril Also, Real Welsh Flannels, Blankets, Shirtings, Skirtings, Shawls, Carriage and TK* Travelling Rugs. Germany. ASTOUNDING YALUE. Demna1'l¡;. HIGH CLASS TAILORING. TAILOR-MADE COSTUMES-A Speciality. Please mention Welsh wBrfciP ALL PARCELS CARRIAGE PAID. JBh«b4?9B PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. Patterns, Price Lists, and Measurement Forms Post Free—with any range desired 7*^ Postal and P.O. Orders, Cheques .—Made payable to J. MEYRICK JONES, LIMITED. Russia. MIS: FACT°UOK! STREET M> FRONGOCH MILLS. 31EYRICK STREET. A J. MEYRICK JONES, Ltd., Royal Welsh Woollen Warehouse, Dolgelley, North Wales. GARDEN SEEDS OF ALL KINDS. Agricultural Seeds OF THE FINEST QUALITY. EARLY POTATOES HADAU! HADAU!! Hadau Gerddi Hadau Amaethyddol Tatw Cynar Ceirch Had Haidd Gwenith Gwanwyn O'R FATH OREU AM Y ^PRISIATJ ISELAF. AR WERTH GAN c. Powell Si Co., Market Street, ABERYSTWYTH. THE jlBERYSTWYTH Jg NAMELLEB t s LATEWORKS, IPV OFEIVALK, ABRRYSTWYTH. MANUFACTURERS OF ENAMELLED SLATE CHIMNEY PIECES. Slab3 of every description always in stock. Prices and estimates on application. LATEST DESIGNS IN Iftetitoriai Cards AT THE WELSH GAZETTE." Charges Moderate* HALF-YEARLY SALE!! JOHN RICHARDS & Co., ABERYSTWYTH AND COUNTY TAILORS, Drapers, Hatters, Hosiers, Athletic Outfitters, and Juvenile Clothiers, ALSO LADIES' COSTUMES A SPECIALITY, ONLY MEN TAILORS EMPLOYED, BEG to inform their numerouse customers that they will give t EXTRA DISCOUNT OF 3$. IN THE POUND FOR ALL ORDERS TAKEN DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH FOR CASH. ALSO 4$. IN THE POUND OFF MEN'S, YOUTHS', AND BOYS' READY-MADE CLOTHING FROM STOCK, MADE TO OUR ORDER BY BEST MAKERS. GREAT REDUCTION IS 31ADE IN ALL DEPARTMENTS FOR CLEARANCE. Umbrellas, MacíntosheSt Portmanteaus, Travelling RugSt Carriage Apronst and Cheap Mats-Good Value. t GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. A C a.m. p.m. P-m- p.m. p.m. ABERYSTWYTH Dept. 8 25 12 30 1 15 1 15 6 25 WREXHAM Arr. 1 42 5 28 5 43 6 47 10 ^6 CHESTER- 77 IB30 5 55 6 8 710 10 53 LIVERPOOL (Landing Stace) 111) 2B40 7 0 7 20 8 0 12 15 MANCHESTER (Exchange) 3B 2 8 10 8 10 8 37 WOLVERHAMPTON 2 13 6 0 BIRMINGHAM 2 38 I Wednes- 6 27 LONDON (Paddingtoli)- 5 20 days only 10 50 A.-THROUGH CARRIAGE for Wolverhampton, Birmingham, and London by this Train, and Passengers are allowed one hour at Shrewsbury for Lunch. B.—Via Shrewsbury. C yia Dolgelley. Passengers wishing to travel by this Train should ask for Tickets via Dolgelley when booking. PASSENGERS ARE REQUESTED TO ASK FOR TICKETS BY THE GREAT WESTERN ROUTE. Every Information respecting Great Western Train Service can be obtained of Mr. J. ROBERTS, 15, Terrace Road, Aberystwyth, or of Mr. G. GRANT, Divisional Superintendent, G.W.R., Chester. PADDINGTON STATION. J. L. WILKINSON, General Manager. HUSBANDS STUDY YOUR WIVES EASE AND COMFORT BY PURCHASING ONE OF SELLERS' WASHERS. !;d p t"i rJ2 p 0 r:n Vol tj tr:J 0 IJ:: 00. r. 00 t4 A o to3 P-4 ;114 r.1 II: z.. ž> 0 r:FJ. t:r: t1 I-tj C-4 00. r.l c::j 0 o Z w. 0 t" lwatson's r:n L tz=j 8 00 tz 00 t" o E-4 tt:I NO WELSH HOME COMPLETE WITHOUT ONE. S A fARY DAYIES & SON, LLANON JJOUSE, A BERAYRON Als) Agents for the leading Makers of all kinds of Implements. Mr. HUGHES DAVIES attends Monthly Markets at Tregaron.. WILLIAM PEOBIN. RELIANCE HOUSE\?deat Market AND 15, PIER STREET, Working Watchmaker, Lapidary, and Jeweller. —————— Purchaser of Brilliants, Old Gold and Silver, Modern and Antique Plate. 1. LOVEDAY, PLUMBER, PAINTER. GLAZIER, GAS-FITTER 117, QUEEN STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. COMPLETE HOUSE FURNISHING. EOR THE BEST VALUE IN FURNITURE I CALL AT V EDWARD ELLIS'S FURNISHING WAREHOUSE. JJTTLE J^ARKGATE ^TREET A BERYSTWYTH. A UCTIONEER, VALUER, HOUSE AND INSTATE A GENT. NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. READER.—Many thanks; regret we can.Rot as yet give a weekly column in Welsh similar to the 11 Leisure Hour." QUERIST.-It is the method of the Jesuist- shrewd and cunning. Do you i-emembct the story of a certain Xavier who boasted that he had made thirty thousand converts to the Catholic faith on an uninhabited island in the South Seas ? We are reminded of it by the brag of the man with his pulpit and imaginary weekly congre ga,tion of twenty or thirty thousand. Why not give the truth in simple figures instead of the product of X multiplied byX.
Ji:ü:'ilÐl&L }jl n iQ!.s-'t. tb Eatt Dr. Cbarks Edwards. NEVER was there a. time when the leaders of Welsh thought and Welsh life were so abundantly summoned home to their rest; some after a long period of hard successful work, some in their youth in the midst of a full promise of great achievements. And just now we are face to face with a void and a gap which tears of grief blind us to see how it is to be filled. The death of THorAs CHARLES EDWARDS was no sudden event, for our minds had been, fortunately, prepared for it. But when the news spread like wild- fire over the whole of our land, it was felt that a truly national loss had been sustained. For Dr. EDWARDS was not a man, of sect, though a Methodist; he belonged rather to the broadest and deepest religious thought which underlies every Church. He was acknowledged by all who are competent to judge as the greatest exponent of the eternal principles of Christianity, and he possessed the magic power to present his ideas as living realities to all who listened to him. He was in contact with, and influenced all the springs and sources of all activity in Wales for the last thirty years, and in this manner he faithfully carried on the great traditions of his father-Dr. LEWIS EDWARDS, who created a new era in the history of Wales,, and who was, undoubtedly, the greatest philosopher and most penetrative intellect that Wales ever produced; and it is a disgrace to Penllwyn, as his birthplace, that no monument has as yet been raised to commemorate his memory. Though Wales may point out to many remarkable reformers on the roll of the past, still we venture to think that there is no one who combined such polished scholarship and such intellectual power, with sach enthusiastic energy and passionate devotion to, his ideals as THOMAS CUARLEi EDWARDS. His memory will ever be fresh and green as a preacher, but equally important is his connection with our national system of edu- cation. Just as CHARLES of Bala established the Sunday school, just as his father founded Bala College for the Calvinistic Methodists, so Dr. CHARLES EDWARDS made the University College of Wales a success, in spite of difficulties and obstacles which would have broken the heart of a less enthusiastic man and it is known to all who have thought over our national educational growth that the success of the College at Aberystwyth is the great reason for the establishment of two other colleges in Korth and South Wales, and for the foundation of our Welsh University. We need not follow his history as Principal of the College,—we only assert, on full knowledge of the past, that the College would not be in existence at present if it had not been for his personal enthusiasm and self-sacrifice on its behalf. There is no class of the Welsh people wha are not struggling under a deep sense of loss at his death. The peasants of Wales have lost a popular preacher who revealed to them the spiritual world* and its laws in a clear and fascinating manner. Scholars on the Continent re-echo the wail of Welsh Biblical scholars at his death. The Welsh University, so largely the outcome of his own personal endeavour, has lost its most noted personality and its most eager supporter, and we rejoice to think he was the first to be honoured by the University with the honorary title of Doctor of Divinity. By doing this graceful act, the University only honoured itself, and the ;act was hailed throughout Wales as an honour bestowed on one who had richly deserved it. A vast concourse of people of all ranks and all shades of opinion assembled together OD Tuesday to pay him the last tribute of respect at his funeral. The procession was a very imposing and impressive spectacle, and served as evidence of his popularity, and the affection in which the Great Dead was held. The College of Aberystwyth was fully represented by nearly five hundred members of staff and students, who shared the real grief of the students and staff of Bala College. In addition, there were generations of Dr. EDWARDS' old students, whose life he shaped and whose character he moulded. Merionethshire, the county of his birth and of his death, and Cardiganshire, the county of his greatest deeds and of his burial place, naturally flocked to the graveside to shew their thankfulness for his service, and their sympathy with the bereaved children. It may be only a matter of sentiment, but we frequently heard it expressed by the natives of Merioneth that they thought Llanycil,— the resting place of CHARLES of Bala and of Dr. LEWIS EDWARDS, so rich in its sacred associations, and so beautifully situated in its eternal peace on the edge of Bala Lake— the most becoming sleeping ground for Dr. EDWARDS. We will not utter a word against this sacred feeling of the men of the northern county, we only express on behalf of Cardigan and the College, how glad we are to have his body among us to. enrich our cemetery with sacred thoughts, and to rest by the side of his wife, who so greatly and lovingly helped him in his great trials and work. Aberystwyth Cemetery is, to-day, a veritable God's acre to the Methodists of the whole of Wales, for in its sacred: mould lie all that was mortal of two great masters of their seats of learning—Principal DAVID CHARLES DAVIES, cf Trevecca Theological College, and Principal THOMAS CHARLES EDWARDS, of Bala Theological College. It is known that Dr. EDWARDS did not realise his ideal,—to establish one great theological centre of teaching in Wales, not only for his own denomination but for all sects and creeds. The pursuit of this lofty object overtaxed his energy, and he has left the task behind him for others to accomplish. We only hope and trust that the magic of his personality, and the light of his policy and advice will serve as a fresh inspiration for a younger generation to follow in his steps, and to devote themselves to the noble objects which were ever so dear to the Great Chief, whose presence we so greatly miss, and whose loss we so deeply mourn
SANITATION FOR THE PEOPLE. [BY DR. WALKER.] III.-METHOD. (Continued.) Ix order to have pure air we must remove the sources of impurity. Waste matter is not destroyed by nature, but transformed chiefly by bacterial agency into new forms of life. This metamorphosis is not agreeable or beneficial to health; hence the necessity for the removal of decaying matter. Such matter may be either in a solid, semi-solid, or liquid state. The removal of solid waste or dust is now better attended to. by public authorities, but its disposal is ^usually badly managed- Owing to its nature it is unsuited for agricultural purposes, and it is usually shot on waste land in extensive heaps. In course ef time this land probably becomes valuable, by increase of population, and is ac- quired by some speculative builder, and covered with pretty jerry-built villas, where epidemic disease finds a favour- able field. Acres of good land are thus deliberately wasted or worse. By the simple and really economical process of burning, for it makes excellent fuel, not only can this refuse be got rid of, but the heat can be used in generating electric light, or producing compressed air for the pneumatic removal of sewage, and the. residuum from the furnaces is useful for road making. Private cleaning is no less important. Furnishings which harbour dust should be discarded as far as possible, for the alliance between dust and disease is a close and sinister one. Heavy bed hangings have disappeared with the antiquated- four poster, and carpets are giving way to non- retentive floor coverings. But a ceaseless and viligant war should be waged against dust. In corners, on the top of furniture, in books, clothing, &c., lurks the bacteria- loving dust, which should be got rid of not by raising it in clouds to come down again as thickly as before, and not by an annual spring cleaning which unites the maximum amount of discomfort with the minimum of success, but by frequent systematic and common sense methods. "Dirt is good matter in the wrong place says a witty writer, and the wrong place is emphatically our homes, clothing, and persons. Semi-solid and liquid waste, called sewage, nature designed as a soil fertilizer, and in country places it can be effectually and innocuously used as such by irrigation, when sun and air with soil-bacteria quickly deprive it of power for mischief. Our forefathers were content with that unspeakable abomination the cesspit, from which the fluid contents gradually soaked, and often polluted the neighbouring well. Then the cesspool, with its watertight walls, was only one degree better, and its emptying a source of con- tamination to the air for many hundreds of yards. The disposal of the contents of these receptacles in their highly decomposed condition, was a matter of difficulty, being often discharged on grass land when cattle were grazing, and in close proximity to dwellings. In country places Moule's dry-earth system with daily removal is excellent, though, of course, not without objections. The modern sewer, now universally used in populous places, is an improvement only under favourable circum- stances. Though it appears at first sight a very great advance, it has many serious disadvantages. It is usually constructed of brick which is a porous material, and cannot. be laid with the desirable degree of smooth- ness and regularity. This permits a certain amount of oozing, and interferes with the rapidity of the current. The greatest objection to the sewer is experienced when its fall or descent is insufficient. The warmth of the interior and the unnecessary size of the sewer (for storm water must be accommodated occasionally) allows of volumes of noxious gas, being produced, whidl is liable to be forced through traps and cmse bad health. It would be a grw;„t advantage if storm water, and the discharge from if storm water, and the discharge from manufactures not injurious to health, could be disposed of otherwise, and the sewer used only for domestic and offensive -r £ waste. Rapid flow depends on a good fall. Glazed pipes of iron or earthen- ware are much to be preferred, and, with a very rapid fall, a comparatively small size suffices for an ordinary town. There is no time or room for decomposition and gas formation, and ventilation is less needed. With a large sewer and poor fall ventilation by artificial extraction is absolutely necessary. The worst features of the sewer are ex- perienced in a town which is partly (or wholly) low-lying, as Aberystwyth is. The sewer must be laid lower than the basement of the lowest house, as unfortunately, water will not run up hill. Thus the sewer may be laid almost level and its contents crawl along, the heavier matter remaining and evolving hugh quantities of gas. It requires frequent flushing which is seldom effectual, and constant ventilation which is not a cure. The discharge of the sewage at its outfall is always a difficult problem. The sea, as being powerfully disinfectant, is the best for seaside towns rivers, from which the water supply is drawn, are not good. A lake is most objectionable. Irrigation is excellent in suitable places. But science has discovered means of treatment by which sewage may be purified and the* effluent rendered clear and inodorous. One method is precipitation, which permits the solids to fall and the fluids to escape. By means of chemical substances the effluent is deprived of turbidity and odour. The remaining sludge is then removed and deposited on the land or carried out to sea. Another, and in theory a more perfect method, is on its trial, ViE.: bacterial filtration, by which the crude sewage is treated by one type of bacteria (anaerobic) which liquify the crude sewage, and then by another (aerobic) which nitrifies it, and converts it into a soil fertilizer. The effluent is clear and free from smell in which fish can live. The difficulties in this system are its expense, and the rapid fouling of the filters. It has been used with success in America, and is now on trial at London, Manchester, and other places. Another type of bacterial treatment: is Cameron's septic tank which is in use at Exeter and other places, and promises well. In this town the sewer has in parts a, very poor fall; the present outlet is in, a very dangerous position, and the proposed altera- tion is open to objection. To remedy the first named, I have already in your columns urged the adoption of the Shone Pneumatic Ejector" which could automatically and economically raise the sewage to any required extent. The system can be partially applied to the lower parts of the town, and thus lead to no very heavy expense, and the. money would be wisely spent. The outlet now suggested, though, of course, a very great improvement, is not perfect. With a low -river flow and a south-west or westerly gale the sewage will be driven on the foreshore. The proposal of the Local Government Board is the same that I suggested in the postcript of my recent letter, viz., to place the outfall oil the beach south of the stone pier. With a long pipe carried below water, it need not be an eyesore or a nuisance. If the sewage were elevated there would be no serious engineering difficulties to contend with. An article on drainage would not be complete without insisting upon the most perfect domestic arrangements. These briefly consist of the ventilation of the soil pipe with an inlet and outlet; a good flush and wash out, wash down, or valve basin sink, bath and other waste pipes delivering in the open air and lastly, a complete aerial disconnection of the house drains with the sewer.
NOTES AND COMMENTS. This triumph intellect has over death: Our words yet live on others' lips; our thoughts Actuat others. Can that man be dead Whose spiritual influence is upon his kind 1 He lives in glory; and such speaking dust Has more of life than half its breathing moulds. -L. E. L.NDON. A movement has been started in Mer- ionethshire in favour of the formation of a volunteer batallion for the county. Meetings have already been held in support of the movement in various parts of the county. Alderman Foulkes Roberts, of Man- chester, celebrated his 82nd birthday last Saturday. Many happy returns of the day is the sincere wish of all his old comrades and of his numerous unknown admirers. Perhaps the most definite hint of the in- tentions of the Government in regard to a dissolution, if the progress of the war permit; it, is to be found in an intimation to the members of the Parliamentary Bar that they are to get through ther work by the middle of June. I I Mr. Strachey has given notice of an inter- esting amendment to the bill for extending the operation of the Workmen's Compensa- tion Act to agricultural labourers. The amendment proposes that the responsibility for compensation in these cases shall fall upon the owner, and not the occupier of the land the theory being that the farmer must be in a far better position to bear the expense than the latter. Among the notices of motion for to-day in the House of Commons is the following in the name of Mr. Vaughan-Davies,—To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department, whether his attention has been called to a statement by J. H. Evans, one of the coron- ers for Cardiganshire, in holding an inquest on one Margaret Ann Howell on the 12th intuit, that if jurymen did not understand English they were not eligible to be on the jury, and to the fact that < he gave instruc- in charge of the case not to summon jury men who did not under- stand English, and whether a person other- L wise qualified to sit on a jury at a coroner's inquest in Wales is disqualified by ignorance of the English language and if so, under what statute And, whether a coroner has the power to give directions as to the com- position of the jury at such inquest. The Harlech Nursing Association held its annual meeting this week. The Association is doing excellent work,- and Mrs. W. H. More, the Hon. Secretary, has richly earned the gratitude of a wide neighbourhood. The Medical Officer's report read at the ineetmg of the Llanybyther Rural District Council last Friday, contains much food for serious reflection. The question of a better water supply for the village seems to have been utterly abandoned. At the annual meeting of the Council of the National Liberal Federation at Notting- ham, Dr. Spence Watson the President, delivered an address in the course of which he warmly condemned the policy which led to the war in South Africa and urged the need of moderation in the hour of victory. The Newtown Urban District Council, at a meeting on Monday evening, had under consideration the proposal of the Co-opera- tife Union of Great Britain to erect a hostel in the town as a memorial to Robert Owen, the Socialist. The Council are giving the Z!1 movement every assistance. The Cheshire Chamber of Agriculture at a meeting held yesterday at Crewe passed a resolution calling for more stringent regu- lations with a view to compelling owners of dogs to keep them under proper control, ,and giving farmers a right to shoot any dog found doing damage to farm stock. 0 A meeting of the Court of Governors of the University College of Wales was held at Bala, on Friday, under the presidency of lr. Alderman Foulkes Roberts, of Manchester. Principal Roberts' statement was full of interest and encourfigement. A report of the proceedings is printed in another part of the paper. At a meeting of the Montgomery Boroughs Liberal Association a recommendation of the Executive Committee in favour of the adoption of Mr. John Albert Bright as the Liberal candidate at the next general election was enthusiastically adopted. The Liberals of the Montgomery Boroughs may be con- gratulated upon having secured as their candidate at the next general election so estimable a public man as Mr. John Albert Bright. Mr. Bright is not only the son of a great-British statesman he has himself a creditable record in the matter of public work. The Duke of Devonshire's speech has quickened rather than checked the movement against the new Education Code. The Duke admits the serious loss inflicted on the most efficient schools, especially the higher grade schools, and confesses that the freedom in school management and curriculum which it was expected would be the great advantage of a system of block grants is not secured. It is only by a close examination of the details of the new Code that teachers and school managers are discovering that the trammels of a written Code are to be replaced by a despotic power given to the inspectors.. Those who were at first inclinced to welcome,, the new Code grew more doubtful as its real character is revealed. The movement tQ, promote an increased and more intelligent interest in gardening is spreading-far and wide. We rejoice- to find that Llanybyther has extended such a hearty welcome to it, and that a branch of the Paxton Society was established at the village last week.. With two such genuine gardeners as Colonel Davies-Evans, High- mead, and Mr. Frank Lloyd, Lampeter to support it, the movement is assurad of success in the Vale of Teify. The Lord- Lieutenant, who- occupied the chair, promised to assist the villagers in every possible way -whether it would be by work, or by money, or by whatever influence he possessed. It does one's heart good to read his kind words, but to those who know Colonel, Davies- Evans well they do not come as a surprise. The manifesto in the interests of peace has been published. It includes among its signatories a number of Welsh professors. The Aberystwith Univeristy College is rep- resented by Professors C. H. Herford, J. M. Angus, H. Lloyd Snape, D. M. Lewis, J. H. Salter and E. Edwards; the Bangor Uni- versity College by Professor Arnold and the Cardiff University College by Professor Pawel. The signatories do not, of course, represent the Colleges in any official sense in this matter. Some of the leading men of light and learning in the Kingdom have ap- pended their signatures to the manifesto. Among many others we find the names of such distinguished men as Herbert Spencer, Alfred Russel Wallace, Dr. Kitchin, Dean of Durham, Canon Hicks, Dr, Alexander Bain, Walter Crane, Oscar Browning, Frederic Harrison, Dr. R. D. Roberts, Dr. Goldwin Smith, professor of Modern History, Oxford, and author of the Empire," and James Sulley, professor of philosophy and logic in the University College, London, and author of "The Human Mind." The Paris Municipal Council has just enacted a new street regulation which, though it will probably meet with the approval of the medical faculty, is hardly likely to please a considerable number of the Parisians. Henceforth, under penalty of fine, or, in default imprisonment, it will be forbidden to spit in the Paris street. It is said that the councillor who brought forward this proposal on Friday last, was greeted at first with the derisive laughter of his colleagues, but when he I to his subject, and descanted on the number of infectious complaints propagated by pro- miscuous expectoration, the whole of the council, with the exception of one member, rallied to his views. Those who may wish to spit when out of doors will, it seems, henceforth have to avail themselves of one or other of the public lavatories. The council has voted a sum of money for setting up notices in all the streets, and the regulation is to be carried into effect with the least possible delay. It is, says the Manchester Guardian, characteristic of Lord Roberts that in his despatch he should dwell strongly on the humanity shown by the Boers to our officers wounded near the Modder river. In their treatment of our wounded the Boers have always done their duty, and interpreted it in the largest and most generous spirit. Lord Roberts's cordial acknowledgment in his despatch of their kindness to the wounded officers will not surprise anyone who knows both the character of our commander and the history of this or of the last war. This despatch, like Lord Methuen's tribute to the gallantry and generosity of Commandant Cronje and his troops, than whom, be said at Kimberley, "he had never seen enemies less vindictive," will make many Englishmen feel with a thrill of pleasure that their Generals, at least, are untainted by the current habit of blackening as far as possible the character of those with whom we are at war. Lord Methuen's treatment, for example, of abuses of the white flag was the true utterance of a chivalrous and upright man concerned alike for the observance on all hands of the humanities of war, and for the good name of British soldiers as just and generous judges of the actions of their enemit s.