—————————————" I Army Discipline. 1 j ^GENIOUS METHODS OF TORTURE PRAC- TICED IN AN ENGLISH CAMP. s ihe following letter, the facts of which have ,|e«n corroborated by independent witnesses, de- 'fJ; comment. The writer is a. conscientious ob- ••tector twenty-three vears of age, who has al- served two sentenes of iii-tpi-isoniii.ent- of three months in Wormwbod Scrubbs, and IJUe of five months in Lincoln Prison: — ,(Tri^r from James Brightmore, "D" Company, Qeethorpes, 3rd Manchesters, to his mother). The Pit. Shore Camp, Cleet.horpeR, June 24th. ??"? )s the best stuff (written on covering of I, i^fj old Flake packet) I (?an find to write what !;iy be my last letter. EVerything has been bel1ff me, and I should not have this pencil ? tor chance. I was bullied horribly when I •Mu* sentenced to twenty-eight days ,,j? ?RMon ? solitarv connnement—to be given t' C on n solita.]'v confinement--to be given l?atiods and to cook mv food myself. This .? ?? sound bad but I have found the con- B?n Oement was in a pit which started at the sur- ? as 3ft. by 2ft. and tapered off to 2ft. by j°in. When it was 8ft. deep water was struck, ?t they continued until it was 10ft.' The bot- oni ?s full of water and I have to stand on two ?.'l'ips of wood all day long just above the water j ￼ There is no room to walk about am sit- ?S is impossible; the sun beats down and "?'ough the long day there are only the walls clay to look at; a dead mouse is floatmg in '? water as I wrJtü and half-a-dozcn bottles. • ?s t'orture worse than those of ancient days. ??ady I am half mad. '1()f A have not heard from you since I came out ?prison but I know the?e are many letters Waitin,(-?- ?or me. I cannot, therefore, tell what rA a-v happen when I get to France and whether ?thlb penalty IS bemg exacted. I am to be «s«l + to France and yesterday was passed fit. I 'Va' k "> L >a t? ken before the doctor to be examined but ?? '?d examination, knowing that whether ildgedfit or not I should be passed because it ha°l'del'ed that I ?" to be sent out. I was to :So v ?ne. I understand, last night, but for ? th???son I am still here- There 18 ? draft of ■tW-artt'hestei*s going on. There ?.; a, draftcf ) -'?ivg on, niesdav, and in the lice of some miracl e I suppose I shall go ?fti I hunger-struck for two days in the hole her ^t fUlel I was getting too wak to reSIst a?d to?nd I was getting too weak to resist 44d lllv brain, too, seemed to be giving under strain. "? ?sh I could only see your letters. I could le"assilre(l or know your wishes. As it is I 'fee] ?tenoed to death, knowing that within a ie.days I shall be in .France and shot. The ?ct that men are being sent to France at all t? iîrïof positive to me that the military authori- to J iave captured the machine and arc able ? ? they like with us. ￼ have our friends been doing? It is ?ot? ? but '?? blooded murder to send men .14 ''t into the trenches to be shot like dogs for ?;i"sObedien(v, I am n?t afraid to die, but this ?lisplellse thIS ignorance, linked up with the ?rfu"? ? of the pit, have plunged me into misery, ci? ?e?? madness, almost insanitv ? (here follows i,ef.er, to private matters). The hardest thin leaving you three dear ones behind, and th § U?r^nS and anxiety I am bringing upon »?pe 1 ?11 these weary months of imprisonment ( Tlas]-.A ye hved on hopefully, now the cup is being t\111=- from our hands and in "Liberty's" there follows other pathetic last ?orf). ??re there follows other pathetic last j Goodbye. JAMES BRIGHTMORE. I
I" Briton Ferry Notes. I I £ • ?., ProtS~ At I "eceat meeting of the local Trades and | Labour On ???? ?? question was raised of the ?troductio ? militarism into the secondary ?c}!? l s in +i militarism into the secondary 'C l'ools iii t h, ,form of Cadet Corps, membership of which 1S compulsory. The Council felt that A danger ^US ??se was being followed by the ^Uthoriti8' ?? decided to forwar d circulars ??testi?? o.?inst this to the authorities. I TV S an- d, Soldiers' Councils. I Tbi., 'W>¡..¡. ￼ WaS also under consideration, and circular 2-ivi details of the same was read. deleft ho j*fPp°inted to attend the inaugu- i-l Il1eetm, and italso resolved to support ?mo?vemcnt t to the best of the Council's ability. winstone's visit. I ^ame8 ^vvi^OTWard to the vMt of Mr'"I ?,7 ?"day. May there be I 111nPlUg crowd fOT Peåœ. ￼
A Letter from Mansel Grenfell. THE ECHO OF A BROKEN OFF Discus-I SION. THE LESSONS OF IMPRISONMENT. I Dear Comrade,—Having a few days ago com- pleted my first sentence of 112 days at Worm- wood Scrubhs., I am back again with friends, in old familiar haunts,—in an allround good con- dition, I am glad to say. Prison, of course, can- not honestly be described as sweet, but I do not in the least regret my experience of Wormwood. I managed in some degree to make its bitter- ness sweet and geod. If one has had to subsist on less and other food than he has been accus- tomed to, and if he has so learnt what real gnawing hunger on a. reduced half-starving sys- tem of rationing is, he was enabled to forget what indigestion was, and has learnt a fuller sympathy with sufferers from hunger, and more clearly than ever how really dependent—even the most utopian of us !—upon the primary basic necessary food. But here I am going along with- out having asked you for some space for this letter. I hope you will be a'ole to allow it, for I feel that some sort of a statement is due from me to at least those of your readers who read my letters respecting Morgan Jones' case which appeared just before my iiii.prisonment-if, of course, there are any of them still unarrested and free to read it! I do not desire to re-open the "controversy" with Comrade Jones, which I understood stands, as far as we are concerned, just where it stood when I was here last, but my own views have been modified on one of the questions at issue then—though not specifically soand I feel I should make that known and explain as well as one may from a. guard-room. The question I refer to is whether an absolutist C.O. should or should not work in prison. Those who followed the discussion I have referred to will perhaps remember that I was clearly op- posed to work in prison at that time, although I did not say so in so many words. I believe it was evident to everybody that I agreed with Comrade Morgan Jones in regarding it as being inconsistent with absolutism." I do not hold that view now I was, indeed, I may say be- ginning to be vaguely uncertain about it during the few days immediately before entering the Se-rubbs, and that on entering prison my posi- tion was so unsettled that the best decision I could come to was that I should think the mat- ter over more thoroughly inside, before com- mitting myself finally. That resulted in much stiff and searching, painful thinking for about a fortnight, through which I got to the conclu- sion which satisfied my mind and conscience clearly and still satisfies them—that our abso- lutist" attitude towards militarism was not af- fected at all by the simple issue as to work or no work in prison and I decided, without com- punction, to work. I have not since the begin- ning of 1916 been troubled with what some still regard as a problem which is implied by the terms they use: "War-work" and "civil" or "social wrk." I need not go over again what Morgan Jones so clearly showed—that in a thoroughly organised state of war all work is war work, in the sense that the state permits it and exploits it for its objects. But that does not necessarly mean thai every worker is a war worker," it simply means that the State has secured—what the capitalist and landlord have in normal times—the power of appointment over the workers' labour, as Ruskin used to say. Having got to that point of view, the problem of "war" or "no-war work" did not exist to bother me, but the war itself did, and I knew that although I could not stop the war by changing my work or refusing/ to work, I could refuse to sanction it and that I must protest against it uncompromisingly always and every- where. I did not distinguish between work and work—between mailbags and fenders, for in- stance, as many do even now, or between farm- ing and steels-melting or mining. Indeed, in view of tlie se,arcity!of food, farming might now be classed among the few most important war industries. Up against the question of work in prison, what was one to do? Well, I had always drawn the line at the point where my moral sanction for the war would be required, or where my right to protest against it and to work for peace would be interfered with by my becoming involved in any compromising under- taking or arrangement. One had been taken to prison because of that attitude, so that the fact of one's imprisonment was itself a testimony to one's refusal to sanction the war and to sur- render his moral right to protest against it etc. Would it make any difference whether one worked in prison or not? Conditions in prison are not what one would call Trade Union con- ditions; but one wasn't imprisoned on a Trade Union issue and what is important to remem- ber, one hadn't entered into any contract re- specting them., They were imposed upon one by a great power whose moral authority one had repudiated but whose temporal power one couldn't repudiate and resist. It is true, as Comrade Jones said, the argument that one is compelled to work does not meet the point, be- cause it is accepted that compulsion to join the army is to be resisted, so that it follows that if work in prison should be considered to be wrong as service in the army is, then compulsion to work should be resisted just as compulsion to serve is. But, in fact, there is no compulsion to work in prison. There is a prison system of work and discipline, and of treatment accord- ing to the, measure of the observance or breach of that system. One may choose to refuse to work, but one cannot escape the system and the treatment; one cannot repudiate and deny the system. And hois just as much a prisoner if he works as if he doesn't, and vice versa. And a prisoner is a prisoner; an offender under the law; an outlaw, as long as he is a prisoner. In our case, we are outlaws owing to our opposi- tion to Conscription, and our imprisonment tes- tifies to our stand. We are kept in prison be- cause we refuse to accept work under the Home Office Scheme. We do not work in prison on conditions"—accepted and entered into. We are not parties to the system, and since we are subjected to it because we refuse to acknowledge the moral authority of the power which subjects the position of a worker in prison is just the same as is the position of a worker outside, and is as extremely and consistently "absolutist" a position as a finite individual pacifist and anti-militarist can take. One might object to the conditions from the standpoint of Trade Unionism (and I may say by the way that the question of cheap prison work seems to me to be one which the Trade Union movement should concern itself with) but trade unions do not usually attack evils through individual members but by mass action as a rule. It is not easy to write on a question like this in a place like this and I am already late to catch the post. If I get time and opportunity later I hope to con- sider the difference between work in prison and work on the Home Office Scheme which I now more than ever regard as dangerous to all our great principles as Pacifists and Socialists. Some readers will perhaps be interested to know that I saw my five Gorseinon comrades at the Scrubs during the week before I came out: Chum," W. J. Roberts, Willie Evans, Herbert Rees, and Sidney Lewis, and was very much encouraged to see them all so very well and firm and confi- dent. But I could not but remember that every- one of them has a family behind him home— decent working class families—and although I know the splendid work of the Gorseinon com- rades who are left and the many friends in the district, I want, if possible, to appeal to others who have not interested themselves in these families already not to forget them. My com- rades will stick anything for their convictions, but I know it would break their hearts to think that their little ones should have to suffer with them and in one sense on account of them And I feel sure that many who disagree with the husbands and fathers will not willingly let their families suffer too.—Yours fraternally, (x'i-ia.rcl -N o. 9 Caiilp, MANSEL GRENFEL. Guard Room, No. 9 Camp, Kiinnel Park, Rhyl. North Wales.
Emigration of Soldiers and Sailors. I ARMY DOCTOR ON DEPOPULATION DANGER. HIGH INFANTILE MORTALITY AT I MERTHYR. The infant welfare campaign in Merthyr be- gan on Monday evening. Mr. N. F. Hankey, the Mayor, presided at a public meeting at the. Drill Hall and he was sup- ported on the platform by the Mayoress, Dr. Florence Ward, Mr. H. Af:, Lloyd (chairman of the Health Committee), Dr. Alex Duncan (Medi- cal Officer of Health), Major F. T. James (2nd Batt. Glamorgan Volunteer Regiment), and others. The objects of the campaign were dealt with at length by Major E. Maclean, 3rd Western General Hospital, Cardiff, ,who emphasised the urgent necessity of training propeyly midwives and of regulating their practices. He said that k was recognised in the world generally and it was enforced upon them by the awful war that the status of a. nation at present depended upon fitness mental, moral and physical—plus the size of its population—and unless this problem of maternity and child welfare work was taken up earnestly in this country, there was little doubt that there was a grave prospect before it or falling down to the level of a second rate power. It was not only our humanity that was stirred, but national pride. The firgt chief handicap in connection with the question of population was the appalling loss of life in the war, multiplied by the eases of disabled men. By his work at the 3rd General Hospital it had been deeply im- press-ed upon his mind, that such soldiers on re- turning to civil life would be dependent upon circumstances (not charity, of course) that would reveal their inefficiency in comparison with their previous condition as citizens. The; second handicap was the falling birth-rate, the third losses from puerperal fever, and the fourth child mortality, which if the deaths before birtil were added to it represented a loss of about one- tlird of the possible additions to the population, by the end of the first year. Another great drain and handicap on the population would, it was thought by many, arise from emigration after the war. Were the men coming back from the front going to stay with us ? They would have fresh ideas; they would come back in a new sense of what was due to them as the country's defenders, and what was due to them as citizens and what wa,s due to their dependants in this codntry. There was no doubt that there would be on the part or the young and able a great tendency to try their fortune in other lands unless we could make this country worth while their staying in. (Applause.) Regular work, better wages, the care of their wives and children (not that they would waitt to get rid of their family responsi- bilities) would all assist and give them a rea- sonable chance of bringing up the nation's young in fair and cleanly conditions. And what the nation had to do was to bring that condi- tion about. (Applause). The control of the drink, too, was a very im- p,ortan ? matter. -is portant matter. The risks which undoubtedly existed in connection with crowded areas and necessitated by the industrial demands of the country should be removed or minimised by the State. In Merthyr there was a, dense population of 86,000, and 96 per cent. of the births were at- tended by midwives. There was a scarcity of houses, and he gathered from Dr. Duncan's re- port there were no less than 1,000 which were not up to modern standards. Especially was this the case at Penydarren, where the population was as dense as 13,000. So far there was (estab- lished in the borough one infant welfare centre and two centres for mothers—one in Merthyr and one in Dowlais. There were certain re- quirements from the public health point of view which were not yet materialised, but he was' sure the difficulties would be solved by enthu- siasm on the part of the public and their repre- sentatives on the municipal authority. Major Maclean then quoted Local Government Board statistics with regard to Merthyr. In Merthyr (he said) mortality from puerperal fever was 1.97 per 1,000 births compared with the average of 1.41 for other county boroughs; other accidents and diseases connected with child birth 4.14, against 4. Total mortality for child-birth at Merthyr was 6.11, against 4 in other county boroughs' averages, and infant mortality at Merthyr from 1911 to 1914 was 132 per 1,000 births compared with 122. In 1915, owing to special causes (epidemic of measles and; whooping cough), it went up to 157, and in 1916 dropped to 107. The death rate of babies from one to two years was 41 per 1,000 in Merthyr, compared with average for other boroughs of 41.8; from two to five years 37.8, against 37.7, and children up to five years 200, against 188. So Merthyr's infantile mortality was dangerous- ly high. He regretted the leaving of the Local Govern- ment Board by Lord Rhondda, and what was wanted was a thorough businesslike arrangement in connection with infant welfare which would enlist the confidence and enthusiasm of the men and women in this country. (Applause.) On the motion of Mr. H. M. Lloyd, seconded by Dr. A. Duncan, a resolution was passed pledging the meeting to enquire into the condi- tions responsible for chtfd wastage and to use their influence to secure improved housing and sanitation, together with adequate provisioem: for the care of maternity and infancy in their own districts. It was unanimously agreed to forward the re- solution to the headquarters of the National Baby Week movement. On Wednesday an exhibition was opened ab the Drill Hall, and amongst the speakers for the subsequent meetings were Mrs. BrETeton Miss Bunker (Principal of the South Wales School of Cookery), and Miss Hester Bavies (Cardiff). Cookery), and Miss Hester Da-viea (Cardin).
I PLEASE MENTION THE PIONEER WHEN ANSWERING ADVERTS. NATIONAL Amalgamated LABOURERS' UNION. Registered Office -1 ST. DAVID'S PLACE, RUTLAND STREET, SWANSEA. The Live Fighting Union for South Wales. .We Don't Merely List Benefits on' Paper—We PAY Them. General Secretary: JOHN TWOMEY. Organiser: "BOB" WILLIAMS, 220 Blackfriars Road, London, S.E. District Secretaries: A. BARTON, 5 Stuart Street, Docks, Cardiff; JOH N O'LEARY, Century Institute. Winmill Street, Newport, Mon.; Coun. J. POWLESLAND, 10 Picton Place, Swansea ALL CLASSES CATERED FOR-MALE AND FEMALE. Affiliated to the National Tramsport Workers' Federation, Trade Union Congress, and National Labour Party. 1 Approved under the National Health Insurance Acts. I r" It It ) DOWLAIS CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY, Limited. I • 16, 17, 18, and 19, Union Street, Dowlais. S ? ?*?????* j DRAPERY DEPT* j ￼ We are now showing a Lare Assortment of New Goods for the I ? coming Season:— I Household Linen. Blankets. Quilts. Sheets. I Carpets and Rugs. < MILLINERY DEPT. ) Costumes. Jackets. Blouses. Ladies and [ ￼ ￼ I Children's Millinery. j j VALUE AND QUALITY GUARANTEED IF YOU BUY AT j | 16, 17, 18 & '9, Union Street, Dowlais. I • Pantscanog, Dowtais Caeharris, Dowlais. |1 I High Street, Penydarren. B I Station Terrace, Bedlinog. 1 LB
Maesteg Notes. I I.L.P. Activities. -I I On Thursday last the I.L.P. held a very suc- cessful meeting outside the Co-operative Stores, with Mr. J. Scnrr, of London, as speaker. His subject was The Policy of the I.L.P. which leaves plenty of scope for the speaker, and Mr. Scurr took advantage of the freedom allowed on the subject and dealt with many things, stating that although conscription was only supposed to be for the period of the war, the Government would not repeal it at the end of the war, as it was so convenient for them to deal with strikers. If the railwaymen struck for any- thing it would be possible for them when John Jones, engineinan, left work on Saturday night as a striker to call him up as Private Jones on Sunday morning and tell him off to run the en- gine as a soldier, after he refused to run it as a railwayman. Comrade A. G. Jones again pi-c-- sided. Literature sales (pamphlets) 13s., collec- tion fairly good, and two new members. The branch now dispose of eight dozen Pioneers" and four dozen "Labour Leaders" weekly. Trades Council Notes. The fortnightly general meeting of the Trades Council was held in the Co-op. Lecture Hall on Wednesday evening, June 27, Mr. Ed. Barnett in the chair. Mr. Meth Jones, political organiser, spoke on the question of the redistribution of seats, etc. Mr. Jones said that there was some difficulty in arranging the boundaries of the new divisions, and as yet he could not say whether Penybont rural area would be linked up with Maesteg, Og- more and Garw, including a portion of Gilfach or not, but he felt certain that that portion of Mid-Glamorgan would have a separate eeat known as the Maesteg Division. Under the new method of distribution, he stated that the. old small boroughs were to be swept away, including Lloyd George's constituency. The population of Wales, including Monmouthshire, he said, had been returned by the Registrar Genera l for the purpose of Re-distribution is 2,523,453, in Glam- organshire alone there is a population of 1,186,489, and Monmouthshire has 420,254 of a population, leaving but 916,710 for the rest of Wales. The basis for representation, he stated, was one Member per 70,000 persons, and upon this ratio Glamorgan would be entitled to 17 mem- bers as against their present 10, and Monmouth- shire six as against their present four, making an increase of nine for Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire, but only two, or possibly four, members more for the whole of Wajes and Mon- mouthshire in addition to its 32, making 34, or possibly 36 members, so other parts of Wales would lose their seats and some of them would be linked up together to form the constituency where there is now two or three. The population of the Maesteg U.D.C. area is 27,481, and the Garw and Ogmore including the Evanstown side of Gilfach 28,450 rooth put to- gether making 55,939, entitles this portion of Mid-Glamorgan Division to a separate seat un- der a clause under which: "where there is a population of 50,000 in a compact area with an increasing population, a seat can be granted on the minimum of 50,000." Mr. Meth Jones was of opinion that the districts named by him would make an admirable constituency from the standpoint of Labour. One or two questions were put to Mr. Jones and satisfactorily answered. We are sorry to report that Mr. Jones, stating as the reason of his wanting to return home by the early train was that about a month ago hj, little boy, not yet five years old, had been knocked down by a motor lorry, which necessi- tated the amputation of his leg at the knee, anu that they had had the pleasure that day of 1'(' ceiving him home from hospital. Mr. A. G. Jones moved a vote of sympathy with Mr. Met; Jones in his trouble, Mr. Thos. Roberts seconded. and it was carried unanimously. Mr. A. G. Jones, the delegate to Leeds Oon ference, denvered his report. Mr. Jones gavt an account of the reception he a&d Ablett and anot h er receive d at the TreveIyn' lotel, Leed another received at the I-revelyirf Hotel, Leedc, on inquiring for Mr. Tom Quelch, and stated that it was the best thing that could have been done by the aristocracy of Leeds, who organiscd a boycott of the delegates at the hotels, and als. the cancelling of the Albert Hall, as in the firs place it gave the delegates an opportunity or carrying their opinions and enthusiasm into tin hemes of the workers, and secondly, they ob- tained a better hall for the Conference. B>* gave a very full report, which lasted for aboi1 a-' hour. The report was unanimously accepted as satisfactory. Coun. J. Evans, Nantyffyllon, asked for in- structions how to proceed on the following Fri day at a special meeting of the ifnance commit- tee, when he understood that an attempt would 03 made to get the late surveyor back to the dis- trict, as he understood that if Maesteg was pre- pared to give him an advance in salary some- what near that which he had been offered at hu new situation he would remain in Maesteg. After discussion it was decided that the La- bour group on the Council should not oppose a reasonable advance under the present circum- stances, but ill. the case of the clerk of the Coun cil who was receiving L150 per annum for a pari-time job, that they were to oppose that.
Literary. UNITARIAN PAMPHLETS on "The Bible > <U Heaven," and Hell," given post free. Miss BARMBY, Mount Pleasant, Sidmouth. Medical. O/f-PAGE BOOK ABOUT ? HERBS ANL Ut HOW TO USE THEM, Post Free. Send for One. TRIMNELL, TBB HBBBALIST, 144, RICHMONH ROAD, CABDIVV. Established 1879. Miscellaneous. STROLOGY.-Life Events, Changes, Foi tunate Days, Business Success, Matrimonj Two Years' Future added.—Send Birth-date, 1/ P.O., PROF. GOULD, The Nook," Heathfiek Road, Cardiff.
Caepantywyll Child Drowned. "Accidental deft-th" was the verdict at an inquest at Merthyr on Tuesday upon Thomas John Wiltshire, aged 4t years, the child of Win. Wiltshire, Upper Taff-street, Caepantywyll, who was drowned in the River Taff within thirty yards of his home on Sunday. The child was stated to have gone out to play two hours before the discovery of the body.
I T Reply to Rhondda Teacher. j -Rkondda Teat her" it migh be I I «ttted that: — n d(l) oIiticalactioll w&& argued to be an aid to UeatlOn. Labour M.P.'s and Councillors will rot be rwolutionaiy until they have a revolu- nary backing, and instead of future elections }' '?S f display of petty egos anxious for the ?). hght they mav be linked up to the evolu- °^ of the worker as a class. (.) ?"?odities are represented by their m"?' ? ?n political a? well as in industrial Phe:l'e; e.g., owners of the commodity corn .?k lugher prices by demanding protection from otugn competition through their political ?. Agents. (:3) Industrial action is also action by proxy In the sense that the representative system is nQ discarded—for instance, all the individual ÙnIon members do not attend A Union Confer- uce. The problem of securing democratic con- ïl over elected representatives exists in both ?ds. Solidarity can be displayed in voting tp- other and in striking together. il cannot be "creative" 'thout also being destructive, and for. some •inie yet, political action will be useful to de- stroy the barriers to its advance. ySfy He lathering the looking-glass analogy: "hle this must haveaded to the gaiety of .,PIoneer" readers, yet it hardly added en- ^"tenment to the discussion. The amusement !l;adü by a jovial cove is hardly akin to educa- ion or Charlie C., the great Horatio and Clem 8dwards would by now have made further pro- banda unnecessary. It is the Syndicalist who ( t u rs the Political looking-glass with "soap- tilbbl,, argnments and then de-des tlat the .as,? refle(,,t6 iiidiisti,ial strength. Hu- ^pi'oiis comments on analogies should not be ?taken for argument.- The act performed ^Pon the spur of the moment and the blind in- tunlve jump are inferior to a reason guided ad- ^nce if such reasoning be based not upon "pys- dogical intentions" but upon the true objec- "? world. ??) The first paragraph of "Mid-Rhondd? Notes'' in the same issue as "Rhondda Leathers criticism, which was somewhat pessi- "Istic in its tone, testifies to the moral fibre fisting in this Bethelehem of the Social Revolu- and is concrete evidence to "thQ material Itions prevailing which have not yet made PpKtical action unnecessarv to the emaneipatio* 'Of the workers.