-7'_ Business Notices. -N7 s RFL "rEISH TWEEDS AND HOMESPUNS BEAT THE WORLD FOR HARD WEAR BEAT DIRECT FROM THE MILLS. ROYAL EISTEDDFOD 18GJ. PRIZE AfEDALS. CHESTER, 1866. A& P ESTABLISHED OVER, CENTURY AND HALF. « V H- R. H. P R INC ES S OF WALES ALSO NOBILITY, CLERGY AND GENTRY IXXK0UGH°UT ™E UXTTE™ KINbD03L Guaranteed Hand-Spun and Hand-Woven from Pure Mountain Wool Only. The only RELIABLE MATERIALS for Cycling, Golfing,^ TravelHng, Fishing, Shooting, Walking^ Also, Real Welsh' Flannels, Blankets, Shirtings, Skirtings, Shawls, Carriage and Travelling Rugs. German, ASTOUNDING VALUE. De"L HIGH CLASS TAILORING. TAILOR-MADE COSTUMES-A Speciality. Please mention —— ALL PARCELS CARRIAGE PAID. —— Mmm* PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. Patterns, Price Lists, and Measurement Forms Post Free-with any range desired E Postal and P.O. Orders, CMqnes :-Made payable to J. MEYRICK JONES, LIMITED. Russin. MILLS: FACTORIES: IDRIS AND LION STREET AND FRONGOCH MEYRICK STREET. ADDRESS J. MEYRICK JONES, Ltd., '7'- /)ontt¿ .AfncrJ,. Royal Welsh Woollen Warehouse, Dolgelley, North Wales. GARDEN SEEDS OF ALL KINDS. Agricultural Seeds OF THE FINEST QUALITY. EARLY POTATOES HADAU! HADAU!! Hadau Gerddi Hadau Amaethyddol Tatw Cynar Ceirch Had Haidd Gwenith Gwanwyn O'R PATH OREU AM Y PEISIAU ISELAF. ¡.¡- ——— AR WERTH GAN C. Pouxll Si Co., Market Street, ABERYSTWYTH. THE jlBERYSTWYTH NAMELLED ks LATEWORKS, JJOPEWALK, A BF.RYSTWYTH. MANUFACTURERS OF ENAMELLED SLATE CHIMNEY PIECES. Slab. of every description always in stock. Prices and estimates on application. LATEST DESIGNS IN l^^oria! Cards AT THE WELSH GAZETTE." Charges Moderate. HALF-YEARLY SALE!! JOHN RICHARDS & Co., ABERYSTWYTH AND COUNTY TAILORS, Drapers, Hatters, Hosiers, Athletic Outfitters, and Juvenile Clothiers, ALSO LADIES' COSTUMES A SPECIALITY, ONLY MEN TAILORS EMPLOYED, EG to inform their numerouse customers that they will give EXTRA DISCOUNT OF 3$. IN THE POUND FOR ALL ORDERS TAKEN DURING THE MONTH OF MARCH FOR CASH. ALSO 4$. IN THE POUND OFF MEN'S, YOUTHS", AND BOYS' READY-MADE CLOTHING FROM STOCK, MADE TO OUR ORDER BY BEST MAKERS. GREAT REDUCTION IS MADE IN ALL DEPARTMENTS FOR CLEARANCE. Umbrellas, Macintoshes* Portmanteaus, Travelling Rugs, Carriage Aprons, and Cheap Mats-Good Value. GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY. — A C a.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. p.m. ABERYSTWYTH Dept. 8 25 12 30 1 15 1 15 6 25 WREXHAM Arr. 1 42 5 28 5 43 6 47 10 26 CHESTER- „ IB30 I 5 55 6 8 7 10 10 53 LIVERPOOL (Landing Stage) „ 2B40 7 0 7 20 j 8 0 12 15 MANCHESTER (Exchange) 3B 2 8 10 8 10 8 37 WOLVERHAMPTON 2 13 6 0 BIRMINGHAM „ 2 38 Wednes- 6 27 LONDON (Paddington)- „ 5 20 jdays only 10 50 | A.—THROUGH CARRIAGE for Wolverhampton, Birmingham, and London by this Train, and Passengers are allowed one hour at Shrewsbury for Lunch. B.—Via Shrewsbury. C.—Via Dolgelley. Passengers wishing to travel by this Train should ask for Tickets el z;1 via Dolgelley when booking. PASSENGERS ARE REQUESTED TO ASK FOR TICKETS BY THE GREAT WESTERN ROUTE. Every Information respecting Great Western Train Service can be obtained of Mr. J. ROBERTS, 15, Terrace Road, Aberystwyth, or of Mr. G. GRANT, Divisional Superintendent, G.W.R., Chester. PADDINGTON STATION. J. L. WILKINSON, General Manager. 0 HUSBANDS STUDY YOUR WIVES EASE AND COMFORT BY PURCHASING ONE OF SELLERS' WASHERS. >4 ê p U2 t-t H m rJ1 p OJ H 0 en. tr.j !:j i-3 H I>O 00 rr. t-t Zp r<> -< 0 if), i-3 < 2;> Pr4 o ø2; o -3 tr.j !:j H pq = æz Z> o if). I> = tj P-¡j 8!d 00 t-3 = q 0 t,4 00 tjl t:: > lWatSO 's U2 t" O'j Saa t-ttr.j Z 00. < tr.jz row 10'-4 ES i-3 00 Z 00 0 00 t" o t4 8 3 œ NO WELSH HOME COMPLETE WITHOUT ONE. S A mary DAVIES & SON, AN N JJOUSE, A BERAYRON Also Agents for the leading Makers of all kinds of Implements. Mr. HUGHES DAVIES attends Monthly Markets at Tregaron.. WILLIAM PROBIN. RELIANCE HOUSEfiSiS AND 15, PIER STREET, Working Watchmaker, Lapidary, and Jeweller. Purchaser of Brilliants, Old Gold and Silver, Modern and Antique Plate. I. LOVED AY, PLUMBER. PAINTER. GLAZIER, GAS-FITTER 17, QUEEN STREET, ABERYSTWYTH. I COMPLETE HOUSE FURNISHING. EOR THE BEST VALUE IN FURNITURE CALL AT EDWARD ELLIS'S FURNISHING WAREHOUSE 28 I/™ j)ARKGATE ^treet A BERYSTWYTH. A UCTIONEER, V ALDER, HOUSE AND ESTATE AGENT. NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. P. W. AND U.C.W.—Life is too short, and space is too valuable to give him much attention. We hare not yet met anyone outside Bedlam who would try to make capital or poke a. fun at the expense of temperance reformers, from a printers' error such as that which occurred in the Manchester Guardian. The temperance party would not do it; and the publicans are too honourable. Comparison is odious. That low man seeks a little thing to do, Sees it and does it: This high man, with a great thing to pursue, Dies ere he knows it."
SANITATION FOR THE PEOPLE. [BY DR. WALKER.] III.—METHOD (Continued). As one of the elements of nature, water is essential to life. The importance of its influence in nature is imperfectly recognized. Two thirds of the human body is composed of water, and in some things we are wont to call solid, the proportion is greater still- With so ubiquitous a substance, its power for good or evil is, as one would expect, enormous. It is usually wielded in nature as a beneficent influence, clean sing the atmosphere and the soil, removing im- purity and fertilizing the earth. In the animal body it is no less .an agent of blessing, carrying away effete and poisonous matters, and distributing nourishment to the tissues. But it may be the means of potent mischief by its very life-sustaining properties. Some forms of bacteria propa- gate in water, and make use of it as a channel by which disease is spread. The frightful scourge of Cholera is chiefly propagated by water, and recent case43, at Maidstone and Worthing prove that typhoid fever is also a water-bourne disease. The purity of the water supply in view of such dangers, and other which could be cited, is therefore of prime importance from a sanitary point of view. The source of the supply is the most important consideration, for there is no more foolish or wasteful policy than drawing water from an impure source, and then expending vast sums in removing the impurity. Yet that is the, egregious folly committed by the citizens of the first city in the world, originally from ignorance but latterly from cupidity and stupidity. The Corporation of Aberyst- wyth have been wise and farseeing in going to the lonely slopes of Plynlimmon for their water. No source is better than a breezy upland, practically uninhabited, and with a large area for collection. It is practically rain water unpolluted by smoke or bacteria. It is probably deficient in mineral salts, and by its softness liable to act on lead pipes and cisterns. A constant service, as at Aberystwyth, makes the latter unnecessary, and diminishes the danger from pipes by keeping them always full and excluding the air. Few towns are so fortunately situated as to secure such a supply. Rivers are most frequently drawn upon. If they are fed from springs and now through sparsely populated country if they are turbulent and rapid so as to be well aerated if they are not polluted by sewage or farm drainage or effluents from manufactures, they are wholesome enough. But how few rivers in this country fulfil these conditions. It is a disgrace to our commonsense and enterprise that so many of our beautiful rivers are poisonous to man and beast. Sewage and other poisonous matter never can be entirely got rid of by natural means, and the mud at the bottom remains more or less offensive. Lakes are sometimes used as the source of supply. When unpolluted by sewage or farm refuse and fed by a good supply of spring or mountain water, they are good enough, though care should be taken to draw from the surface only, and avoid the deeper and less pure layers. If they receive sewage or are fed,, from polluted streams or surface water from farm land they are utterly unsuited for drinking purposes. Carnarvon water supply is from such a source according to Sir W. H. Preece. Shallow wells, which at best contain sub-soil water, and are liable to contamination from the surface, or by infiltration, are a dangerous source of supply. Deep wells, especially tkose fed from springs, are fair but uncertain sources. Artesian wells, which tap sub- terranean reservoirs, produce a pure water, but one usually over rich in mineral salts. Boiling and chemical means may be used to soften such water, which, of course, comes also from chalky and lime stone soils, but it never is suitable for some people, and always a nuisance in domestic operations. A constant service is infinitely best, but where cisterns are needed, they should be of galvanized iron in a safe position from contamination, be kept covered, and ventilated, and frequently cleaned. The service pipes should be of glazed iron or composition, and the mains be kept at a distance from sewers and gas mains. When water is obtained from a source open to suspicion it should be filtered. It is obvious that filter beds should be as far as possible from reach of pollution, and not as in one London district separated by a hoarding from an extensive ash-shoot. The usual filter is sand and gravel in layers, but carbon and iron filters are used at great cost in some cases. Bacterial filtration is in the experimental stage, but promises to surpass all others. For domestic use carbon, iron or unglazed porcelain are best, but to be efficient require constant cleaning and frequent renewal. Where epidemic disease is prevalent or the water is known to be impure, filtration is but a broken reed to trust to. Boiling is the proper resource, even if it makes the water insipid as a beverage. The appearance, taste, or smell of water is a poor test, as sewage contamina- tion often renders it bright and sparkling, and pleasant to taste, as in the historical St. George's Well in London, whose pellucid but polluted water was sent for from long distances, and was the means of spreading cholera broadcast in 1844. There is a fallacy, and a very ridiculous one, that alcohol renders impure water safe for consumption. You will be warned as I was not to drink the Seine water on visiting Paris without qualifying it. I paid no attention to the warning as I deemed it one of the many contradictory reasons urged for indulgence in alcoholic liquors, and I observed the Parisian drinking it freely with their liqueurs and eau sucre. Water examination is of the utmost importance as a sanitary precaution. It ought not to be a per- functory performance as it frequently is, but exhaustive and periodic. The examination I should be both chemical and bacteriological, and the presence of impurity reported without fear or favour. The quantity of water needed is found on an average to be from 25 to 30 gallons per, head of popula- tion. At the seaside, sea water should be use for road watering both from economical and sanitary reasons. -f.
THE NEW EDUCATION CODE. SPEAKING at Nottingham last week Sir EDWARD GREY, in criticising the New Code, said that the Government have not the least suspicion that in this question of education they have been entirely Krugerite, because they have refused to give in Voluntary Schools even that influence, without control, which was exactly what Sir ALFRED MILNER asked at the Bloemfontein Conference. At the Bloemfontein Conference Sir ALFRED MILNER asked Mr. KRUGER to give the Outlanders some representation, not popular representation, but some control over affairs; and that is exactly what has been asked for from Voluntary Schools. This new education code will give more money to the Voluntary Schools. No one will object so much to that, as Earl GREY pointed out. But what every fair-minded man-be he Liberal or Conservative-objects to is that so much money is given to the Voluntary Schools, while at the same time popular control over those schools is denied us. Teachers and experts admit that the New Code contains a sound and excellent principle but that it requires considerable amendment in order to make it popular and practicable. As the Code stands at present the best schools, be they Voluntary or Board Schools, would be discouraged by its working; for they will not be able to earn so much grant as before. The chief objection to the new Code taken by Mr. ACLAND and others is that it proposes to cut-down the higher grants. It lays down that children who have hitherto been earning as much as 27s. for their school shall never again earn more than 22s. This cutting down of the grants will starve the schools of the people. In will discourage, instead of promoting, higher grade schools and unless many of its proposals be eliminated it will put a premium on inefficiency. No one would object giving more money to the Voluntary Schools if we had popular control over those schools. Voluntary Schools are already an anomaly and often a scandal. The National Education Association hare issued a manifesto in which they state that the new Education Code, which has just been laid on the table of both Houses of Parliament, affords another example of the persistent and shameless audacity with which the present Government continues to pay its political supporters for past and prospective services at the poll-booths out of the common purse of the nation at large." The National Education Association does not raise any objection to the principle of a "block grant." They frankly admit that H the substitution of one grant for many may be a desirable educational reform." It is, we believe, generally agreed among men com- petent to form an opinion upon the matter, that this substitution of a single or "block grant for the aggregate of miscellaneous grants now allotted, not only may be, but is a desirable improvement. The block" grant will give a good teacher more elasticity, more scope, and more power to make education thorough, without turning a child into a machine for earning the grant. Mr. J. H. YOXALL, M.P., says the 5 block' grant, with its consequent freedom and elasticity of curriculum, and thoroughness and intelligence of teaching, is a truly- educational idea long held. It comes the top-stone of the edifice of a reform which has been built up in the Cod-e, so far as elementary schools are concerned, during the y 0 last ten years," and Mr. MACNAMARA say. that the fundamental principle of this Code is so sound, so vitalising, and so pregnant with good that it ought not to be lost to us." The great objection taken to the New Code is that there is in it but little guarantee for efficiency; and that its machinery does not ensure that the inferior schools which are dropping behind will be kept up to the mark. Under the block grant principle there will have to be a much more stringent system of inspection, in order that the bad schools may be adequately penalised if they fall behind and become inefficient. All efforts should, we believe, be directed not to reject but to amend the New Code. There must be effectual guarantees for educational efficiency. As at present formulated the New Code will damage national education by bolstering up inefficient schools; and it would be deplor- able to relinquish and perpetuate the present bad system of fostering inefficient schools at the expense of the national taxpayer.
NOTES AND COMMENTS. The polling for the election of four Councillors at Barmouth on Saturday re- sulted in the infusion of some new blood into the Council. Elsewhere we print an interesting letter from South Africa from Mr. Arthur Jones, a son of the late Mr. John Jones (Ivon), of Aberystwyth. It is gratifying to note the steady growth of the Indian Famine Relief Funds which have been started all over the country. The latest reports state that there is as yet, unfortunately, no abatement of suffering in the affected districts. At the half-yearly meeting of the Cardigan Liberal Club on Thursday, Councillor D. Ivor Evans presiding, Alderman Beynon Evans drew the attention of the members to the Welsh Gazette which he said was -1 the recognised organ of the Liberal party in the county, and a most creditable production." It was unanimously agreed that the paper should be supplied to the Club. At a meeting held at Nottingham under the auspices of the Women's Liberal Federa- tion, on the motion of Mrs. Stewart Brown, seconded by Mrs. Balgarnie, aid supported by Mrs. Sheldon Amos, a resolution was carried urging that every effort should be made to secure an early and permanent peace in South Africa. All the speakers spoke of the war in condemnatory terms. The will of Captain Pryse Pryse Pryse, of Lodge Park, Cardigan, who died on the 9th January last, age 40 years, the' eldest son of Sir Pryse Pryse, Gogerddan, has been proved. Mr. Pryse left personal estate of the value of X21,394 5s. Id., and appointed as sole ex- ecutive of his will of 25th August, 1899, his wife, Mrs. Louisa Pryse, daughter of Lieut- Colonel Howell, of Penrheol, and to her the testator left all of his property. In the Queen's Bench on Friday, a Mr. and Mrs. Smith sought to recover damages from the proprietors of the Inns of Court Hotel because of illness caused by an alleged ptomaine poison contained in food. Plaintiffs and 38 other persons who dined at the hotel on July 17th last became ill, and two died, the allegation being that poison was brought about by the generation of bacteria, probably in some tinned food. The hotel chef admitted, in evidence, that when using tinned fruit he left what remained in the tin until the next day, and then used it. The jury awarded the plaintiffs El40 damages. Last week the Manager of the Frongoch lead mines invited all the workmen to tea at the 11 barracks," where the Italian miners are lodged. Our correspondent states that it was a very interesting sight to see the Welsh and Italian miners sitting together and enjoying each others company while as yet unable to enter into conversation. Tea over, an a fresco concert was held, when the Italians sang with fervour a selection of the favourite airs of their native land, and the Welshmen in return entertained the strangers by an equally good rendering of the gems of Welsh melody. It was a touching scene, and one that will not be soon forgotten by those who saw it. At the annual meeting of the National Liberal Federation last week the following resolution moved by Mr. T. P. Whittaker, M.P., was adopted—" That this Council re- affirms its declaration in favour of the urgency of an effective reform in the laws relating to the liquor traffic and believes that Lord Peel's Minority Report of the Licensing Com- mission, furnishes in the main, a basis for practical legislation in the immediate future on which all temperance reformers should combine and concentrate." They wanted, Mr. Whittaker said the reforms recom- mended in Lord Peel's report, and when the people of this country demanded direct local control they ought to have it given them. Personally he was a prohibitionist, but he ws also a practical politician, and lie would urge;' therefore, the adoption of the principle of the greatest common measure, so that the extreme reformers and the middle element might be induced to work together. If by conceding some principle of compensation the latter element could be got to co-operate with them, it would be desirable to take steps, for unless they could lay in the dust the liquor interest-the wealthiest and most powerful in the country—they could never achieve the other great reforms on which their hearts were set. The annual meeting of the School Boards Federation of Wales and Monmouthshire was held on Thursday at Llandrindod Wells. The subjects discussed included the repre- sentation of school Boards on the Central Welsh Board, the education of pupil teachers, the provisions of the new code, the teaching of Welsh history in day schools, and the provision of professional training colleges. Among other things, it was resolved that the executive be authorised to take all neces- sary steps to secure adequate direct represen- tation of School Boards on the Central Welsh Board, the Intermediate ajiid Technical County Govening Bodies, and the Boards of ( Local Managers of Intermediate Schools. It was pointed out that the present school boards had no direct represention on the Central Welsh Beard. A number of resolu- tions bearing on the new Code were also carried Thee objected to the block grant in a f oi-iii, and contended that it should be accompanied by a graduated scale of grants for higher primary schools, that the restric- tion of the maximum grant of 22s. would be an injustice, that the age of limit under Article 13 was reactionary and disastrous; and that the reduction of the pupil teacher grant would penalise the School Boards, which had hitherto done most of the training of the teachers. Several speakers expressed their indignation at what was freely termed an abominable Code." At a meeting of the Merioneth Joint ¡ 1- In Police Committee on Tuesday, Mr. Slaney Wynne was appointed chairman in succes- sion to the late Dr. Edward Jones. A telegram from Capetown says that a very hopeful view is taken of the situation, and adds that it is generally believed that the war will be satisfactorily concluded within three months. It is to be hoped that the people of Aber- ystwyth will take steps to commemorate the memory of the late Principal Edwards in a manner worthy of the man and his great work in the town. It is officially announced that the Queen has been pleased to approve the appoint- ment of the Marquis of Londonderry, K.G., to be Postmaster-General in placu of the Duke of Norfolk, K.G., resigned. The Newtown Liberal Association at a meeting on Monday evening unanimously approved of the adoption of Mr. J. A. Bright, of Rochdale, as the Liberal candidate for the Montgomery boroughs at the general election. It is reported that President Kruger, speaking at the late General Joubert's funeral, attributed the Boer's defeats to rampant wickedness in the State. Joubert's last words were, My poor people my poor country." Lady White, who arrived at Aberystwyth last Thursday, had a warm Welsh welcome wherever opportunity offered along the Cambrian Railway. At Aberystwyth the wife of the gallant hero of Ladysmith received quite an ovation. The Queen on her way to Ireland accepted an address at Holyhead from the Anglesey County Council. The address was presented by Ir. D. Rees, the chairman, formerly of Talybont. Her Majesty also accepted a magnificent boquet of white flowers from Mrs. Rees, the wife of the chairman of the County Council. At a dinner attended by a number of the principal farmers of the Tivyside district, held at Cardigan on Saturday, a committee was formed to consider and report on the advisability of establishing a bacon factory for the county. An interesting address given by Mr. Morgan Richardson will be found in another part of the paper. A lengthy and animated discussion took place at the Aberystwyth Town Council on Tuesday. The report of the proceedings, which will be found elsewhere, needs no comment. Really the lease business is run- ning to riot at Aberystwyth. Alderman D. Roberts, the Brewery, voted for the renewal of the lease of his own property. On Tuesday, in the Queen's Bench Division Justices Ridley and Darling allowed the appeal in the case of Lewis v. Rowland, which was heard by the justices of Cardigan- shire. The applicant, Susan Lewis, was proceeded against by the Aberystwyth Dis- trict Council requiring her to abate a nui- sance and repair the sewer of her premises in Cambrian-terrace, Borth. She said the sewer was vested in tohe Council, and the Court upheld her contention. The opening of a certain club at Aber- ystwyth on Sundays is the subject of con- siderable unfavourable comment in the town. It remains to be seen whether this new departure will add to the strength and dignity of the club. A popular French paper, La Presse, says that England owes much of her energy and character to the religious keeping of Sunday. Why cannot France follow her, as the Sabbath was made for all men, and we need its blessing V A more matured reasoning will possibly enable the members of the Club to learn the lesson which only a long and painful experience has taught the French people. Mr. Lloyd Morgan, who moved the re- jection of ,the Flogging Bill, is to be congratu- lated upon the successful and decisive issue of the debate. The bill is said to have been industriously promoted by a set of Conserva- tive lawyers against the best judicial authori- ty. An unanswerable objection to the bill was that a very large proportion of the judges were not willing to impose this kind of punishment, Mr. Lloyd Morgan pointed out that only seven or eight of Her Majesty' judges ever authorised the lash and Mr. Justice Day had ordered more than twice as many strokes as all the other judges put together. Mr. Asquith described the mea- sure as one which, to his mind, involved retrogression to a state of barbarism, and which was calculated to introduce confusion, unevenness, and injustice into our criminal law. On a division the second reading was defeated by 195 votes to 72. The motion for the necessity of universal and compulsory military drill in schools gave rise to a lively debate in the House of Commons last week. The motion had small fortune. Sir John Gorst pointed out that the Code already made large provisions for drill of every kind, and he announced that the Government intended to add nothing to it. Mr. John Burns supported this decision in an admirable speech, in which he upheld the supet-lority of general athleticism to the hard and narrow drill of barracks. You have too much drilling," cried Mr. Burns; you're drilling the heads off your soldiers; you are making them automatons. When I led the dockers through London the most difficult men to keep in order were the reservists." The best policeman in the streets of London was not the ex-soldier but the man from the country—the peri- patetic magistrate in blue uniform." The Labour members," he ended amid a roar of laughter, have had no military drill, but they could give the military members in this House five inches round the waist and one to spare." After this the military members had no more to say, and the debate collapsed. A bill to enable owners and occupiers in Wales to exercise effectual control over the liquor traffic is down for second reading in the House of Commons on May 2. The bill provides that one-tenth of the parochial electors in any area may address a requisi- tion in writing to the town, district, or Parish Council, as the case may be, requiring that authority to cause a poll \0 be taken for or against the adoption of the following reso- lutions --(I) Tliit the sale of intoxicating liquors shall be prohibited (2) that the number of licenses shall be reduced to a cer- tain number, to be specified in such requisi- tion; (3) that no new license shall be granted. If a majority of two-thirds of the persons voting on the first question answer it in the affirmative, then, while the resolution is in force, no licence shall be granted or renewed for the sale of drink within the are.- affected. A second poll on the Mme question cannot be taken before the expiration of five years from the date when the resolution comes into force. Subject to this time limit, one- tenth of the electors may require the local authority to take a poll on the question whether total closing shall be abolished, and if a majority of two-thirds is found to be in favour of its abolition, then it shall be abolished accordingly. (