FOUNDBD 1850. This Firm has since Furnished many Thousands of Houses, and they are now waiting to FURNISH YOUR HOME. Notwithstanding the present great scarcity, you will find everything required for COMPLETE FURNISHING In the vast Stocks still held by the Well-known Old-established Firrn- BE VAN & COMPANY who stand to-day in the Front Rank of the Furnishers of the United Kingdom. BEVAN & COMPANY, LTD., CWMBACH BUILDINGS, I 280, OXFORD STREET, LLANELLY. ) SWANSEA. And throughout South Wales and Monmouthshire. For immense selection of Newest Designs, Excellence of Quality, and at most Moderate Prices, place your order with BEVAN & COMPANY l Wales' Largest Furnishers. Their long experience and reputation are of themselves a reliable assurance that Customers may confidently rely upon entire satisfaction. The Return Fares of Cash Customers paid, and Goods delivered free up to 200 miles from all Branches. Christian Temple, AMMANFORD. A. GRAND ORGAN RECITAL Will be given at the above place on New Year's Evening BY J. A. M EALE, Esq., The Great English Organist, of Central Hall, London, assisted by Miss Elsie Thurston, Soprano, of the Queen's Hall and Albert Hall Concerts, and Mr. DAVID EVANS, The Well-known Welsh Baritone. For further particulars see Posters. Public Notices. CHURCH HALL, Carmel, LLANDEBIE. THE SECOND Annual EISTEDDFOD Will be held at the above place On BOXING DAY, 1918. Chief Choral (not under 20 in num- £ s. d. ber), Blodeuyn Bach wyf fi mewn Gardd 3 3 0 Further particulars may be had from the Hon. Secretary-Mr. W. L. PHILLIPS, Llwyncarw, Golden Grove. Tradesmen's Announcements. Beautify the Home Dainty Mats, Comfortable Rugs, Choice Patterns in Linoleums, Carpets, Hand- some Mirrors, Bedsteads, Bedding, Wire Mattresses, Overlays. FURNITURE of every description manufactured on the Premises. Pianos, Organs, and other Mnsical Instruments. H. TARR, 71, Wind St., AMMANFORD. The Amman Valley Furnishing Stores. Prepaid Advertisements. FAT Live Geese for Sale; average weight, 121bs.; sold at Government price.-Williams, Bailey, Gwynfe, Llan- gadock. TVT ANTED, Agent for House Purchase business in Ammanford and District. Goód commission, given. For particulars, please apply in writing to Box H. Amman Valley Chronicle, Ammanford. ly/TOLESKINS, Rabbits, Feathers, Horse- hair, &c., Wanted. Send for prkes.- H. Stuart & Co., Albion Buildings, Alders- gate Street, London, E.C.I. S CORN the foreign yolk." Get British eggs from British hens by using Karswood Poultry Spice, containing ground insects, which poultry love. Packets 2;d., ¡¡d., 1/3.—T. Thomas, Post Office, Gamant. A CTUAL test proves that Karswood (Harmless) Spice added to hen food produces double the eilf as same food with- out Karswood. Packets 2d., 7ad., 1/3.- Thomas Evans, Royal Stores, Llaadilo. pIANO BARGAINS.-Collard and Collard Upright in Walnut case, £60; Eason Upright in Walnut case, £ 58; Dunmo Ellis Upright in Walnut, £ 55; Pianola, 12-6. All Instruments guaranteed and delivered carriage paid. Write for complete Catalogue and Bargain List to C. Milsom & Son, Ltd., The Great West of England Piano House, 15, Milsom Street, Bath. ADVERTISE your Sale. and Wants in the Chronicle. Cheap Prepaid Rates. Chronicle Office, Amman ford. APPLICATIONS for Agencie. to Sell The Amman Valley Chronicle ia the Villages of East Carmarthenshire should be forwarded to the Manager, Amman Valley Chronicle Office, Quay Street, Ammanford. MV T Public Notices. BETHEL, BLAENAU. Cynhelir EISTEDDFOD Yn y lie uchod Sadwrn, Chwef. 15fed, 1919. Manylion pellach a Rhagleni i'w cae l oddiwrth yr Ysgrifenydd, Mr. J. Davies, Lletty'ryvven, Blaenau, Llandebie. Sales by Auction. GrA.KLNA.NTT. VALUABLE LEASEHOLD DWELLING HOUSE AND GARDEN FOR SALE. Mr. W. N. JONES HAS received instructions from Mr. Albert Bright (who is leaving Garnant) to Offer for SALE BY PUBLIC AUCTION, at the RAVEN INN HOTEL, GARNANT, on SATURDAY, DECEMBER 7th, 1918 (according to Conditions to be then and there read), all that Valuable LEASEHOLD DWELLING HOUSE And GARDEN, known as CLIFTON HOUSE, situate in Cowell Road, Garnant, and now in the occupation of the Owner. The Premises comprise Front Parlour, Back Parlour, Kitchen, Pantries, 4 Bedrooms, E.C., together with a well laid out Garden and some choice Fruit Trees. Water and Gas have been laid on, and there are two side entrances—one a cart way, the other a footpath. The Property is held under Lease dated the 16th day of August, 1909, for a term of 99 years from the 25th March, 1909, at the low annual Ground Rent of £ 1 12s. The House has been well and substantially built, and stands on a nice healthy bank, within convenient distance of the Collieries and Works in the district, and is sure to prove a good investment. Sale to commence at 5 o'clock. Further particulars can be had from the AUCTIONEER, Ammanford; or Mr. W. L. SMITH, Solicitor, Amman ford November 23rd, 1918. NEAR PANTYFFYNNON. VALUABLE LEASEHOLD DWELLING HOUSE AND PREMISES FOR SALE. Mr. THOMAS JENKINS (Formerly Messrs. Danl. Jenkins & Sons) HAS been favoured with instructions from Mrs. Margaret Davies to- Offer for SALE BY PUBLIC AUCTION, at the DYNEVOR ARMS HOTEL, PANTY- FFYNNON, on WEDNESDAY, DECEM- BER 18th, 1918, at 6.30 o'clock in the Evening (subject to such Conditions as shall then and there be produced), all that Valu- able and recently Stone-built LEASEHOLD DWELLING HOUSE and PREMISES, Known as Maesyffynnon," and situate on part of Tyryrin Farm, Garnswllt, in the Parish of Llangyfelach, and in the occupation of Mr. Idris Jones as Monthly Tenant thereof, and held under a Lease for the term of 999 Years, computed from the 25th day of March, 1914, and measuring 30 perches (more or less), at the low annual Ground Rent of il 5s.; and contains the following accommo- dation:—Drawing Room, Dining Room, Kitchen, Pantry, and 3 good-sized Bedrooms, Stone-built W.C. and Pigsty. The House is well built, and has a passage through to the Back Kitchen and the Floors of the two Front Rooms have, been laid with Wooden Blocks. The Premises are well laid out, and stand on a healthy bank, and very convenient for all the Industries of the District. All Mines and Minerals are reserved. For further particulars, apply to the Auctioneer, The Shop, Gwaun-cae-gurwen. December 3rd, 1918. Scholastic. Old College. School, Carmarthen. (Facing Beautiful Vale of Towy) Ideal Institution for Direct Preparation and Great Production. BOARDERS KEPT. GIRLS ADMITTED. TERMS MODERATE. Head Ma3ter: REV. J. B. THOMAS, Late Headmaster of Park-y-Velvet Academy; Undergraduate of London University; Open Exhibitioner of Cardiff University; First in English, and Distinction in Chemistry: First Prizeman in Classics and Mathematics at Trevecca College. SUCCESSES IN SESSION 1917-18:-27. 25 College of Preceptors (2 with Honours). 2 Shorthand. For particulars, apply to Mr. THOMAS. .j.ii(J
TO THE ELECTORS OF THE LLANELLY Parliamentary Division OF THE County of Carmarthen. LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, I You will shortly be called upon to elect a Member to represent yeu in the Commons House of Parliament, and I have the honour of offering myself not only as the adopted Candidate of the Liberal and Labour Association of the constituency, but also as the Official Candidate of the Lloyd George's Coalition Government, for your suffrages. Since war was declared, I have done my best, in season and out, to help the Govern- ment of the day to carryon the conflict to a successful issue. I have been a faithful and an enthusiastic follower of MT. Lloyd George, who has, without a doubt, done more than any other individual in bringing about the great victory of the Allied Powers and the United States of America over the enemy of Freedom and Humanity. How mighty a part in this glorious achieve- ment has been contributed by the daring cf British Seamen, the valour of British Soldiers, the courage of British Airmen, and the sacri- fices of British people can never be fully estimated. This victory of our arms, so splendid and so complete, is, however, the prelude to stern and imperative tasks, which can only be neg- lected or delayed at the peril of our common country. The work of the fighters, so nobly accom- plished, must be sealed and covenanted in the high endeavour of the citizen. THEY haive made the world too diirrgerous for AUTOCRACY. It is OURS to make the world safe for DEMOCRACY. What are the tasks to which Government and people alike are summoned? First of all there is the immediate task of Peace, the great endeavour to lay, anew, the foundations of Europe in Equity and Righteousness. The rights of nations and the aspirations of peoples-both great and small—must find the fullest possible expression. Only for this has the blood of our best and bravest been shed. Only through this can a lasting peace be assured and the nations given the hope of security and freedom from the nightmare of recurring War. Secondly,—Upon such a foundation well ana traly laid must be built the solid temple of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS-the one permanent guarantee- against the evils of Militarism and the one hope for a progressive reduction of Armaments and freedom from Military. Conscription. Thirdly,—A World League" of Nations founded on a clean and righteous peace must be accompanied within these islands by a real LEAGUE OF BRITISH NATIONS. We cannot talk of fraternity among the peoples of the world, and at the same time have discord and strife among classes, con.- munities, and nations here at home. Nationality must find its new expression in healthy rivalry of service in the greater cause of humanity. Our first and most sacred charge mmt be for hose who have been broken in the War —to see that the widow and the orphan receive, so far as is humanly possible, the cars and sustenance which a husband and father can no longer give-to see that the disabled have every aid of Science to restore them to the full opportunities of life, and sufficient pensions for those injuries no care can cure. During the period of demobilisation ample means must be devised to avoid the hardships of unemployment, and to secure the smoothest possible passage from War to Peace Condi- tions. The great work of NATIONAL RE- CONSTRUCTION must proceed without interruption or delay. This Britain of ours, bought anew by the blood of the men and the tears of the women who have suffered and sacrificed during these terrible years of War, must become a real Home-Land, a Land of Homes, and a whole- some Home-life. Land, Housing, Health, Temperance, Education, and Minimum Wage for the Worker must be tackled in a wholly new spirit. Every child, every woman, and every man must be granted conditions that will give each a chance of maximum development for the service of the community. Transport must be under the direct control of the State. To secure a contented Ireland must be one of the first endeavours of Peace. I cannot believe that our Statesmanship will confess itself bankrupt within our islands at the moment when our ideals have proved themselves victorious in the greatest conflict of the ages. The principle of Home Rule should also be extended to England, Scotland, and Wales, in the local mterest and to prevent the congestion of work in Parliament. Devolution is all the more important be- cause of the new outlook on the world' s affairs. The Overseas Dominions must with- out further delay be wrought into closer touch with the Imperial Parliament. The fundamental principle of the Estab- lished Church (Wales) Act must not be inter- fered with, but I favour any arrangement which will penalise neither the Church nor the Nation- on account of the intervention of the War. Worsen, now, for the first time, have the right not only to vote in Parliamentary Elec- t-ons, but also to serve, if elected, as Repre- sentatives of the People in the House of Commons. From the commencement of hostilities they have been in no way behind men in skill, courage and endurance. I am proud to have been a supporter of their cause during my whole political career, and I look Election Addresses. forward to the removal of all inequalities which bear unjustly upon women, or which form a bar to the use of their capacity in any sphere. Since Mr. Lloyd George formed his Coalition Government, we have had the greatest Reform Measure and the best Educa- tion Measure in the history of this country placed on the Statute hi story of this country placed on the Statute ?ook of the Realm. His Government has not been by any means reactionary. To the contrary it has been extraordinarily progressive. The spirit of comradeship, irrespective of parties, which was vital to the passing of far- reaching democratic Measures and to the prosecution of the most gigantic struggle in the annals of history to a victorious termina- tion, is also absolutely necessary to enable us to deal with the difficult problems which now confront us. Sailors, Soldiers and Airmen may vote, though absent from our shores. I welcome this provision in the Reform Act, and I am confident that the courage with which they have answered the call of King and Country will find a fit counterpart in the wisdom with which they will use their new citizenship. Let us not forget that Liberty and Demo- cracy are not ends in themselves; they are only the means towards a fuller and more useful life. They must be consecrated with unselfishness and humility to mutual service. In this spirit I ask for your support and vote, and should you choose me to represent you in Parliament, you may rely upon me to give my best for you and the State. I am, Very faithfully yours,' Josiah Tawyn Jones. Atosfa, Llandebie, Carmarthenshire, 25th November, 19!8.
THE LABOUR PROGRAM. A MILLION NEW HOUSES AND LEVY ON CAPITAL. The Labour Party has left the Coalition, and is appealing to the men and women of the country with a program that is a challenge to reaction. A PEACE OF RECONCILIATION. I Victory has been achieved, and Labour claims no mean share in its achievement. Not only have the workers supplied the vast majority of our soldiers and sailors, and sus- tained the burden of war at home: the demo- cratic diplomacy which found expression in the War A ims of Labour has been one of the most powerful factors in winning the war, and must be the most powerful factor in the rebuilding of the world. The Peace which Labour demands is' a Peace of International Co- operation. It declares absolutely against secret diplomacy and any form of economic war, and demands, as an essential part of the Peace Treaty, an International Labour Charter in- corporated in the very structure of a League of Free Peoples. HANDS OFF DEMOCRACY! I Labour welcomes the extension of liberty I and democracy in Europe. It has warned the Coalition that opposition towards the young democracies of the Continent, and especially that intervention on the side of European re- action will be disastrous. Labour demands the immediate withdrawal of the Allied forces from Russia. In the interest qf world- democracy it stands for the immediate restora- tion of the Workers' International. FREEDOM FOR IRELAND. I The Principles which Labour acclaims as Allied War Aims it will apply to our own subject peoples. Freedom for Ireland and India it claims as democrat-ic rights, and it will extend to all subject peoples the right of self- determination within the British Commonwealth of Free Nations. Labour s appeal to the people is not a sectional appeal, unless an appeal which ex- cludes only militarists, profiteers, and place- hunters, be regarded as sectonal. It includes an who are determined that the fruits of vic- tory shall not be wasted in the interests of riches or reaction. Especially does Labour appeal to two sections of the community-to the soldiers and sailors who have fought the j' nation's battles abroad, and to the men and women workers at home. NO CONSCRIPTION! I The returning soldier or sailor will find himself once mqre a worker. His cause is one with that of the workers at home. Civil and industrial liberties have been largely sus- pended during the war; and soldier and worker want their liberties back now. The Labour Party stands for the destruction of all War- time measures in restraint of civil or industrial liberty, the repeal of the Defence of the Realm Act, the complete abolition of Conscription, and the release of all political prisoners. It stands for free citizenship, a Free Parliament, for Free Speech, and against the domination of the Press by sinister political influences. THE LAND FOR THE WORKERS. I The Labour Party means to introduce large schemes of land reorganisation, and it is fully aware that this can only be done in the teeth of the most powerful vested interests. Land nationalisation is a vital necessity: the land is the People's, and must be developed so as to afford a high standard of life to a growing rural population not by subsidies or tariffs, but by scientific methods, and the I freeing of the soil from landlordism and re- action. A MILLION GOOD HOUSES. I LabouT demands a substantia] and per-I manent improvement in the housing of the I whole people. Al least a million new houses fnm? be built at once at the Stale expense, n—a—aM—— Election Addresses. and let at fair rents, and these houses must be fit for men and women to live in. Labour will press for a really comprehensive Public Health Act co-ordinating all health authori- ties, based o.n prevention rather than cure, and free from servile or inquisitorial features. It will also press for real Public Education, free and open to all, with maintenance scholarships without distinction of class, and for justice to the teachers upon whom education finally depends. I A LEVY ON CAPITAL. I Labour will resist every attempt to place burdens upon the poor by indirect taxation. Labour S. firm against Tariffs and for Free T.Pade. The way to deal with unfair com- petition of imports made under sweated con- ditions is not by Tariffs, but by international labour legislation which will make sweating impossible. In paying the War Debt, Labour will place the burden on the broadest backs by a special Tax on capital. T hose who have made fortunes out of the War must pay for the War; and Labour will insist upon heavily graduated direct taxation with a raising of the exemption limit. This is what Labour means by Conscription of Wealth. I INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY. I In industry Labour demands the imme- diate nationalisation and democratic control of vital public services, such as mines, railways, shipping, armaments, and electric power; the fullest recogition and utmost extension of Trade Unionism, both in private employment and in the public services. It works for an altogether higher status for Labour, which will mean also better pay and conditions. The national minimum is a first step, and with this must go the abolition of the menace of un- employment, the recognition of the universal right to work or maintenance, the legal limitation of hours of labour, and the drastic amendment of the Acts dealing with factory conditions, safety, and workmen's compen- sation. THE REAL WOMEN'S PARTY. Labour has always stood for equal rights for both sexes, when other parties were ignoring or persecuting women. In politics, the Labour Party stands for complete adult suffrage, in industry for equal pay and the organisation of men and women workers in one Trade Union and Movement. To the woman worker and to the wife of the work- ing man or the soldier, Labour can make a confident appeal. Better pay and pensions for th?- mor?man or soldier mean better conditions for his wife and family. There must be no se* party: the Labour Party is the Women's Party. Woman is the Chancellor of the Ex- chequer of the home. Labour stands with the Co-operative Movement in its insistence on reasonable food prices and fair distribution, and in its resistance to unfair taxation. The Labour Party will do all it can to aid co- operators in their struggle for a democratic food organisation and against unfair dis- crimination. Labour and Co-operation are a single Movement, and in the coming battle with reaction they must fight side by side. Labour' s program is comprehensive and constructive. It is designed to build a New World, and to build it by constitutional means. It is a program of national and international lustice, founded on permanent democratic principles. Even in an election as sinister as this, in which a large part of the nation's youth is arbitrarily disfranchised by the Government, Labour confidently appeals to the country to support its program of social justice and economic freedom." The manifesto is signed on behalf of the National Executive as folJows;- J. McGurk (Chairman), W. H. Hutchinson (Vice- Chairman), J. Ramsay Macdonald (T rea- surer), A. G. Cameron, J. R. Clynes, C. T. Cramp, F. W. Jowett. W. F. Purdy, T. Richards, W. C. Robinson, Ben Turner, Sidney Webb, James Wignall, Robert Will lams, W. Harris, J. W. Kneeshaw, James Maxton, George R. Warne, W. T. Wilson, George R. Warne, Florence Harrison Bell, Ethel Bentham, A. Susan Lawrence, Ethel Snowden, Arthur Henderson (Secretary)
Forthcoming Events. I [All forthcoming events which are adver- tised in the Chronicle, or for which printing is done at our Works in Quay Street, Amman- iord, will be included in the following list.] Dec. I].-Ammanford: Lecture by the Rev. D. Griffiths, Chaplain to the Blind. Dec. 7.-Gibea Chapel, Brynamman: Grand Competitive Concert. Dec. 7.-Raven Inn Hotel, Garnant: Sale of Leasehold Dwelling House. Auctioneer, Mr. W. N. Jones. Dec. 12.-Church Hall, Atnmanford: Christ- mas Tree and Sale of Work. Dec. 14.-Noddfa, Garnswllt: Grand Eis- teddfod. Dec. 12, 13 & 14.-Public Hall, Gwaun- cae-gurwen: Grand Performances of the operetta, May-Day in Welladay," by the Tabernacle (Cwmgorse) Children's Choir. Dec. 21.-Council School, Cefneithin: Grand Bazaar, Carnival, and Concert. Dec. 25.-Wesleyan Chapel, Uandebie: Grand Eisteddfod. Dec. 25.-Congregational Chapel, Penygroes: Grand Organ Recital. Dec. 25.-Caersalem, Tycroes: Third Annual Eisteddfod. Dec, 25.-Capel Newydd, Bettws: Grand Competitive Concert. Dec. 26.-Church Hall, Carmel, Llandebie: Second Annual Eisteddfod. Jan. I.-Christian Temple, Ammanford: Grand Organ Recital.
The Chronicle will be cent by post to any I I address at 4/4 for the half-year. or 8/8 pet annum, payable in advance.
OEAtOH'S.SS. HEALTH PILLS FEVER i a?dL ''?" PURE, STRONG HEALTHY BLOOD Free fom tHse trrib!e sayen- ErysIpelas, Chills, Pams, Ulcers, ￼ TAD C?!M Burning, Fevers, Inflammations, BRIGHT CLEAR O?m, Pneumonia, Dropsy, Pleurisy, SHE'D PUS I E 6 Torturing Eczema, Rheumatism, CfDnCEC L CmDnUM M UVM bn!LLa, Gout, Pimples, BoUs, Blotches. ￼ E???? DB?—r?o??p-?s??ym? !ndtgestSon, Headache, Jaundice, Dropsy, lndlierirache' And all Unhealthy Inflamed Ulcerous Conditions. DEAKIN'S Ensure immediate benefits for all Sufferers, and effect quick and most wonderful recoveries. DEAKIN'S In Stamped Boxes only, 1/3; by Post, 1/6; Six Boxes for 7/6. Sole Proprietors and Inventors G. Deakin & Hughes, The Inflammation Remedies Co., I BRISTOL & BLAENAVON, Mon. Local & District News. TO CORRESPONDENTS. Reports, News Paragraphs, and all Communications for the "AMMAN VALLEY CHRONICLE" should be sent not later than WED- NESDAY earlier when- ever possible-addressed- EDITOR, Amman Valley Chronicle," AMMANFORD. Will all Correspondents, whether writing in Welsh or in English, please remember, when sending in their contributions. that proper names and address must be given, not necessarily for insertion, but as a guarantee I of good faith.
I OutliNes or Local Government Further Powers and Duties of Urban Councils (compiled Jrom Atkinson). Electric Lighting Acts (1882 to 1909). Any Borough or District Council may undertake an electricity department on obtain- ing powers under these Acts, but the matter is usually assumed by large companies. Before any company, body, or person can supply electric light to others, they must obtain a licence or Provisional Order from the Board of Trade. The licence requires the consent of the District or Borough Council, if the latter are not the applicants. The licence lasts for seven years, and, on its ter- mination, can only be renewed with the same consents. The licensees are called the undertakers." But licences are very rarely granted, the common procedure being by Pro- visiona l Order, whether the applicants are a Council or a company. The principal differ- ence between a Provisional Order and a licence for this purpose is that the former does not absolutely require the consent of the Council for the area to be supplied (though, of course, that Council can oppose the con- firmation of the Order in Parliament). But the Council's consent has ultimately to be given, unless the Board of Trade certify, for special reasons, that it may be dispensed with. The parties applying for the Order must give notice to the Council, not later than 1st July in the year when the application is to be made. No monopoly is created by a licence or Provisional Order for electric light- ing, as in the case of gas and water. The licence or Order itself defines the con- ditions imposed upon the" undertakers" as to regular and efficient supply of electricity, as to the safety of the public from personal injury or fire, limits of charges, the inspection and supervision by the Board of Trade and the Council, and the enforcement of duties by revocation of licence, penalties, &c. The charges are subject to revision by the Board gvery five years. The undertakers (whether Council, company, or private per- sons) must prepare an annual statement of accounts (up to 31st December) not later than 25th March, must publish it, ajrequired by the Board of Trade, and must supply copies to all applicants at Is. each. The electric wires may not be placed above ground, over any street, without the Council's consent, and, even after such consent, the magistrates may order such wires to be re- moved, if they are satisfied that there is danger. The Council have limited powers of buying up the concerns of any undertakers at Order. The price is to be a fair valuation of the intervals specified in the Provisional land, works, plant, lines, &c., without any- thing for goodwill, compulsory selling, or profits of business. If no intervals are speci- fied, the period is forty-two years from date of Order. The Council may obtain power to purchase at an earlier date by obtaining a fresh Provisional Order. Gas. An Urban Council may make and sell gas, if there is no authorised company in their dis- trict, after obtaining a Provisional Order. If there is a company, they may purchase the undertaking compulsorily, by the same pro- cess, at intervals fixed by the Companies Act, if no voluntary purchase can be arranged for. A gas company may decide voluntarily to sell to a Council by a majority of three-fourths, or, if it is a limited company, under the Joint Stock Acts by special resolution." The Council must obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board before purchasing. A gas company has very extensive powers, and its monopoly may not be interfered with by any other company or authority without a Provisional Order; they possess just the same powers as a company, and are under the same obligations. Ratepayers' Meetings. These were once required for a number of matters, but the parish meeting ha; taken their place in rural districts. In urban districts and boroughs they are only necessary when the Council propose to promote or oppose a Bill in Parliament, or (in urban districts only) to establish a market, though they may be called For any public matters. Twenty resident owners, or ratepayers, may demand the call- ing of a meeting. The summoning officer is the Mayor, or Chairman of the Council. The parties to the requisition must give security for the expenses. Notice of the meeting must be posted at the church doors, and advertised in one local paper. The summoning officer, if able and willing to preside, is chairman. The chairman is to propose to the meeting the resolution for which it has been called, and take a vote for or against. Any owner, or ratepayer, may at once (but not later) demand a poll. Dedication oj a Road. If a freeholder makes a new road and invites the public to use it, he is said to dedicate it expressly to the use of the public. But what more frequently happens is that the freeholdeer tacitly allows the public to walk or drive across his land for such a length of time that the law presumes that he must have intended to dedicate the way to the public, although he has never expressly said so. The steps which are necessary before a road is taken over are:— (a) Three months' notice must be given to the District Council; (b) The District Council must be satisfied that the road is properly made and is not unnecessary: (c) A certificate must be obtained to that effect from the justices; (d) The public must use the road for 12 months, and during that time the dedi- cator must repair it himself. when an owner intentionally and expressly dedicates a way, he may impose any restric- tions which he likes, and the public merely accept the read on his terms or refuse it. But if an OWner has permitted public use, or public repair, for a considerable time, he is presumed to have dedicated the road. Twenty years would be sufficient as a rule. In one case, six were enough. Improvements. Any District or Borough Council may im- prove a highway by converting an unstoned road into a stoned road, by widening or level- ling roads, cutting off corners or making new roads, and may borrow for permanent works of this kind. An Urban Council may buy land or buildings for improving a street, or, with the sanction of the Local Government Board, for making a new street. If the terms cannot be agreed upon they have compulsory powers, which, however, are very costly. The Private Street Works Act, 1892. Every Urban Council may adopt this Act by certain notices and resolutions. The pro- cedure under this Act requires all questions in dispute to be settled before the work is done, so that the Council run no risk of find- ing that, after doing the work, part of the cost is irrecoverable. The Council must first resolve that the street works are to be done, anJ then the surveyor must submit for their approval a specification of the work required, with plans and sections, an estimate of the probable expense," and a provisional apportion- ment among the adjoining owners. When approved, these are advertised and notices are served on the owners. Any owner men-* tioned in such apportionment may object within one month on any of the following grounds:—( 1) That the place is not a street at all; (2) that it is already repairable by the public; (3) that there is some informality in the resolutions, notices, plans, sections, or estimate; (4) that the work is insufficient 81 unreasonable, or the cost excessive; (5) that his property is not liable; (6) that the appor- tionment is wrong. All objections are to be decided by a special sitting of the magistrates, who nave full discretion as to ordering either side to pay costs, and may quash or amend any part of the scheme, or adjourn the hearing and dirtct fresh notices to be given. i