NOTES ON NEWS. i The Prime Minister's statement at Bir- kenhead with regard to the shipping posi- THE SHIPPING POSITION. tion was very reassuring. The figures about losses and building which he gave not long ago in the House of Commons wore declared by the Germans to be inaccurate. That is not very surprising, for German statesmen and the German Press having made extravagant promises to the German people as to what would be the effect upon this country of submarine warfare, are not yet prepared to eat their words and con- fess failure, even though they must by now have very disquieting doubts as to whether the underse-a boats are going to bring us to our knees after all. The German people will have to be told the truth sooner or later, but the men in power in Berlin will put crff the moment of revelation as long as possible. Even in this country, however, tilero were many who shook their heads and sug- THE Premier'S CONFIDENCE. gested that Mr. Lloyd George had really been unreasonably sanguine, and that the position was very much graver than he had made it out to be. It is satisfactory, therefore, to have the Premier's assurance that 'the figures he gave were strictly ac- curate, and that it depends upon the efforts of all concerned in tho shipbuilding industry to verify his forecast as to future building. Mr. Lloyd George himself is confident. The enemy, ho says, "will not be able to beat down the strength of this Empire, or to beat down the hopes of the Allies, which depends upon the strength of this Empire, by means of all the efforts they can make with their submarines. Tho situation is very serious, calling for constant effort and the most rigorous eco- nomy, but the Premier's cheerful and en- couraging statement should put heart into tho most fearful of the doubters amongst us, Admiral Scheer, the successor of von Tirpitz, will no doubt have read with in- "THE DAY MUST COME. terest Mr. Lloyd George's speech. He is one of those who are striving with might and main to keep up the faith of the German people in their U-boats. He was interviewed the other day on this subject. The interviewer asked him: Do the submarines promise much?" He replied, "Everything." There is no doubt about tha't, at any rate, they do promise everything; it is the little matter of performance as to which many people in Germany must by this time be feelmg very serious doubts. And to these people tho Admiral says the day must como when Britain will have to give in as the result of the submarine losses. The day must come! Surely there must be among the German people who read the re- port of the interview a good many who will reflect that that day was to have come months ago. Having given, them a further dose of promises, Admiral Scheer proceeds to encourage the German people by telling them that the struggle is one of German endurance against British obstinacy, and that the Briton will never be able to stick it out. We shall see. The Admiral is constrained to admit that things lately have net been going well with the German people, and that is a very significant ad- mission. Night raids by aeroplanes constitute the most difficult problem of air warfare which NIGIIT AEROPLANE RAIDS. the Government has had to tackle. The Zeppelin menace appears to have been satisfactorily dis- posed of, and aeroplane raids by daylight can be coped with, but aeroplanes at night. arc a different matter. The machines fly higher and faster than Zeppelins, and even if found by the search- lights are practically imposible to "hold." They are much less vulnerable, and much less likely to be hit either by our guns or our airmen. Compared with this pro- blem, that of*the Zeppelin was simplicity itself. Yet it took some time to beat the Zeppelin, and it is not surprising that a remedy for the new disease cannot be found immediately. The attitude of some people seems to be that we ought to accept the infliction as our share of the horrors of war, and be thankful it is no worse. "What is it after all, they ask, "com- pared with \vha'!i the people of France and Belgium have to suffer?" That is a kind of argument of which we have heard a great deal too much. There is no sense in passive submission to an evil instead of doing one's utmost to find a remedy for it. A remedy for this one must be found, and no doubt the authorities are doing their utmost to find it. There is much in favour of the sugges- tion that the aerial defences of the country OVER THE SEIIMAN LINES. should be entrusted to a special organisation which would have complete freedom of action and be entirely independent of the military and naval authorities, who already have their hands full without these new problems which are constantly arising. Such an arrangement,, it seems to the lay- man, would make for greater efficiency. There is reason and sound sense in the proposal, qualities which have been con- spicuously absent from a good deal of the stuff which has appeared in print on the subject of these raids. It would appear that some people think 'that it should be possible to prevent German aeroplanes from reaching these shores at all. It ap- parently never occurs to them to note that our own airmen are constantly carrying out far' more effective raids' on enemy mili- tary objectives. These raids have to be made over the German lines, in the face of defences, both of anti-aircraft guns and aeroplanes, immeasurably stronger than anything we can ever have at home. Yet our airmen carry out their raids with as- tonishingly small loss. To make a raid on this country more risky for the raiders than one over the German Army lines would be something of a miracle, and it is of no use to expect miracles even from a special organisation. Probably our own airmen's raids upon enemy air bases in Belgium are the best possible defence of our bortio towns after all. When Lord Ithondu-a accepted the office of Food Controller he remarked that he fully expected to make LoRD RHQNDDA AND FARMERS. himself unpopular. It looks as though the farmers do not like him much, at r.ny rate. They object very strongly to his fixed prices for cattle. They have passed a resolution that the prices will make the rearing of cattle unreinunerative and cause a beef famine in the spring, and that the diminution in the amount of manure will have a prejudicial effect on next year's harvest. That is certainly a gloomy outlook. Let us hope things will not turn out quite so badly. Lord Rhondda had a straight talk 'to the far- mers. He told them that the present high prices of meat could not be defended, aud must be reduced. He believes that his prices will secure to the farmer a fair profit promises him a decrease In the cost of feeding-stuffs, points out that during the vast two years he has done very well, probably better than for a generation or more, and leaves it to hIs patriotism to make the sacrifices asked for. One cannot believe that he will ask in vain.
ii a An anonymous gift of Eleo has been placed by the Mayor of Faversham at the disposal of the Boy Scout movement.
WILL YET PLAY A GREAT PART IN THE WAR." Mr. Lloyd George received the honorary I freedom of the borough of Birkenhead on Friday, and afterwards made an important speech. s p Thy Premier said that German statesmen and the German Press had been at great pains to impress upon the German com- munity the inaccuracy of the figures which he had given in the House of Commons about the submarine losses and about the efforts we were putting forth to repair them. The mere fact that they were so worried about these figures was in itself a proof that if they were verified German hopes were dashed. In many respects the figures were disastrous enough, but they might take it that they were accurate, and whether the figures he gave about shipbuilding in the future were accurate depended entirely on the efforts put forth by employers and work- men in the shipyards. He was confident with regard to the future that the U boats would not be able to beat down the strength of the Empire or to beat down the hopes of the Allies which depended on the strength of our Empire. Turning to the general war situation, the Premier said the news from Russia was dis- quieting, but he had always thought that when the Revolution came it would have the effect of postponing victory. He had ex- pected an earlier recovery of Russia, but through all we must exercise patience. Russian leaders, all brave, patriotic men, knew in the enemy attempts on Riga the fate of the Revolution was at stake, and they would do their utmost to defend the fruits of the Revolution. Under fire the Russian leaders were repairing the machines that had broken down, and he was confident that in the end they would succeed. Far from being despondent about the crisis in the Eastern theatre, te asked them to look forward to Russia with hope, because he believed she would recover and play a great part yet before the war was over in saving the world from Prussian domination. Mr. Lloyd George said that he had given them the worst side of the war. He did not believe in painting merely bright colours without giving them the whole sky, but if there were clouds on the Russian sky, there was sunshine on the banners of the Allies in every other field.
I ABSENTEE DRESSED AS WOMAN. I Alfred Goodman Dunn, a conscientious objector, aged forty, when called up for military service at Merthyr, dreased himself in women's clothes, and went to Bristol with his "sister," a woman named Lilian Flet- cher. At the Bristol Police-court he has been fined 40s. and handed over to the mili- tary authorities. Dunn, it was stated, also pretended to be deaf and dumb. He had been passed Cl. He was a married man living apart from his wife, and Lilian Fletcher told the magis- trates that he had been sent to her by his mother to take care of him. The charge against the woman of failing to register was dismissed, and the magis- trate tcld Dunn that to pose as a woman and as deaf and dumb was the limit of cowardice. l
I FROM COURT TO INTERNMENT. I At Highgate Police-court, John Hohrodt, acred sixty-two, described as a German, was charged with concealing his son, a military absentee, who was fined 40s. and ordered to await an escort. It was stated he came to England when he was nineteen, and had lost a business because of the war. A son was killed when fighting for this country in the South African War, and another was now fighting on our side in France. The magistrate said that legally Hohrodt was entitled to be discharged. On leaving th? dock he was served with a noti4?e for in- ternment.
I LONDON'S OVERSEAS TRADE. I The Port of London Authority reports that the total net tclln,age of vessels in and out the port during 1916 was 24,976,437 tons, as compared with 30.890,531 tons in 1915. Both totals exclude the tonnage of vessels employed by the Government in connection with the war. The congestion in the port which prevailed in 1915 has disappeared, due to extended storage and transit facilities, and to the regulation by the Government of the shipment of sugar and the restriction of imports.
I PRISONERS IN TURKEY. I The Secretary to the Post Office announces that, according to information furnished by the Swiss Post Office, the transmission of parcels addressed to prisoners of war in Turkey in Asia, except those interned at Magnesia, is suspended, and until further notice such parcds cannot be accepted at post offices. Tho parcels on hand will be re- turned to the senders. Letters and money orders for prisoners of war in Turkey in Asia can still be for- warded.
I HELPED PRISONERS ESCAPE. I At Winchester a district court-martial charged Walter George Trim and Frederick Warnes, both privates in the Non-combatant Corps, with conduct tending to assist Ger- man prisoners to escape from the local de- tention camp. It is alleged that the pri- soners tried to get civilian suits for German prisoners. Trim was found not guilty, and Warnes guilty. Sentence will be promulgated in due course.
I THIEVES CHASED OVER ROOFS. I Described as belonging to a gang of the most dangerous and expert Continental thieves, Arthur Jackson and Alf Collings were each sentenced at the Old Bailey to three years' penal servitude for warehouse- breaking. The two men were arrested after an ex- citing police chase over roofs.
I TIGRIS ARMY'S HEALTH. I War Office. There is no change in the situation in Mesopotamia, and no report of any opera- tions since the last ^communique was issued on August 22. The number of sick for the four weeks ending August 18 shows an improvement of 36 per cent. over the corresponding period of last year. 111
I GOODS CLERK AS MAGISTRATE. I Mr. William Letts, of Romford, has been placed on the Commission of the Peace for Essex. Mr. Letts has been a Midland Rail- way goods clerk for many years, and is secretary of one of the largest friendly societies. He is also a Labour member of the Romford Urban Council.
I SMUGGLING LETTERS TO HOLLAND. j At Grays Police-oourt, Samuel Mills, boatswain on a Great Eastern Railway vessel, was charged with attempting to convoy let ters to Holland. A military wit- ness said prisoner was evidently acting as an agent for a Dutch subject. The War Office asked for a deterrent penalty. Pri- soner was fined £ 10, and sentenced to two months' hard labour.
I ICELAND MAIL SUNK. A mail that contained correspondence (ex- cept parcels) for Isafjord, Reykjavik, and Westmann Islands, which reached Edin- burgh between 7 p.m. on August 2 and 5.30 p.m. on August 10, has been lost at sea through enemy action.
I OTHER MEN'S MINDS. I. The real Food Controller in this country is the w-eather.-MR. C. F. RTDEB. I THE FOURTH YEAR. I The fourth year of the war makes a larger demand on our patriotism.—Rxv. W. P. HAINS. ORDERING DINNER. Let the nation know how to order its dinner, and it will know better than to talk of standing over the cook.-Mu. FBEDERICK POLLOCK. A MEATLESS WORLD. I Economio pressure points a finger to the day when the world will be meatless.—ME. BERNARD GILBERT. NO VOTES FOR C.O.B. I Parliament would be quite justified in withholding the vote from men who refuse to fight.-CAPTAiN BARNETT, M.P. "MUGWUMPS." I Many of the clergy have too long posed as I mugwumps, mandarins, and superior per- Bons.-VICAR OF ST. PAUL'S, PETERBOEO*. OUR TRUSTFUL VICE-CONSULS. I I have constantly found in the last three years that our Vice-Consuls are often trust- ful aud innocent persons.—SIB SAMUEL EVANS. AGRICULTURE AND POLITICS. I Agriculture has been dragged down to politics, and there it must remain for many years.—MR. TRUSTRAM EvB. THE SEAMEN AND GERMANY. I We, the seamen, are determined to punish the .seamen of Germany for their foul deeds, —MR. HAVELOCK WILSON. A PASTORAL COUNTRY. I That this country is a pastoral and not a corn-producing country is proved by the I climatic conditions of the past few months. —MR. J. C. H. ROBINSON. — I RELIGION IN DAILY LIFE. I A hotter day will dawn for England when we resolve as a nation to bring our religion into our daily life and realise that we are net individuals, but members of a com- munity.—MASTER OF BALLIOL. THE ONLY PEACE. ) After the sacrifices we have made no peace will be satisfactory that does not ensure c(-,iiiplete freedom from the nightmare of aggressive militarism that has so long hung over the civilised world and give the peoples of the various nations, large or small, the right freely to dispose of themselves aud their destiny.—ME. W. F. PURDY. ANOTHER THREE YEARS. I The Labour movement in America is with the Government in this fight. We are going into this business planning that it will take at least thrae years to win the war.-MB. JAMES LORD (U.S.A.). THE FIRST THING. ) We believe that there is only one thing to do--lick the German first, and then try to talk to him afterwards.—MR. JOHN GOLDEN (U. S. A.). TO PREVENT WAR. ) I believe that, so far as the future is con- cei iied, a properly organised and thoroughly 5 representative worktug-class international movement will not only make military wars but economic wars well-nigh an impossi- i bility.-MR. ABTHTTR HENDERSON. CRUSH GERMANY. I If this war is to put an end to all war- as is the earnest desire of every sane man in every democratic country in the world-if, in the Prime Minister's phrase, there is to be "no nE:t" time," it must be waged until German military power has been sufficiently crushed to mako fresh aggression by her im- possible for a long time to come, and until it is no longer possible for the German people themselves to be. deluded by the of their invincibility in arins.-Sis EDWARD CAESON. THE GREAT LITTLE NATIONS. I Do not let the grandeur of great empires in action blind us to the fact that the greatest gifts ever brought to the dwellers of this earth have come through little nations.-M, it. LLOYD GEORGE. THE FOUNDATION OF EMPIRE. I Strength in finance lies at the very fcundation of the world-wide Britiah Em. pire.-LORD LEVERHULMB. A LEAGUE OF NATIONS. r It may be that a League of Nations, Pro- perly furnished with machinery to enforce the financial, commercial, and economic isolation of a nation determined to foroe its will upon the world by mere violence would be a real safeguard for the peace of the wc)rlcl.-LOr.D ROBERT CECIL. NO PROPHET. I As to the duration of the war, the experi- ence of the last three years has made me economical of prophecy .-SI1 F. B. SUITH. WORKERS AND PEACE. I Before the war is finished there will be nn international conference of diplomatists, but it is the workers alone who can bring about a peace which will be lasting.-M. uo -r.T SJIILLIE. A SIX-HOUR DAY. ( The one and only solution of our after- war financial and other problems would be that all classes must work for six hours each day from school-age to dotage under condi- tions that avoided excessive fatigue, and that afforded facilities for the education and training of mind and body of all citizens; with eqttal rights, duties, and opportunities for all, and with favours for none.-LoRD LEVERKULME. r TOWARDS DEMOCRACY. I It is still true that democracy is more likely to be brought about by industrial leaders of all countries than by any other means.—ME. JOHN HILL. I THE GERMAN BOIL. I In Germany is the head of the boil; under which the world languishes. Until the poison is removed there is no hope of a righteous and lasting peace fer humanity." —BISHOP FEODSHAM. I A BETTER WORLD. It The righteous cause for which our move- ments and our countries are engaged in this world (struggle must be triumphant, for it is writ in the skies that the end of autocracy is n-f-,r at hand and the world will be made safe, ?>nd better for labour, justice, freedom* and democracy.—MR. GOMPERS.
Cork Grammar School was forcibly en- tered, and a number of rifles, revolvers, and swords belonging to the Cork Volunteer Training Corps were removed. These arms are used hy the corps for training purposes, and included sixty rifles, a like number of revolvers, and between twenty and thirty swords. Most of the rifles are stated to be unserviceable
I IN LIGHTER VEIN I By THOMAS JAY. ILLUSTRATED BY J. B. LUNN. There is no doubt that Pliny of ancient memory could, to use a common term, tell the tale, and, indeed, he has been guilty of cjuite a number of real whoppers. But the whoppers Pliny used to tell pale before the tales that are told to-day which we are ex- pected to believe. The newspapers have been printing J stories of giant potatoes, ponder- ous parsnips, ccr- pulent cabbages, and monster mar- rows. Now, I am prepa-red t 0 believe a 11 these stories in much the same way as I believe the stories told by anglers of all the big fish they have caught in the train coming home. But I am going to FBIDE OF THE GARDEN. I take off my hat to Mr. Boyce, of Wood Green, who writes to a contemporary to tell about his marrow. Indeed, I would like to take off my hat and my coat. This is what Mr. Boyce's marrow has been up to. "It has grown up an iron frame ten feet high, run along a rope into t an apple tree, knocked off the apples, climbed to the top of the tree, and down again/" In fact, I am quite prepared to agree that this marrow of Mr. Boyce's can do r almost everything except go to work. A soldier correspondent bursts in with the following: "When a man is embedded in several thicknesses of British mud, and the railway service is distinctly slow, the ser- geant-major has to ring his bell a bit before handing out week-end leaves. It appears that the Select Committee had decided to give me my first week-end leave as a slight token of their appreciation of my past ser- vices. I was in the midst of fatigue duty when the sergeant-major told me to having a good time and hep off home. I mused! If I was having a good time, what a rollicking old time those early Greek martyrs used to have playing about with thumbscrews and racks and swallowing bits of barbed wire. "You have no idea how slow railway trains are when you are going on leave. When I got to the station I walked over to the inquiry officer, and he moved away. He is a busy man, being ticket-collector, station-master, porter, and a few other things. I asked him what trains he had, and he swore. A clergyman pointed out that the wages of sin was death, and he muttered that the wages on that line were a jolly 6ight woree." "The clergyman cheered me by saying he distinctly saw a train come into the station some time ago. Indeed, from all I hear it is not unknown for a train to leave that station and never be heard of again. How- ever, a train did try to sneak in without being noticed. It was going so fast that I didn't think they would be able to stop it. However, having found a place to sit down, I thought it was a nice train. I sat in the corner until it started. We had not gone far before it stopped again and waited. The guard said there was a block on the line. The guard came in with a pack of cards and asked me to make a two-handed game with him. We did. We had not played very long before the train started again. 4 Leave the cards on the seat,' said the guard, I'll be back again in a minute.' He was. "There was another block later en. The clergyman hoped it'wouldn't be a long stop, because he had an engagement on Wednes- day week. Just then we started off at a good sl)ecd. I pointed out that we were going rather fast and it didn't seem safe. The guard said we weae just rounding Dead Man's Corner. I looked out, expecting to find the track strewn with dead and dying. I was disappointed. She slowed up again, and I tried to flick an insect off my car. Stop that,' said the guard; you musn't hurt Sydney. Sydney's the company's germ. He's been on this line for thirty odd years' "My symptrtbies were with Sydney, always dashing about on that line. We started off again, and then I noticed that a woman was walking along the countryside near the lines. It was evident she was keeping up with the train. Just then the engine-driver—who had just stopped to pick up a tobacco-box he had dropped—noticed the woman. His sporting instinct was up. He pulled away at his levers. Yard by yard the train 'gained on the woman, who stopped to pay calls on THE RACK various friends. It looked a s though the engine would win, out eventually the woman got ahead, and the engine driver wiped his fore- head and ad- mitted him- self beaten. When the guard came along I offered to buy the train to sead home for the kiddies to play with. The guard started to fold up the train and put it in his pocket. What are you going to do with it?' I asked. A porter with red whiskers poked his head in at the window and answered Swisslem.' 'Swisslem?' I said. **Yes,' he shouted, opening the door. Ain't you get- ting out at Swisslem, or do you want to have your beauty sleep out?' I got out. It was a good sleep. But trains are always slow on feave. -Yours, Albert." There are items of news which come as a soothe and a baLm, Such an oae is the news that the footban season has started, though I am told there is a shortage of referees. I have no doubt that many referees have sought safer jobs in the Flying Corps. The football referee naturally has always appre- ciated the manifold advantages of being able to fly. It is much better than taking a cab with half the'visiting team with heavy sticks running after it. The referee's life is not a happy one, and few of them ever live any longer than is absolutely necessary. But there is no doubt that quite a number of last year's referees are not quite past re- pairing, and they should be inyited to come forward, while those past repairing can be put out to grass. The referee is a meek-looking man whose face indicates that he is motatning a long- lost friend. Referees sho-uid, of course, be used whole, for when they have lost any lih. bs they arc apt to be partial. It is not I now considered gentlemanly for a player to jump on a referee, and spectators are re- minded that it is illegal to rush froin the grand stand across the fieldllnd to hack at the referee with a chopper. Few referees can keep up an interest in the game while they arc being chopped. Many referare j agitating for larger separation allowances while they are in hospital. Owing to the excessive rains of late, we understand that the Royal Lifeboat Society are prepared, on receipt of a rocket, to scud out a lifeboat to a 11 v referee in distress. The plaiting of the if'f-roe's legs in a lockstitch by the spec- tators \e net now permitted.
Frederick Otto Manns, a mimical director, was recalled from Alexandra Palace, where he is interned, to identify the body of his Bon, Frederick Augustus Manns, a boy of fourteen, who was killed by being crushed between the carriage and platform at Fen- church-street Station. Mr. A. M. Paddon, chairman of the North Middksx Gas Company, announced at the half-yearly meeting tnat as from October 1 the price of gas, which is now 3s. 7d. per 1,000 cubic feet, would be reduced by Id. r
I BOOKS AND MAGAZINES. I TRUTH ABOUT THE SCOT. "Most of the jokes, stories, and lies circu. lated about the meanness of Scotsmen were manufactured north of the Tweed. Knowing ourselves, our strength, and our weakness, we delight to jest about the one and the other. In spite of all the songs of Barley Bree, the Scots are really a very temperate race; yet they love to paint themselves as a nation ot drunkards. And eo, though there are many generous Scots, they all blush to find their generosity discovered. Few of us, indeed. have the leaking purse, which is a sign, not of generosity, but of incontinence; and a reputa- tion for meanness is a buckler against the shafts of the sponger.—From "Harry Lauder's Logic." (Cecil Palmer and Kay ward.) BIRDS AS SEED-CARRIERS. Migrating birds carry with them large num- bers of seeds (says "Little Folks "), some in their crops and some on their feet, for when a bird hops about on soft ground little bits of mud must stick to its toes, and the mud is almost sure to contain some tiny seeds. It is easy to understand that if those plants that grow in or on the margins of ponds did not have their seeds carried from one sheet of water to another by birds they would never be able to spread. For, of course, they couldn't travel inch by inch across dry fields and over rocky mountains unless they learnt how to send their seeds sailing away on the wind. But even the wind couldn't do what they want so well as w;?h-ne ducks. It would blow the seeds in all directions, and most of them would fall in unsuitable places, whereas the ducks, when they fly up from a pond always make for another piece of water, and so any seeds that may be in the mud that sticks to their bills and feet are sure to be carried to a place that is most suitable for their growth. Take the pondweed, for example. This curious plant is to be found in ponds and ditches everywhere 1rl this country, and there is one species that grows all over the northern half of the world and also in Australia. It has no juicy fruit to tempt the birds to eat, and its seeds have no downy wings by which they can be carried by the wind. But when they drop from the stalk they settle in the mud at the bottom or the side of the pond, and with it they cling to the bills or feet of water or wading birds that have come to search for frogs and other creatures that live there. It is only in this way that the aeeds of a plant whose real home is on this side of the Equator could travel all the way south to the other side of the world and find a new home in the ponds of Australia. ABOUT THE TANKS. It is true that certain people who are not soldiers have played a very large and valu- able part in creating the Tank (writes Colonel E. D. *1 win ton, in the "Strand Magazine")- It is also true that others who are soldiers have not done so. But the first to appreciate the necessity for it, to urge its provision, and to insist on the feasibility of its construction were, in fact, soldiers. So far as the writer is aware, the first defi- nite proposal for a fighting machine on the lines of the existing Tank was due to the ap- pearance of the Hornsby-Ackroyd caterpillar tractor, which was tested for military traction purposes in England in 1006-8. It was made by a military officer and was carried up to the stage of the preparation of sketch drawings, when the project died for want of support. Like Mr. Wells, he was ahead of his time. The Tanks are divided into males and females. The male is par excellence the machine-gun hunter and destroyer. He car- ries light, quick-firing guns capable of firing shell, and is intended to be to the machine- gun what the torpedo-boat destroyer was do- signed to be to the torpedo-boat, or the lady- bird is supposed to be to the aphis. The female, which, in accordance with the laws of Nature, >is the man-killer, carries nothing but machine-guns for employment against the enemy personnel. Eer special r¿le is to iiocp down hostile rifle-lire The Tanks have supplied the touch of conic j relief and excited the mirth of the British soldier, always blessed with a keen selle of the ridiculous. They acted as an antidote to the effect of the "Jack Johnsons," "Weary Willies," "Silent Susies," "Whizz Bangs," "Sausages," "Rum Jars," tear shells, gas shells, and all the other frightfulnesses of the unspeakable Boche. They counteracted the weariness, the hunger and thirst, the dust, the mud, and all the squalor and filthy dis- comfort of war. DISMEMBERMENT OF GERMANY. I One thing seems certain (writes Dr. Dillon, in flie "Fortnightly Review"), the upshot of this struggle will decide whether or no Ger- many shall hold sway over the white races. And there will be no "next time." For if the Teutons realise their Central Europe, a fede- ral State will be created with a population of 170-180 millions and an army of fifteen mil- lion men. To hinder that, the only means at present conceivable is the dismemberment of the Central Empires, and, so far as one can now judge, this would prolong the war for veaps, necessitate the re-establishment of har- mony between the Government and Labour, and a radical change in the conduct of the struggle. To my thinking there is no third solution. "Moral guarantces" are not obtain- able between this and the close of the cam- Eaign, and would be worthless if they were. Duks". then, the Allies are able and willmg? to carry on the wa.r to this consummation, the sacrifices already made and still to be made will have been offered up in vain. "HOWLERS. Some entertaining "Humours of Boyhood are contributed by Dr. Lyttelton, the late Headmaster of Eton, to the "Nineteenth Cen- tury." Many are in the nature of "howlers," like these answers to a Scripture knowledge paper: Give an account of Balaam." Answer: "Balaam was a prophet who lived a long way off. After a while he went out a ride on his donkey, and ho got very angry with the donkey and hit him and a voioe from heaven said, You must not hit the donkey; it is holy ground.' The lov who wrote this may be still at Etoll. and if hit: eye should fall on this record, will he recognise his handiwork? 1 trow not. Question "Who spoke the following words, and in what circumstaocesf 'It is better to fall into the hands of God than into the hands of man' 1 Answer: "nese words were spoken by King Ahasuerus when they cut off his head and threw it over the wall." It is, I think (says Dr. Lyttelton), the main test- of the quality of these utterances that they should be genuine as well as authentic. Some few are just open to a suspicion of the adult mind having- been at work. They are just a, little too clever, but still are worth recording. One was told me about twelve year. igo:- "Trace the growth of the power of Parlia- ment during the time of the Tudors." Answer: "In the reign of Elizabeth the Commons were always petitioning the Sover- eign to marry a thing they would not havs dreamt of doing in the time of Henry the Eighth." Any general paper is likely to be productive of mirth if the bovs are voung enough. To a "low division in iVth Form at Eton in 1882 (says Dr. Lyttelton) I set a concluding ques- tion designed to give scope to the greatest ignoramus among them "What has been the kIPP '9t d?y of your life? One boy? trying to ?y t?e ri?ht thing, answered, "My bap- tism." Another, with a far more mundane view of the matter, and leaving abundant scope for conjecture, replied, "The day my aunt was married." This leaves one pondering whether he was thinking cf the back view of the disappearing1 bride, or recalling the ample store of wedding cake; or perhaps both. We shall never know.
Since its establishment in 1836 the Samari- tan Fund of St. Bartholomew's Hospital haa distributed £ 50,225 in relieving 69,435 dis- tressed patients. A potato dug bv Mr. Roberta, of Bramp.. ton, Huntingdonshire, weighs 5lb., while Mr. Emery, the local schoolmaster, has grown a specimen of 2ilb. The captor of the English record roach of 31b. lOoz., Mr. W. Cutting, has ttlken two more roach of 3ilb. and SIb. in the same water, Hornsea Mere,' Yorkshire.
I VEGETABLES. The spring-sov/n onions will in most cases be ready for lifting, and they will keep in proportion to their degree of ripening. Those that are tolerably mature may be pulled and laid bottom up on the ground, so that the sun may dry off and ripen them. Those with very thick necks will never ripen properly, and should be left standing on the ground to be used green in the kitchen. In order to promote a vigorous growth of the late sewings of spinach, give the ground between the lines a dusting of old soot, and then hoe it. The seedlings should he thinned, so that the leaves do not touch till large enough, for picking. Spinach that is made to stand clear in the lines always grows more robust (says "Farm Life"), and keeps better during winter than plants that are allowed to get crowded. Tee frequent hoeing v.'ill also keep down weeds. The heads of globe artichokes should be cut as soon as they are full grown. Such heads are most useful in the kitchen, and their removal enables the plants to go on producing more. In the event of a spell of dry weather, give a copious strppTy of WstW once a week, and this will also encourage the development of fresh heads. Early celery should get another earthing up, if not the final one, for it all depends upon the time it was sown and planted out. Remove small leaves, and any that may have been badly injured by the celery-fly. Wherever it is possible to save a portion of healthy leaf thct should be done, to keep the stalk fresh, otherwise it would be necessary to remove it. J CORX CROPS. It is not difficult to judge when corn is ready to cut (says "The Smallholder The great i-hing is to avoid extremes of green- ness or ripenes;?. If cut when comparatively green the grain will shrink and "cheapen to itself. If cutting is deferred until it is too ripe, much of it will drop out before it is placed in the rick. The happy medium be- tween these two states is what you must watch for. It occurs when the heads &f- sume a golden, colour. Old and succesasful corn growers have aleo another method of judging ripeness. A few gr" iiiq are gathered and 13 at in tl""> month; if these be soft and milky the right order has been reached. A-s to the actual method of gathering the corn, this varies. Thus, on large corn-growing farms the self-binders only are employed in mowing. On smaller farms, however, the cutting, delivering, but non-binding machine is generally used; while smallholders often use a reaper and mower combined. —— —— I MOWING OPERATIONS. In mowing corn, whatever the acreage, it is important to have all appliances in clean cutting order. Again, if hand binding ia resorted to, it must be done neatly and smartly. Although the tops may be dry, the bottom may be green, so the sheaves after being bound should be laid flat again with the butt end facing the sun. In this position they should remain for a day or two, when the weather is dry and settled. In making the atooks do not place the sheaves too slanting, as if it rains they be- come wet and more soiled than if they were in an upright, position. Also do not make the 6 took s too large. Ten or a dozen sheaves are enough in each. Where clover and other forage seeds arc sown in the corn, and, as a result, are included in the sheaves, the are bound to hinder drying. Stooks containing such, therefore, should be turned and the inward parts set outwards a few days after tho first erection. I BROKEN-MOUTKED EWES. Proper sheep f ai-mers keep sheep all the year round, but very many only keep them for a part of the year. They buy the ewes about this time, "breod from them in the spring, rear and fatten the Iambs, and sell all off again, probably in June or July, or whenever ready. No objection can be offered to thi;3' system; indeed, it is com- mendable. and, as a rule, clearly profitable, always providing th. ewes are a fitting lot. All depends on them (says "Farm, Field, and Fireside "). Many who go in for these temporary flocks are small larmers. Their flocks of breeders may consist of 25, or bO, or more; but the majority of such people have great ideas of buying on the cheap. They regard this as a saving, which is very doubtful, and arc often diseomfortingly con- vinced on this point. One special defi- ciency to avoid above all is a. failing in the tect-h- Whether bought privately or publicly, every ewe should be caught, her mouth opened, and her teeth looked at oe- fore the deal is clenched. Buyers who avoid this are simple ton. and will have to pav for their indifference. If the teeth are all there, a litjtle bit ehij.ped, but really sound, there is nothing much the matter; but Vthen the majority of the teeth are wanting, and all arc decayed, more or less, it is doubtful if such sheep wond be a bargain at a gilt. They are always in low condition, and can. not consume their food to advantage; they can hardly nibble roots, and have almost to be spoon-fed. They are never in good order at lambing time, and suckle them badly, as they cannot cat sufficiently to keep up a, good supply oi milk. Their lambs are long in mating, and it ia all a terrible 'worry. When at last the lambs are saleable, tiie ewes are as thin as rakes, and then cornea the almost impossible accomplishment of getting them fat. MILK FEVER IN COWS. Spasmodic milk fever is very prevalent immediately after calving (says the." .A.gri- cultural Gazette"). The animal beoomes greatly excited, is distressed, and suffers pain. It is much more difficult to treat than the comatose form, and accidents are more likely to occur, as by tossing about of the head the horns. are liable to be broken or the neck dislocated. In a slight attack of tho spasmodic form, where there is only conges- tion of the brain, the animals will retaia their usual health between the convulsions. With regard to the pathology 'of milk fever many theories have been brought forward. such as thombosis, embolism of the blood vessels, functional deranme.nt of the sym- pathetic Berve kn?din? to coag?tion of the brain, a peculiar form of indigestion, while later writers claim for one form the abeorp- tion of toxins from the generative organs, and now attention is directed towards tho highly developed mammary gland. The mili cells are said- to lose their tone by the too sudden emptying cf the gland by the hand .fier calving, thus causing intoxication of the Wood by the elements which should have been secreted fcy the udder as milk. During attacks the animals should get plenty of straw and water, with a. very few turnip., Dnd no concentrated food, such as meaia, cake, brewers' grains, etc. A good doise of treacle and common salt should be given sa an aperient a week before the animal is due to calve. I HORSE'S FRACTURED JAWBONE. Fracture of the lower jawbone frequently occurs from kicks, blows, or falls, and it may be confined to one branch, though not infrequently both branches break. Thf Fyniptoms are the chin and lower incisors hang limp, are very mobile, and crepitation If the fracture is in t1;0 r.iiddle. or only one branch, when properly treated union takes place in alxrat a month. bnt double-sided fractures are far more .eerious, may seriously affect mastication, cnl req-.iire considerable mechanical skill to adjust and M<'?r€ the requisite unicn; in fr.ct, with catUo it is better to slaupht?r. For the simple fracture (says "Farm, Field, i and Fireside"), search for any loose pieces of bore and remove them; bring the fragments into apposition by pressure and maintain by means of copper wire bound round the in- cisor ketn-if a male, include the tnsks, nr.d bind with a calico bandage. Later on, if for-tor exists 80, wash out with a wesx srrut^cn of disinfectant fluid once daily. Thick o?tme? ?rrid?e, milk, linseed ma?hea, and all !??ch food that givcs but little work to the jaw should be given in a widf-bottomed t/nb. A little gentle exercise may be given daily, and bedding preferably on sawdust or shavings. In about a month the union is. unless complicated, complete.
I School children of Ippollitui and Gosmore. I near Hitchin, are getting 6d. per bughel from the Food Production. Committee for collect- ing horee chestnuts.