ON-CONFORMITIES STRONG STAND IN THE NORTH. FINE SPEECHES AT' LLANDUDNO CON- FERENCE. Unripr the auspices ni the National Council for Civil Liberties two Conference#? were held in North Wales, one at Llandudno on the 17th. and the other at Wrexham. on the 20th. to pro. test against the introduction into >xate-a.idod •whools of Cadet Corps. and other schemes for militarising the rising generation. Feeble ,11. tempts were made in isolated eases to mislead the public and to discredit 'the conference* through press insinuations and. suppression of facts. but t-hc- response Avas admirable and the •\Tcmterencvs were an unqualified success. Tw o incideiirs. both identical, having occurred ;1,. two largo churches, are Avorthy ci mention, proving 3" they do how difficult it to obtain the true state of public opinion. The question of sending delegates was discussed at these two churches. and The iiiq.-Lier distorted and •misrepresented by two Jingo deacons. It was dec ided in both cases toO leave the mat.ter on the table, a large proportion oi_ the m< mbers hav- ing abstained from voting. The matter was vionsidered at "JuH-equent meet:ngs. and •onK one dissentient in both ca«.e». it was decided send delegates and to support- resolution. PRINCIPAL REES' SPEECH. r n; Tri ollia- R-ees. M. A.. Bangor, pre., sided at. Llandudno, and in >.i< Introductory re- mark's he made it clear end definite that the object of the gathering was not to discuss any Aspect of the present war. and that all remarks should be confined to the .subject dealt with in. tho resolution. W hi]< appreciating the services of Mr. Fisher to tbe education of tin* country, he pointed out that tbe New Hill which just passed through the Commons wa* tbe oc- casion for calling r>uch a meeting. Fnder this Bill the State was Takin., I] ot" the child during the formative period of bis life. Pre- vious Education Acts had left tlii> period wholly to t.heopuo!i<?i pax'm?. hut i he community will henceforth claim the right of forming the life and tbe mind of the youth of tbe country. Thk should cruse parents much searching of hearts, and the people must, decide what ideal rnuKt be aimed at (hiring this important, period when the mind of the adolescent- is being formed. It is iiiat, Fisher has adopted :1 w. tally noutra-l attitude, that he has excluded anv definite clause to .sanction or to prohibit the institution of military training, but the position is that Education .Authorities have the uption. with much greater opportunity as the 1 ,-hill] will henceforth V under their control up to his 18th year. Mr. Fisher has given t.h. wintry a. great and valuable gift, but the *x>unury is to decide to what. purpose it is t-o be used. They have to dIOOH: between the straight-laced discipline of d10 Army and the highest discipline which a. child nopi under ih: )ma?f "t (rod shouid '?ndet-?o. Education shonid enable r1w (-hUd t? realise the best that ;s in him. and develop the highest faculties with! vhn h God has endowed him. Not only To Ills vtwn advantage, but also for the welfare of tbe vomm unity. AN EMBRASIVE OBJECTION. The Rev. Barrow Williamc, i);tJ., Llandudno, ■n proposing- the resolut ion, v. ished the dele gartes to understand that, lie wa* present. at t he request of the Ivvoeiinve Committee of Free Churches of North Wales. He did not desire to place anyvobstacle in the path of the Govern- ment in its efforts to secure a clean and honour- able peace. He was not, there either to oppose such physical training as would develop mind and muscle, hut on the grounds of justice, morality, liberty, and religion, he opposed the introduction of any training which would de- velop the milita'y spirit. It. would 1)(' a grpat. calamity if such a were allowed to invade our educational institution; and all our sacri- fices in the present war would be in vain. In concl usion." ht-t sa-id, let me quote from Thomas Browne's Religio Medici '■—' When thou tightest the devil see to it that thou do not, make thyself diabolic. The Rev..John Raymond, in seconding, em- phasised the fact that ho did not- take up any attitude to embarrass the Government in this (4rit»i.caJ but that he considered the matter from the educational standpoint. From his own experience as a mem ber of a local tri- bunal he quoted instances of how the military pit wa, trenching lIpOIl the liberty of the subject. Unless a bold statement was made by the people of this country the military spirit tvould dominate our whole lite and develop into real menace to society. THE PRUSSIAN ERROR. I fht. matter was then declared open to diseus- sion, to which a. strong lead was given by the Rev. W. J. Ellis, Portmadoc. Relating his own "xperi, n", in Germany he drew a. lurid picture elvf the malign influence of the military spirit which had taken possession of the schools n. that country, starting in the Kindergartens, and culminating in the vicious and demoralising custom of duelling in the universities. Our youth haxl (-a lied upon to sacrifice their lives to rid the world of this spirit, and it is our duty as citizens who remain at home to see to it. that this is not repeated in our own countrv. Had there 1)4-(- n the least suspicion of disagree- ment with the terms of the resolution, it was effectually dispelled hy the earnest, fervid, and convincing remarks of the Rev. H. Harris Hughes, Bangor. A delegate had .suggested that 111 deference to Jfr, Fisher and the" Bo n d of Education, the latter half of the resolution • dealing with rhe opposition to the teaching of the authoritative view of patriotism" should be deleted. Mr. Harris Hughes, expressing •ompkn-e agreement with the views of Mr. J. L. Paton in his lucid and admirable pamphlet on the teaching of history in our schools, clearly indicated the danger of creating an atmosphere of false and degenerate patriotism. To him pa- triotism did not consist in eulogising one's own nation at the expense of vilifying other nations. Our history text books had been too prone in the past to extol the exploits of brute force •and to exaggerate the glory of war. True pa- triotism contributes towards internationalism, towards a new ideal, a hiiinanei- and a more Christian ideal than that set before our children in the ordinary textbooks. To him the fact that. these textbooks were sanctioned by the Board of Education proved that that authority was not unbiassed. It was already prejudiced. "PARENTS' COMMITTEES." I Ivcgarding the militarising of education he expressed the view that it was our duty to op- pose IT,. first, on the grounds that our opposi- tion would help the teachers, who would be seriously hampered by military training. Se- condly. we would be helping the boys, whose pure instincts rebel against this vile system. We look forward to a League of Nations, but even that would not hring- salvation if one nation harboured the spirit of hate and revenge. Thirdly, we would be helping the parents, and he hoped that the conference would lead to the establish 111 ent of Parent's Committees to rosist to the utmost, the attempts of Prussians n our country toO Prussianise our educational system. Principal Graham, of Manchester, represent- ing National Council, regretted his inability j to fellow tiie delegates who spoke in Welsh, as the appreciation expressed by the audience ;dearly indicated unanimity on this important I subject-. He, was no believer in sacred things apart irom the soul of man, bur- if any institu- tion might be considered -acred. that to him (was the school, being as it, iv rhe teniple where the sacred soul is nourished. Within its walls, heart and mind may be purified or corrupted according to 1 lie way which we ordain, and no better motto could be inscribed above its por- tals than Juvenal's words, "Let, nothing foul in touch sight enter the threshold wherj there is a boy." The mora l atmosphere of the school must be higher and purer than the aver- age atmosphere of grown-up life. Ottotin? fro81 a book by one of the exponents of Military Training, (,nii-,](,(T Looking ward," he outlined the philosophy upon which the militarisation of the youthful mind was based. Obedience and discipline are the two prominent, word& of the 1¡ouk and rather than develop the individualism of the boy along the t!ie indiN-](-Ili.-tllsiii of tlj,- I)ov ilon, tll(- the writer would have the boy turned into a part of a machine. Such discipline could only be temporary and diminishing in h-- moral in? ?111(i (Il III III it, illoi,til III, rlie I)OV wo Ilid t-o 1)(, a iiiaii. iiicl THE DERBY DODGE AGAIN. !'?(adet(orps had not as yer become a I compulsory institution, but it was in a similar position to the Derby Scheme—vo) unwary now, but iQe\itabIy leading to comp1l1sion, H" ad- vocates make nQ secret of their intentions, and of their hopes in the future of converting our school's into mere adjuncts of the War Office. Thanks to Mr. Fisher, their hopes were not realised in the Education Bill, but with the (-()ii f c?i-re d ijpoil ]?' power conferred upon Education Authorities to establish camps for the physical training oi youths up to the age of 18. it was easy to realise the extent, of the danger. The 0.T.C-. has al- ready become aU but compulsory at. the Liver- pool University, and 2o cent, of the marks required for graduating are reserved for pro- line my in military subjects. THE MEDICOES NEGATION. .Naturally the defence set up by its exponents is the physical value of the training, but this is not very convincing when we find that the highest medical authorities in .France, Australia. Switzerland, Sweden, ami even Berlin. insist that military training is injurious to health at he sch-»ol age. Military drill is useful for mili- tary purposes, but not, for physical and educa- tional purposes..Man is a gregarious animal and as sue h has been, forced to develop a capa- city fol, [,till-, ot self foi- the benefit of society. This capacity the inili- tnrist«s would seize upon for the sake of blind obedient re, and the noblest, gifts of the Creator- are to be polluted to base ends. If this were allowed to enter onr schools the drip-drop of suggestion day by day upon the sensitive minds of the children would inevitably It "id to a ftanifi of mind inimical to pea*' and liberty. The glitter of uniform, the blare of trumpets were very fascinating, but with all these li jio, things which appeal to the boy's spirit of adventure, goes that doctrine of fraud and insincerity which always accompanies military jealousy—the desire to outwit and deceive, the exaggeration of superficial obstacl es to goodwill amongst nations, the teaching of boys to des- pise foreigners fan not carry out the t\ee gospel of Christ and humanity. The rising generation must be taught a higher gospel than that force is the final arbiter in human affairs. The Bri- tish nation took up arms against this in Ger- many, and unless we can keep out of our teliools all thoughts of fear and revenge, our sacrifices have been in vain. The teaching of history must be overhauled, textbooks must present tho trii" ideal of patriotism, as being the love of ( lie's own country without hatred of another country. The turgid folly of Jingoism must. not become the staple of historical teaching.
Indignation. at Wrexham. WHOLE-HEARTED CONDEMNATION OF I MILITARISM. E. T. JOHN, M.P., & MR. FISHER'S VIEWS. At Wrexham, Mr. E. T. John. M.P.. pre- sided over an enthusiastic gathering. He as- sured the conference that I)r..Fisher takes em- phatically the view of the promoters of the con- ferences—that he had given assurances during the discussions in the House that be does not want to utilisp our Educational System for mili- tary purposes. So long as Mr. Fisher remained at. the Board of Education we had grounds to hope that his influence will he enough to check the militarisation of education. Even the War Offi, bad given assurances that they depre- cated anything of t.he kind. Nevertheless, we had considerable reason to doubt t-hat the pro- fessions ot the, War Office differed materially trom their actual hopes and desires. The dan- gei lies m the power given to Local Education Authorities to provide for Militarv Trammer in their schemes. There is great necessity for vigilance, tor bhe price of liberty is eternal vi- gilance. The War Office is doing its best to stimulate congenial action with Local Authori- ties. Regarding physical training we do not oppose, it-we, desire it. Wales since the Puri- tan Reformation has been neglectful of physical health, having abandoned the old code of physi- cal training in which ou forefathers indulged. The other aspect of the question—tbe danger of imposing upon the teaclier an authoritative doctrine of civic duty—is also very important. Wales has believed and declared that the State is wholly unfitted for the propagation of t oli- gious truth, and this is our fundamental ob- jection to the introduction of militarist educa- tion, that it involves again the enunciation of a religious truth. This war is mainly to be at- tributed to this very method; and thopo urging it are, in this question like many others, sla- vishly following Germanv. THE TIME IS NOW. I Dr. Ceriiyw Williams, Corwen. in proposing the resolution, maintained that this was the op- portune time to face the danger. Not only is prevention better than cure, but prevention is easier than cure. It is the hearth and the school that will decide what the future will he. Wo have been told that there is never to be a war again on earth. Why, therefore, is it neces- sary to prepare for war? Prophets have throughout the ages been considered unpatriotic —such was the ease with, the Old Testament prophets. But the man who loves humanity, of necessity, must love his own nation. The people are the creators of Parliament, and it is our duty to declare with no uncertain voice what public opinion is en thin question. Tt is our duty to help the parent*, especially these who would object to the imposition upon their chil- dren who would be subjected to persecution. Air. J. W. Williams, of the Surfacemen's Union, seconded, and as tiie father of children, he felt morally justified in so doing. He did not believe, that the killing of Prussians was the only way to kill Prussianiruu. Our gallant boys art fighting Prussianisni outside our gates, and it was our duty of fight it inside the gates. Quoting with groat effect- the great hymn. When wilt Thou save the People," he urged us to start, by saving otil. MR. DAVIES GIVES FACTS. .\1 r. ti. N. Langdoii-Davies. M.A., represent- ing the National Council for Civil Liberties, pre- faced his remarks by saying that he was not there to his own views, but to give the de- legates evidence as to what was actually being done. This evidence was not culled from paci- fist literature, but from literature expressing the views of tiie militarists themselves, as well as li'om word of mouth evidence which he had obtained at a certain department of the War Office. He did not believe that everyone who Atilit.,ii-v Training is an evilly-disposed person. He wished to crerlit them with the best intentions, but he believed that they Ave re Avrong, and that was why ardent supporters of the war and pacifists were now standing on the same platform. Quoting at random from the book entitled Looking Ahead," to which Lord Methuen contrinutos a preface, he showed that thc dESÎgr. of the militarists was to produce a Citizen Army similar to that which. 111 Lord Methuen's words, scotched a strike and quelled a rebellion." The soul of the iiiot-eiii(,iit may be slimmed lip in the word discipline, whi(.il means to them instantaneous, uncomplainjng. implicit, and cheerful obedience. They do not aim at producing a sentient human being de- veloping bis own individuality, but a unit in .t. huge machine which will be at the disposal of the governing class, to lK> used in tinws of in. dustrial unrest against friends or even members ot the same family During an interview which he had had with officers in charge of a Depart- ment. of the War Office he was frankly told thti'. their conception of society was that of a contented people who will fit just into the place intended for them by authority. The plan by means of which they propose to realise their aims is fully expounded in "Looking Ahead, a book which he urged every delegate to secure and study. Every child 011 entering school at the age oi live becomes a junior cadet, and at four-teen receives thorough military train- ing, with rifle and bayonet practices up to the age oi 18, when lie automatically passes over into the National Militia. There is in this coun- try a sjjccial department of the War Office -pending public money with the purpose of in- ducing Local Authorities to adopt this scheme in connection with the Continuation Schools and Camps which they will have the power to estab- lish under the New Bill. They are aiming at present at, .1 voluntary movement, but they hope this will bad eventually to compulsion, of this they make no secret. Teachers have already been dismissed from schools for refusing to give special lessons based upon NaArv League pamph- lets. A CAMOUFLAGE. The ostensible reason for introducing mili- tary rajning is that they hope to build up a physically vigorous race in the future, but when wo find that only a quarter of an hour per (itvot,td tinder the scheme for purely physical exercises, we are rather scep- tical as to the amount of physical improvement which would be derived. It was also very signi- ficant that only one sex was mentioned. Chil- dren have mothers as well as fathers, and their physical development is at least as important as that of the fathers. They had another reason" secondary, ot course, namely, that of making the country safe. History proves that prepara- tion for war does not prevent war, nor save a country. The countries which have prepared most are those that, have had most experience of war, and those that, have prepared the least have got the least. Why is it that capitalists are now taking huch a keen interest in education ? In the past they have not shown much eagerness for the enlight- enment of the working classes. But they now find that they cannot resist the extension of education, so their aim is to capture it. Do we want men or man-power—tho British itleal or the Prussian ideal ? There is only one ideal worth aimir.g at. in education, and that is to t'.1rn out men and women able to enjoy life. If they enjoy life physically, intellectually ajid spiritually, they cannot help living a good life. Our generation has made a ghastly niud- 1 die of life, and we must see to it that a better Avorld is prepared for coming generations. MEANING OF THE CONFERENCES. The splendid response of the churches and the Labour organisations in North Wales have proved indisputably that the people look upon this sinister movement Avith loathing and dis- gust. The unanimous opinion of the delegates was that t he Conferences were the most success- fnl they had ever attended. The delegates numbering a total of 326, from :!50 church's and Free Church Councils, and :31 La bour or- ganisations. represented a. membership of over 110,000. In addition, OACT 60 organisations from the remoter districts of the area, who Ave re un- able through the lack of travelling facilities to Mend delegates, had sent messages expressing un.an.imons support. It is most gratifving to think that the ministerial element in the area which supported the war on the grounds of ne- cessity as a check upon militarism in Germany are with admirable consistency opposing its growth in our own countrv. Mr. -IN-or H. Thomas, of Briton Ferry, who organised the conferences on behalf of the Na- tional Council for Civil Liberties, returned to South Wales elated with the success of his ef- forts, and grateful for the fine reception that was accorded him in North Wales. During the next few weeks his activities will be devoted to the organisation of similar conferences in South W ales. If he secures the same response in this area., and if his efforts are crowned with equal success, he will have the satisfaction of know- ing that Wales is solidly opposed to the militar- ist conception of education.
MINERS AND ASSURANCE AGENTS. I At the monthly meeting of the Merthyr Dis- trict of Miners the following resolution was passed unanimously: "That we heartily sup- port the action of the Assurance Agents of the Merthyr Borough to come out on strike if their reasonable demands of 30 per cent, on their pre- sent earnings from week to week as a. war baiu-is he not immediately granted them, and that we shall do all in our power to support their efforts to obtain such a moderate conces- sion from their greedy and wealthy employers, who alone to-day amongst the employing classe refuse to consider such an equitable claim."
McPHEE'S VISIT. I Our Comrade McPhee, of York, who has been putting in a week's propaganda for the I.L.P. in the Merthyr and Aberdare Vallies, delivered an excellent and critical address on The Secret Treaties" in the Rink on Sunday, and spoke learnedly on the "Races of Europe" at Bent- ley's on Tuesday evening.
Capitalism Its Origin and I Development. I BY TED WILLIAMS. Let us look for a moment at the evil effects or this process of expropriation and the legisla- tion Avhich is typical of the period (Edward VI.. ]-">47). It ordains that if anyone refuse work he shall be condemned as a slave to the person who has denounced him as an idler." The mas- ter shall feed his slave on bread and water, weak broth and such refuse meat a.s he thinks fit." He has the right to force him to do any Avork. no matter how disgusting it may be, with whip and chain. If the slave be absent a fort- night he is condemned to slavery for life and is branded upon the forehead Avith the letter S." If he runs away thrice he is executed as a felon. The master can sell him. bequeath him. let him out on hire as a slave just as other personal chattel or cattle. If the slaves attempt any- thing against their master they are to be exe- cuted. Justices of the Peace (may La bour J'.P.'s kindly note) are Oil information to hunt the rascals (town. If it happens t.hat the vaga- bond has been idling for three days lie is taken to his birth-place and branded Avith letter V with a red-hot iron on the breast, and is to be set, to work in chains in the street, or at some other Ja bour. ff the Aagabond gives a false birthplace he is to become a slave for life of this place, its inhabitants, and its corporation." and to be branded with the letter S." All persons have the right to take away the chil- dren of vagabonds and keep them as apprentices —the young man mail his twenty-fourth year, I and the ?irinntd her twentieth. If they run away they are to become up to fins a?e the slaves of their masters, who can put them in irons and whip them if they like. Every mas. tor may put an iron ring around the neck, arms or legs of the slaves by which to know him more easily, and to lie the more certain of him." These were the methods of the ruling class to discipline and coerce the army of wagc-Avorkers Avhose means of production they had forcibly torn from them. Prisons, branding irons, the lash, slavery, the executioner's knife or rope were the methods obtaining during the Sixtent h Century. ENFORCED DOCILITY. At the beginning oi Capitalism, force had to be applied to create that spirit of docility in the Avage-worker, and to get him to submit to profit-creating for a. pittance. He stood too near to the stage when he had a limited econo- mic independence to believe, as so many workers are prone to believe to-day, that he was in the situation where it had pleastxl Providence to plflee him, and to accept patiently the iron yoke of exploitation. With the devclopnient of Capy talism the necessity for physical A ioJeneo he- comes Avoakened, for the worker is born, li ves and dies a wage-working, profit-creating indi. vidual, and accepts by custom his lot as intnit- able. He stands too far away from the atro- cious and forcible creation of the wage-Avorking class to realise that I10 is not a natural, but a historical product. He does not know that his class only bowed their necks the death to feel when starvation and physical force made resistance no longer possible. But legislation did not materially mitigate the evil of unemployment, for the process of expro- priation with its consequent accompaniment of niiscry, A agabondage, and crime, still went on. The problem became so pressing that Parliament had to devise other means of alleviating the ter- rible distress of tho people a distress which was a constant incentive to revolt and rebellion. THE BIRTH OF POOR LAW. In 1601 the Poor Law was created. The series of laws comprised under this head went through four typical and main stages. At the commencement it was sought to deal with the problem by almsgiving and voluntary contribu- tions at the Church doors. Then, this being in- suflicient, everybody is expected to contribute, and were reported to the Bishop of the Diocese upon failure to do so. and he exhorted them to be more generous towards sinful but neAerthe- less feeling creatures. Lat?r, having failed to less feeling '? targe hearty they are dealt with develop a large heart," dH'y an' dealt with at the Quarter Scissions. Finally a compulsory Assessment, for Poor Hates is made upon property owners. This, then, is the genealogy of the working- class. From feudal serfs, through ycontan farmers and peasants to the modern wage- working proletariat. Now, can it be under- stood that the capitalist relation is but an his- tories ) one The modern wage-worker is The product of a. long process of robbery and con- fiscation judged eA-en. by capitalist ethical stan- dards. M any capitalist historians are highly incensed and indignant with the confiscatory policy of the landlords. They accuse them of all the crimes in the Calendar—not excluding robbery and murder. They speak in sympathe- tic terms of the sufferings of the workers in the past, and end by roundly condemning the land- ed aristocracy. Such people are historically lop- sided. Where would they lie without the policy of expropriation pursued by the landlords? How could Capitalism exist without the propertyless workers who were created by the very policy of expropriation? What would be the source of the capitalist's profits" All this they fail to discern. Instead of condemning the landlords they ought to be thankful to them, for without their unconscious aid the glorious era of the capitalistic profit-making system could not have been ushered in. Think, if you can, of a capi- talist system without a class of property less wage workers. Think, if you can, of an econo- mically dependent class, who at the same time possess their own strips of land and means-to cultivate it. 1 THE ANCESTRY OF SUPERMAN. I Now, let us briefly review the ancestry of the modern capitalist landlord. They were originally the feudal landed aristocracy jm.yi.ng dues to the king and receiving rents m labour and in kind from the serfs. Then they became semi- feudiil landlords by the commutation of pay- ments and the purchasing of wage-labour. They are semi-capitalists to the extent that they live by extracting profits from agricultural wage- workers. They are semi-feudal in so far as they still extract rent due to their monopoly of land. They cease to be wholly feudal lords by their abolition of feudal dues to the king, which took place just after the Restoration. This semi feudal, semi-capitalist position is still occupied by the landlords, and in their capacity as semi- feudal landowners they are constantly attacked by the purely industrial capitalists. With the breakdown of the system of production for use in the manor and the rise of production for the world market, the landlord class acquire inter- ests which are very closely bound up with, and allied to, the trading class. The genesis and development of the capitalist farmer is very easily treated, since it has been a very gradual process. In the feudal manor were the large villiens and small villiens. There were also the lord's bailiffs, who superintended the cultivation of the lord's arable land. They f l' 1 J' d h t.ri,g:naily had their catt l e supplied to th en) on tne >?u(K and lease system." Lat?r on only (me h.ih ur ?hc ?.ffck ?supplied, aud, sTiIl h.ier, none, and the yeoman farmers purchase their oAvn stack and implements. These yeoman farmers were not identical with The modern. tanning class in all respects. In addition to the land for which they paid a money rent, they Iiii(I "I common rights which Avere of great value. f urther, they were hereditary tenants possessing the right of bequeathing the tenancy to their defendants. ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT. The process or turning these, yeoman farmers into the modern larming class commences with the process of enclosures and evictions. Their common rights were taken awa. and the small farms were knitted into large ones. The result is the creation or The modern farming class-, a class which posne^ses no common rights, and which is what is called tenants -it. w;ll. and not hereditary tenants. The landlord changes his tenant when he thinks fit. subject only to the expira tion of the lease wluch is generaHy a. short one. They pay a. money rent and employ the agricultural Avage-laoourers. becoming agri- cultural capitalists in The true sense of the term. This clas of farmers became highly prosperous during the 17th and 18th Centuries. The Avages hill had gone down. due to the in- crease of the labourers and an overstocked la- bour market-. Prices of foodstuffs were high owing to the greater demand for product1 from the rising, industrial centres and to the debase- ment ot the currency..Further, the leases were taken Avhen the currency was pure, and rents were fixed in terms of the pure coinage. while the fanners, as time went on, paid their rent in the debased currency, and hence stood to gain by t he transaction. This period is called the Golden Age of the English Fanner, and pre- vails IUltiI a bout, To. after which they suffer a decline due 10 causes which may be touched later. FEUDAL CAPITALIST ORIGINS. The modern financial capitalist also has his origin in feudal society. He develops from the trading and merchant class. The trading class t voh tv out of the serf class. Those so placed as to possess a monopoly of certain uniAer- sally required necessities, such as sa h:, or iron, would be the first to develop into the trading class. The serfs who took charge of this trade for the local feudal iirflq. later on with commu- tation of money payments, brought their free- dom and became the germ of the merchant class. The rise ot trade with the East hrought. into prominence the flourishing Italian and Ger- man cities, snch as Vemce, Genoa. Florence Kamm)?, Bremeu. Bm?es. and. in England, London. Hamburg, The development of trade led to the formation of banking houses, clearing estab- lishments, and credit institutions. The product of trade is money. The accumulation of money developed the financier, who fends it out on interest, common- ly called usury. In passing it is significant to note how the ideas of the people change.. At one period the usurers are condemned as being immoral and irreligious, at another they are ap- plauded as saints, saviours of the empire, are honoured by the bestowal of O. B. E. 's. baron- etcies, etc. The Jews, as a. result of their mi- gratory habits, were; among the first, merchants and proved to be the foremost financiers. We have already stated that. two main classes are necessary to complete the capitalist econo- mic relation. The propertyless wage labourer and the propertied industrial capitalist, the em- ployer of that labourer who is worked with a view to appropriating surplus value. Having traced the rise of the wage-worker, farmer, and financier, let us now briefly deal with the ances- try of our modern industrial capitalists. Let us consider how the industrial means of produc- tion became concent-rated in the hands of the i ndu s t r i a 1 ca pi ta 1 ist s. Given commodity production. the means of production first appear in the form of money in the hands of the Capitalist, which then func- tions as money capital. Money laid out. in the purchase of machinery, tools, and raw material, which are to giA~e employment to wage-Avorkers, who will use them at a profit. The question as to the origin of the industrial capitalist, is solved by the ansAver to tll., t, other question: "Where does lie get his money from originallv? We have already observed that, many of the modern capitalists have their origin among the more progressive memhrt-s of the craft guilds; men who, finding the guild regulations a barrier to individual initiation, and a. prevent-itive of the extraction of increased profits, left the guild towns, and. with the money obtained from their profits inside the guild town, were able to found new industrial establishments in the country \iUa?-es. and in that way develop mio the ;ndlhtriaJ "a-pitalists. manufacturing for a ii,,aniiTa(-t,u7-ln_- for a INVESTMENT. On th e tit her hand many of the merchants be- came industrial capitalists by investing the money they have derived through trade in in- dustry. The money they made in trade is bv no means free from hunnishness, and the methods by which it was obtained by no means places the early capitalists in the position of Puritans. The money had two chief sources: the slave trade and colonisation. About the 16th and 17th Centuries Liverpool and Bristol were particularly notorious for their part in the slave trade. The great profit, rea lised from stealing negroes from Africa—of whom, says Booker Washington, a hundired millions have been burdened to death to make civilisation possible "—and selling them to the Spaniards and American-English in America, to work on the cotton plantations and other drudgery, has laid the basis of many a. modern respectable f amily. (TO BE CONTINUED.)
CORRESPONDENCE. THE LANSDOWNE MEMORIAL. TO TRJ EDITOR. Dear qii- The iiiiiiil)ti- of signatures to the Lunsdowne Memorial has now reached 20,000. I now j-(,a(? l ie d 20'000. J want every reader to strain every nerve to double tha.t number during the next month. The ordinary press will not advertise the Memorial, and it is necessary that those who want a good and speedy peace should do all in their power to make it ln(>wii-: (a) To local Trade Unions and Labour Parties; (b) To local Co-operative Societies; (c) To local religious organisations; (d) To Women's Organisations. Please note well: That individuals who ha.ve no access to forms can write and give me leave to add their names to my half-filled lists.— Yours truly, ETHEl, SNOW DEN. P.S.—Donations to the General .Fund of the Women s Pt-ace Crusade or to the Lansdowne Memorial will be most- gratefully received. 39 Woodstock Road. Golder's Green, N.W., 29th July, 1918.