DRAINAGE OF THE WORKHOUSE. I The fortnightly meeting of the Abergavenny Board of Guardians was held on Friday last, Col. V.\ Williams presiding. There were also present Mr. H. J. Gwillim (vice-chairman), Father Wrav, Messrs. Benjamin Price, Morgan W. David, John Prichard, Matthew J. Knight, N Pullin, F. 0 Price. John Baynam, Alfred Edwards, Robert Johnson, and Joseph Howells. Master's Report. The Master reported that there were 6,) in- nutes in the house, compared with 128 for the corresponding period of last year, a decrease of 29. The number of vagrants relieved during tLe fortnight was 61. compared ivitfi 112 fur the corresponding period, a decrease of 51. A concert was given at the Workhouse by the Abergavenny Glee Society, and was much appreciated by the inmates. Old Books For Sale. I The Clerk said that the book-room was full ot old books. Paper was badly needed at the present time. and he asked if the Board would authorise him to sell the books. It was at least 40 years since they had a sale, and there was about a couple of tons of old books. All that they were requited to keep were the minute books and the ledgers. Father W'raj Can't you wait another 40 vears ? The Cleric You would have to build another room to accommodate the books. The Vice-Chairman said that paper was very nee essary at the present time. The price given for old books was i2s. 6d. per cwt., so if there was a couple of tons they would be worth a "lo od sum. Father Wray Somebody ought to see tciese books. The Vice-Chairman Have we abtter authority than Mr. Scanlon < The disposal of the books was left in the hands of the Clerk. Biaenavon Guardians and the Train Service. Mr. Joseph Howells called attention to the inconvenience caused to the Blaenavon Guar- dians b" the alteration in the train service. In order to get to the Board meetings in time they had to leave Blaenavon at five minutes past 8 arid wait at Brvnmawr for the 10 o'clock train. The train they used to come with did not leave Blaenavon till 10 o'clock and there was no con- nection at Bryninawr. The few members who came down that morning came by motor and through the fields to Go/ilon station. If every member came they could not-all ride in the car, which only held five. The Chairman of the Blaenavon Council had written to the L. & N. W. Rly. Co. asking them to alter the motor which came from Pontypool and arrived at Blaenavon at 10 o'clock. If it was put back to 9 o'clock they could catch the train at Brynmawr. He asked the Board to support the request sent by Mr. Gwillim so that the Blaenavon members cuuld get to the meetings in proper time, other- wise they would not be able to attend, as they could not walk1 over. The Vice-Chairman said it was suggested that te train from Panteg should start half an hour earlier and get to Brynmawr at 10 instead of 10.30. At present Blaenavon was cut off from Abergavenny, even on market days. Mr. Morgan David proposed, Mr. Prichard Seconded, and it was carried that the Guardians support the request to the L. & N. W. Rly. Co. Drainage at the Workhouse. The Clerk read a letter from Mr. H. P Wli- liams, Local Government Board Inspector, to the effect that the particulars of the improve- ments and repairs proposed to be effected at the Workhouse, which the Clerk had forwarded, appeared to meet the Local Government Board's requirements, with one important exception, the examination of the drainage system by a qualified expert, the report of his examination to be made to the Board. He thought the Board would be well advised to have this done as soon as convenient. Mr. John Prichard said that as chairman of the House Committee he had had a similar letter from Mr. Williams. Since then he had been over the Workhouse twice, and he thought they ought to attend to this matter at once. In fact he almost felt like taking steps himself, but he thought it had better be left to that meeting, because now was the time wuen they should decide whether to ask for tenders for the whole of the repairs or instruct the drainage to be done immediately. The drainage in tnree or four particulars was very bad. The cesspits re- quired alteration, but it was only a small matter x to alter them. There was a deep inspection pit belonging to the town close by the old wood shed, quite as deep as that room was long, and when the lid was taken off the stench was simply i abominable. He was not sure whether they ought not to ask the Town Council to put an escape pipe to carry away the smell. The Vice-Chairman Mr. Williams wishes us to get an expert to advise us. He wants a man of authority to say what should be done. Mr. Morgan David We had an examination some years ago. The Clerk And we were required to expend £500. Mr. Prichard If you carry out the alterations I have referred to. any expert would pass it. x Mr. Howells said that there WLre is members of the House Committee, but there were only a very few at the meeting Wiien the matter came on. There ought to be a 'better attendance when such important matters were being discussed. Father Wray The House Committee is a Lrce. Mr. Howells: Is that why you left it i Father Wray Yes. Mr. Howells Why didn't you improve it ? Father Wray Because you wuuld not let me. The Vice-Chairman Is tna die way you found it ? Father Wray I was there at ue beginning. The Vice-Chairman "It w,s a Lrcc when you found it and you left it a farce. Mr. Morgan David s. id he did uut take the opinion of Mr. Prichard, and LL moved that an expert be appointed. Father Wray seconded. j The Chairman moved that the matter be referred to the House Comuli, tet. Mr. Prichard said there h d b ,11 no cause of complaint with regard to the to linage by the .Medical O nicer, aud there lu u no fever at the Workhouse. Mr. Howvlls suggested that imatter should I be considered by the House LULjttee at their next meeting. They would b- i a position to recommend to the Board solu of experts. Mr. Morgan David withdraw is prupos.itioll,J and the matter was rdernd n L House com-I mittee to report 011. NeN Member for Lvi ■ -.air. The Clerk reported that_ v. ^garel to the vacancy in the representation • Llanvair Kil- geddin caused by the dc. 1 Mr. George Spencer, he had written to u.v. i.ri.su Council asking them to nominate. ..v.et s >r. lie had received a reply from Mr. i bwinnerton stating that at the annu. 1 -a meeting on March 30th it ws uliaii- (lcci(lcd to recommend the appointing* t i Mr. Roger Morgan, Lower House Ivr. represent the parish on the Board of Gu ■. and Rural District Council. Father Wray proposed ti.u i F. O. Price seconded, that Mr. Morgan u puiutLd, and this was carried. I Increased Asyliiifs o The Clerk read a letter e steward of the Monmouthshire Asylum .-1 g UlaV owing to the increase in the cost ot pi • the rate of maintenance would be incre. • ■ from ijs. 5d. I to 14s. iold. per week. Vacancies at Cwmyoy an ^-er.artn. y The Clerk read a letter fiou. 'L(. J. liams, of 54, Castle-street, 1 imny of the Queen's Head, Cwmyoy, in r. • I. to 11 request to state the reason of his -cc from the; meetings. Mr. Williams wrote at he was no longer living in the parish jL;f v v n.yoy and he did not feel justified in atteneli 1 he meetings, He should hz glad it the Boaid \v..uld accept his resignation and he thanked the numbers for the kindness and courtesy they had 110wn him. The Clerk said he would w i and ask the Parish Council at Cwmyoy to appon.t a successor. The Clerk also read a letter nom Mr. John Vv'atkins, the Guardian for Lh l.v.'enarth Lltla, explaining that pressure of woik prevented him from attending the meetings, i 1d tendering I is resignation. The Clerk said he would ask the Parish Council to nominate someone in Mr. j Watkins' place} j Children of Fallen Soldiers. The Clerk reported the receipt of a circular letter from the I/xai Government Board in- quiring whether there were in the Union any children of men killed in the present war in receipt of outdoor relief. Both Relieving Officers said there were no such cases in their district. I Assistant Nurse. I An assistant nurse being required at the Work- house, the Master said the Matron recommended that the senior wardsmaid should take up the position and that the Board should appoint another wardsmaid. Father Wray proposed that Miss Meale be appointed assistant nurse. Mr John Prichard seconded, and it was carried It was decided to advertise for another I wardsmaid. --+
Agricultural Arbitration Mr. J. S. Breil- lat and Llanarth Estate. To the Editor of the Abergavenny Chronicle." I SIR,Ill your issue of March 15th you report this case as". an interesting one. I should like to make a few remarks about it, and to make a slight correction in one item. The loss on the three horses was iii altogether, and not £ 11 each, as stated in your report. Now, Sir, Mr. Preece, the Arbitrator, was quite right in saying that it was consistent with good estate manage- ment for the landlord to re-arrange his farms, if he wished to do so, but I think I was entitled to compensation. That, however, was not the main object of changing the land when the agent spoke to me -about it. When he mentioned the matter to me I asked him if I had not farmed the land to please him, and his answer was Yes." He said he wanted no trespass through the farm, and I told him that I would not go that way but I would use the other way leading from the high- way. I could farm it quite as well. I have used this way hundreds of times-I may say thousands of times—in the 20 years I have farmed the land. Now, instead of me tres- passing about 200 yards on the North Farm, the tenant of the North Farm is, under the present arrangement, trespassing over 400 yards on the Great House Farm, as altered. The agent is going to erect a fence to keep him tp the track, or so-called road, and by so doing shuts the only water and shade on this part of the farm in a strip of about an acre. On this trespass on the roadway I base my case, and I maintain that it is quite inconsistent with good estate manage- ment. I pointed this out most strongly to Mr. Preece when he inspected this part of the land, but I should think he forgot it when giving his award against me. I think I opened the agent's eyes a little on the point of the water and shade. At the arbitration hearing he said that he was going to alter the so-called road to run another and a shorter way, but even then this would be shutting the water and shade off two fields and trespassing on me 80 yards further than he used to. This 60 acres of land taken off me consisted of 51 acres of meadow and permanent grass land and nine acres of plough land. The 27 acres offered to me was 24 acres of plough land, two acres of horles, water and. bushes, about an acre in one of the plough fields, and about one acre of meadow land where the shade and water is. To show the difference in the value of the land, I had 40 bushels of wheat to the acre off the y-acre field as my off-going crop, and on one of the plough fields offered me the off-going crop was only eight bushels to the acre. I leave you to judge which is best. The agent said in his evidence that the land- lord bought the North Farm partly to get out of the difficulty of the roadway between Great House and Wernywic land, which ran through the North Farm, and partly to consolidate his property. So now he has united the land altogether, and he has increased the trespass to double the distance. Is that good estate management ? The Arbitrator says that he does not consider it an excessive rent for the Great House as re-arranged. I fail to see how he can conscientiously say that when there are 146 acres of Great House he never inspected. Possibly he forgot it, as the agent and he were deep in conversation about the extra ploughing and the meetings they had had. The Act says distinctly that the agent or land- lord shall have a reasonable opportunity of in- specting the stock before the sale. It seems to me that the Arbitrator only believes in a written notice, but the Act does not say anything about a written notice, but only that there shall be a reasonable opportunity. Even Mr. Lyne, the agentf himself admitted that he knew at least 16 days before that there was going to be a sale and that he could have gone before the sale to inspect the stock. The agent also said that Wernywic was a sheep run and a harbour for rabbits, and he called Mr. Alf. Newland, auctioneer and valuer, of Newport, as a witness. They must remember, however, that they inspected the land 13 months after I gave up possession of it. I should like to know where Mr. Alf. Newland gets his knowledge of fences from. He does not seem to know hedges Lid for 20 years till the last winter before I had notice. I wonder if he could pleach one himself. I had a bout 60 perches done on that part of the farm before I moved into it, and I have had all done except about 30 perches. This I asked four different men in the district to do the last winter before I had notice, and my son did one the same winter. Mr. H. S. Lyne sneered me for tcking Mr. Montague Harris with me when I went to look at farms, and he asked what auctioneers knew about farms. He said that if a farmer could not take a farm without an auctioneer to he p him he was not fit to have one. Still they brought Mr. Alf. Newland to v. lue my land and the fences, though he did not know hedges which had been Lid 20 years up to the time I had notice to quit. They therefore did not despise the assistance of an auctioneer on their own behalf. Mr. Newland said that I ought to have had my sale in February or 1hy, as the loss of m?nure to the farm was very considerable. Is he and the agent aware that I consumed over 30 tons of hay, clover, and all straw, except about thn' tOES of wheat straw, and all roo? s, and I even bought roots ? I made enough manure to dress fcur acres of stubble 1: ud, and enough for the potatoes and mangolds, and I charged the incoming tenant nothing for it. I can tell Mr. Newland and the agent what many farmers cannot say. I never sold a ton of hay, clover, straw or roots during the 20 yesrs I hi d'J the farm, except what 1 sold after my srle, but ] I bought many tons-of hay, straw and roots in the 20 years. I even bought £ 20 worth the I spring I come in ai d brought it there. The Arbitrator s; id in Lis award that I dc- I clii.ed the offer to keep the farm. I told him I was willing to kfCpjt, but not at the rent atki d. I told him in the agent's presence that I made [ the ceent an offer, but he would'not accept it. At the hearing the agent said that he had had no trouble to let the Lnu. I say No wonder." He 11; s promised to pay me £ 70 10s. for the lard I laid down by me, and not charge the incoming tenant anything for it. He did not give me that chance. There wcri < bemt 17 locking at the farm, ai d the last one took i:, hire not till the gml want up t0 1..im av.d piomiscd Lim a lot cf nice tilings. The rent of the f; rm has been Raised £ 7 to what I used to give for it, although 27 acres of inferior laud have been added to it and Go acres of the IK st land t;k.n away. I should I ke to know if tjie landlord w, s justified in t. king the tiles off my caule sl.eci before I htd finished with the farm and while 1 y stock wts there for the winter. 1 told the f"nian that if they wanted the s-1.des 0ff the house to please give me 11C: ice so that I could « lear out to oblige them. Mr. Lv- c s id in his evidence that Wernywic had nevr \> en knowledge. I tak,, this as<i j'real thtr r. the cliir, ctcr of myself I and UIV SOIL as f< rnurs, and as calculated to prejudice us in a.pj. 1} 1 g for another farm. I am e?;inled to a.-k froi:: Mr. Lyne a .withdraw.' 1 of that statement, c lie Surely cannot wish to convey such a impression to the public. j /-pologising f<,r- so much p;cce in j your v.du.iUi paper Yonrs faithfullv, I¡ J. S. BREILLAT. I I Co?d \îr, I.londdewy Rhvdderch. I I A
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SCIENCE IN GARDENING. 1 Practical Use of Artificial Manures. I INTERESTING LECTURE BY MR. S. SALTER. Under the auspices of the Abergavenny and District Horticultural and Allotments Associ- ation an interesting lecture on The practical use of artificial manures was given in the Corn Exchange on Saturday evening, by Mr. Samuel Salter, of the Evesham Gardens, Llanfoist. Mr. Salter, as is well known, has demonstrated his intimate and extensive knowledge of the subject by the results of his own business, and he gave some valuable information to cultivators on the matter of increasing food production. The lecturer displayed on the table samples of the various artificial manures he proposed to deal with in his lecture. Mr. H. Gethin (president of the Society) presided. In view-of the general interest and importance of the subject we give a fairly full report of the lecture. Humus Essential to the Soil. I Mr. Salter said he had promised the Society I to obtain the services of a well-known expert I to speak to them both on the practical and the scientific side of the subject, but, unfortunately, there were difficulties in the way and he was not able to attend. The war had made people alive to the fact that they must not only study economy in consumption of food, but .economy also in the use of the fertilisers that were avail- able on the market to apply to their crops. There were old gardens that required various constituents to enable the growers to continue to get the best results from the soil. There was no occupation so old as gardening and no occupation so dependant on Almighty God and the things He in His providence had given for our use. The terms patent or artificial manure were both wrong, for the simple reason that they were the real food for plants. Take the soil. They at Abergavenny were well situated. They had a bountiful supply of rain and a fair share of sunshine. There was sufficient in the soil without the application of any manure to supply many crops, but they could crop until they did not get a crop at all. New land, such as that of the new allotments, did not require fertilisers for the first season. The constituents that the plant or grass had gathered in the years it had been laid down were sufficient in itself to produce a crop. Neverthe- less they were dependant on the weather con- ditions, and it was therefore necessary to know what they could apply to various crops to in- crease the production. With the help of fer- tiliscrs it was possible that Abergavenny might be second to none in the production of food this season. The time had gone by for the applica- tion of some of the fertilisers he had before him, but there were some which could be applied at any time. It was difficult to get stable manure. The plant food in stable manure was, com- paratively speaking, very low compared with the fertilisers in question, but it supplied humus to the soil, and humus was essential to.the growing of any particular plant. They could not grow anything in sand or clay, and they could not grow anything without humus in the soil. If they used stable manure they- should take care where they had it and they should store it in a proper manner. It should be sprinkled lightly with a layer of soil, which would fix the ammonia in it, otherwise the rain would wash it away or the sun would evaporate it and they would lose the valuable constituents which were necessary to the plant. Another way of manuring was by green cropping. If they did not want to go to the trouble of getting stable manure, the best plan after they got their potatoes off was to sow vetches, rye, or mustard, to dig in. Vetches were preferable to any of the others because they gathered nitrogen from the air and stored it in the nodules that were at the roots. Rye was not such a green manure and was worse to dig m, and mustard took food from the soil. The Necessity of Lime. I He came to the most important part of his remarks. With the help of a friend he took a sample of the soil of both the allotments and tested it for lime. Both allotments were de- ficient in lime, and that was the general con- dition of things everywhere. Lime was the basis of all fertility, and many of the artificial fertilisers would be of no avail without the action of lime. There was not in lime any food valuable for the plant, but lime neutralised the acids that were left behind from inorganic manures, which were injurious to the rootlets of plants. Lime was essential to the use of any manure, and he would emphasise that they must not use lime where they used Any manure that contained nitrogen, unless they applied it six weeks to two months earlier. There were six constituents that were necessary to plant life, and three that were particularly essential. These were nitro- gen, phosphates and potash. Nitrogen was re- quired by the plant to build up the stem, leaf and tissue. They had no doubt used nitrate of soda and had observed the alteration in the look of the plant in a short time. Some crops re- quired more nitrogen than phosphates or potash, But he would suggest that if they wanted to use nitrogen to buck up the stuff that they should use it very lightly, and never apply it on the leaf of any plant, because it was injurious. They should never give too much at once. He would rather go over it three times than put all on at one dressing. Again, nitrate of soda ¡ should never be used in the dead of the season, s.uould never be i for the reason that the nitrates were available to the plant directly the nitrate of scda was applied. This particular fertiliser had been called by many a very exhausting manure, but if it was applied as it should be, with followings of phosphates and potash, they got the full benefit of the nitrates. In these days of ration- ing they must not think they could throw the stuff about and see the results. There was another fertiliser that supplied nitrogen, and this was sulphate of ammonia, which contained; 20 per cent. of pure nitrogen, compared with 15V per cent in nitrate of soda. In using j artificial fertilisers they should be careful what they were buying and base their purchase on the an; lysis. Sulphate of ammonia was one of the best artificial fertilisers that were available to-day", because it could be used in different ways and could be used more freely than nitrate of seda. It could be applied wi.en they planted the crop, and it was not w. slied away like the nitrates in nitrate of scda, but was retained by the lime which was necessary 111 the soil. They need not be afraid that if they applied too much they would not get the benefit of every particle, if there w,.s plenty of humus in the soil to give the plant a chance. The Shortage of Potash. Superphosphates were essential for fruitful- ness, and they must have it in the soil if they were coinc to get the crops matured at the right time. Supposing they had a crop of greenstuft of the cabbage family. They might have heavily manured, but in the spring they thought that the plants wanted a pick-me-up because the rootlets tn„d lain dormant in the wet season. They should give sulphate of ammonia perhaps six wee ks before they thought they wanted it for the plants. Sulphate of ammonia had to undergo a certain process before the ammonia was turned into nitrates, and therefore it WctS\ necessary to use it sooner than i.itrate üf soda. The lecturer proceeded to explain the difference between organic and inorganic manures. Or- ganic manures were what had been part and parcel of either plant or animal life, and inorganic manures were chemicals. They li, d two arti- fici; 1 fertilisers before them which gave the most phosphates which it was possible to get in known science to-day. They could get them very easily and they were easy to understand. The first was basic s ag, which contained about 30 per tent. phosphates and about 50 per cent, of lime/ If thtir land was deficient in lime he wnuId advise them to put on b ^ic sh g next Novi ruber or December and. dig it in. It ust be applied in the autumn, and if it w. s used too late they would be sorely disappoii ted as they would get no results in the foih g ere p, be- cause the phosphates were insoluble i rd h; d to undergo a process before it bee: me avtiLble to the plant. Superphosphate s were soluble nel dissolved in the soil moisture and became av: il- ble to the plant in a short lime. Potash was impossible to obtain now, as before the war the nnnurul salts were procured from Germany. There was no need to get worrii d over that, however. Nature in itself suppli. d sufficient potash for the plant, and any well-cultivated g; rden or land very rarely needed pot: h. There were no artificial fertilisers on the w; iket to-d; y that supplied potash. There was a trace of potash in hoof and horn fertiliser, but it was very slight. A valuable source of potash was wood ashes. He would advise even lloln.ent holders tQ burn all the refuse they could and turn it into ashes. When they got a heap of ashes they should put it in bags and store it as they would soot. There was a potash manure which had been placed on the market, but he had not used it. He referred to flue dust. There were things in it which had not been explained to his satis- faction and he would require to be convinced as to why there were injurious ingredients in flue dust and whether they could be neutralised. Flue dust was being^experimented with in the district and he proposed to make an experiment. He believed they could all, with advantage, experiment in the use of manures, making notes of the quantities used and the results. Some of'the old school would open their eyes if they would only use some of these fertilise. He had two plots of' half an acre, and he dressed one piece with colliery manure and the other with hoof and horn manure. The plants were from the same soi rce and were planted thq same day. Any novice walking by could tell at once which was the best half acre, and he confidently asserted that it was due to nothing but the use of raw hoof anh horn. They could with advantage do without so much stable manure. If they used stable manure one season they might use artificials the two following seasons. Artificials were a great advantage, because they could store them and they did not lose any properties by storing. It was hard work for ladies to apply stable manure, but they could carry some of this manure in their hand- bag. One of the finest top dressings in the market to-day was the product of the offal of fish, ground up into a fine powder. He had experimented with fish guano alone and on a piece alongside it with a top dressing of sulphate of ammonia. Fish guano contained about 10 per cent. nitrates and 30 per cent. phosphates. In using fish guano they must never let it remain on the surface of the soil too long. They could use it as a top dressing to any green crop or to potatoes. He used it on a small plot of potatoes last year and the result was remarkable. It was not because there was a vast amount of nitrogen or phosphates in it, but it seemed that it could be assimulated more quickly and it was more lasting than some of the other fertilisers that were offered. Hoof and Horn and Leather, Dust. I Pure bone meal contained 7 per cent, nitrogen and 32 per cent. phosphates. His advice to any grower was not to use bone meal unless it had been crushed small. In bones, unless they were steamed, there was a certain amount of fat which was detrimental to plants. He used bone meal extensively for beetroot, parsnips, and carrots. Another fertiliser was leather dust, which contained 6 per cent. of nitrogen. There was no trace of phosphates or potash in it, but it was a surprising fact that where it was used among fruit trees its effect was marvellous. As a general manure for digging in he did not think they could do better than use hoof and horn. The lecturer produced a part of an elephant's hoof flattened out, and said that if they were to dig it in it would be no more use to the plant than if they dug a brick in, but it had been found by experiment that by grinding it into different sizes, from the rough hoof and horn to the kibbled horn shavings and horn dust and flour, that it was a remarkable fertiliser. Hoof and horn flour was the best of all, but he did not think there were two bags of it in the country. It was a remarkable fact that it had no injurious effect upon the rootlets. Many of the fertilisers he had mentioned acted strongly on the rootlets and retarded them at first. This flour could be thrown on the ton of any small plants and it did not hurt them at all. the rough hoof and horn was far better than stable manure it contained 12 to 15 per cent. of ammonia and its effect lasted for four years. He had used it for. onions, and the effect was wonderful. He did not manure at all the following reason, and it produced a magnificent crop of savoys. He had every ocn- ,a?-o y s. He had everv ocii- fidence in recommending it as a bottom manure for any crop, but they must have lime in the soil. He would strongly advise those who wanted to use artificials to go in for the organic manures, though there were a couple of the others he had mentioned which would work splendidly to- gether. There was a difficulty in getting onions to drop their heads and form proper bulbs. The only solution was not to apply too heavy a dressing of stable manure' or nitrogenous manures and have the soil well balanced with phosphates, and they got the onion to mature at the proper time. If they required artificial manures it would be well if they could purchase them through their Association, or get a competent man to buy at the unit value and on the basis of analysis. They should not be persuaded that any of the much-advertised mixtures were any better than these. He had experienced the fact that there were many things in them which were injurious to the plant. They must not mix their manures and think they had done something very clever. He had made that fatal mistake himself. They should be careful to use them at the proper time and at the proper rate, and make a note of every- thing they did and its results. If the result was not to their satisfaction they should experiment with another artificial, because there were others to be obtained. The manures must be kept dry and used with discretion. Soot in itself was a complete fertiliser. It should be kept dry and not used when it was too fresh or too stale. In conclusion the lecturer said that with discretion in the use of artificials Abergavenny and district ought to do more than its quota with regard to food production and the allotments and town gardens ought to be second to none in the country. Questions Answered. I Mr. Salter was asked a number of questions by members of the audience and answered them satisfactorily. In reply to one he said that fowl manure was the highest nitrogenous manure, except pigeon's. It should be used very care- fully and in small quantities. The nitrogen was almost as quickly available to the plant as in nitrate of soda. In reply to further questions, he said he did not advise digging sulphate of ammonia in. Used for watering purposes it would have an injurious effect. Until the plants were strong enough he did not advise the use of I any inorganic manures as a top dressing. Lime must not be applied where there were nitro- genous manures, otherwise the action of the lime caused the nitrates to escape in gas. Asked what was a complete potato manure, Mr. Salter said that when planting potatoes superphos- phates should be sowoi, and when the potato was starting out on its journey sulphate of ammonia should be sown oxer the face, prefera bW on a wet day, and it did not injure the leaf. A better plan was to apply a dressing between the rows and fork it in and by the time the ammonia had been con- verted into nitrates they could mould the potatoes and get the full benefit of it. About 2lbs. should be applied to every 40 square yards. Some of the remedies for wire-worm were not available, and he recommended Vapcrite. The Chairman moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Salter for his interesting lecture, and said that no doubt he did not expect to be cross-examined so much, but he had come out of the ordeal very well. Cemncillor Graham seconded the vote. Mr. W. IJewIJlin moved a vote of thanks to the Chairman and sid they had a very live .president who took a great interest in their Sod, ty and. he had given the in', a handsome donation. He appealed to all to join the Association, which w. s working for the benefit of allotment holders and g. lclencis, and Was also moving in the matter of pig-keeping. Councillor j. R. Beekwnh seconded the vote of thanks, wnich Nv,.s G rried with acclamation.
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Poor Low Settlement Case. I CRICKHOWELL GUARDIANS' SUCCESSFU I APPEAL. The Crickhowell Board of Guardians were the appellants at the Monmouthshire Quarter Sessions last week against an order for the re- moval of paupers, the respondents being the Bedwellty Guardians. Mr. St. John G. Mickle- thwait and Mr. Raglan Somerset (instructed by Mr. Th6s. Vaughan, Crickhowell) were for the appellants, and Mr. H. Davey and Mr. A. W. E. Wort (instructed by Messrs. R. H. Spencer & Sons (Tredegar) were for the respondents. Mr. Micklethwait opened the case for the Crick- howell Guardians on Wednesday afternoon at Usk, and the proceedings were continued at Newport on Thursday. The case concerned a collier named Downs who had been employed 13 years at Graham's Navigation Colliery, Sirhowy, in the Bedwellty Union. Until October 1915 he lived in the Crickhowell Union. He then left and liveti at Sirhowy, in the Bedwellty Union, until March 20, 1917. The house in which he lived was sold and he had several notices to quit, but being unable to get a house he remained on until turned out. On the day they were turned out he found, on his return home from work, his wife and seven children on the open mountain. It was a very cold day and wet and stormy. His brother, who lived at 67 Miles-row, Beaufort, took pity on them and lie and his wife and children stayed with him, as he could not find room or shelter anywhere else.. It was only a two-roomed house, one room up and one down, and they were obliged to sleel) on the floor. On the 24th March Mrs. Downs and the children were admitted into the Bedwellty Workhouse, as it was impossible for them all to live in his brother's house any longer, but he stayed on. His brother had a wife and one child. He tried in every way to get a house in Sirhowy, so as to be near his work, but to no avail he had no intention of remaining at his brother's, as he had to sleep at nights in the armchair. His furniture was stored at the Rhydyblew Inn, Beaufort, in the Bedwellty Union. He was now lodging at 8, Coronation Cottages, Sirhowy, in the Bed- wellty area. He earned between f.3 and £ 4 a week and paid the Guardians 25s. a week for the maintenance of his wife and children in Bed- wellty Workhouse The Chairman (Sir Henry Mather-J ackson, Bart.) How are they chargeable at all in these circumstances ? Mr. Davey said the wife and children were without shelter, and the relieving officer was obliged to admit them into the Workhouse. The Chairman But here is a man earning between £3 and 1-4 a week. He is not a pauper, you know. Mr. Micklethwait I say they- have no right to force them on to us. They have got a hotel guest, and they say he is a pauper and we must pay for him. (Laughter). Mr. Davey admitted there were no houses to let. The Chairman said this man should have been proceeded against, and an order sought for the payment of such a sum as would cover the cost to the Guardians. 25s. was very cheap for the weekly maintenance of a woman and seven, children. Mr. Davey styel the order of chargeability had been made, and the Chairman said he was bound to say he should not have made it. Replying to Mr. Davey, Downs admitted that he had tried to. get a house in Gilwern and Dukestown, in the area of the Crickhowell Union, but he had also made continued efforts to get a house in Sirhowy so as to be near his Nvork, He did not mislead the Bedwellty Union relieving officer when he applied for the ad- mission of his wife and children to the Work- house. Mr. Davey contended that Downs never went farther than expressing a hope to live near his work in Sirhowy. There had been a break of residence. f Wm. Downs, brother of Thomas Downs, called by Bedwellty, said he helped his brother to look for a house in Gilwern and Dukestown. Mr. Micklethwait Did you search for a house in Sirhowy for him ? Witness Oh, yes we went all over the place together, and his landlady has also been search- ingin Sirhowy. They could not get a house, as I landlords did not want a man with su(?i a large family. The appeal was allowed with costs, and the Chairman remarked that there they had the case of a man who was placed in a temporary diffi- culty in regard to obtaining a house. The man willingly paid 25s. a week, and there was no suggestion that he should pay more. He, how- ever, wished to express great regret that so much time of the Court should have been taken up with such a case and, that the two Unions should have incurred expense in fighting it. He failed to see how the man could be classed as a pauper, and he thought the case should have been dealt with in some other way and should never have been brought before the magistrates in the first place, but settled by an arrangement between the man and the Guardians. Later, Sir Henry Mather Jackson said he wished to make it clear that he did not in any way reflect upon the Crickhowell Guardians. They very properly contested the case, as they naturally did not wish to be saddled with the expense of keeping a woman and seven children. Mr. Davey asked for a case to be stated, but the Bench intimated that on the facts they found ) the man had acquired a status of irremovability ¡ as regarded the Bedwellty Union.
1 CRICKHOWELL POLICE COURT. Before Mr. K. Pirie Gordon (in the chair) and Mr. W. Rosser. CONTRAVENTION OF I%TROI, ORDKR.—Dr. F. Ponseca, of Ebbw Vale, was summoned for con- travening the .Motor Spirit Restriction Order. Mr. W. A. Jones, Ebbw Vale, defended.—P.C. Hy. Jones, Llangynidr, said that on Sunday, March 17th, at 4.20 p.m., he saw a car containing three men come into Llangynidr from Crick- howell. It stopped at the Red Lion Inn and the three men got out and went towards the inn. They got no admittance, witness went to them and asked if they had a permit to use thAear, • and one of them, whom he found to be )r. Ponseca, spoke and said I am the owner of the car. I am a doctor." He took his name and address and asked him his business at 1.1211- gynidr. He replied, Learning how to drive the car—that's my business now." He told him he should report him and he replied "All right. Bv Mr. Jones Defendant <?ave his explantion readily, also his name and address.—Dr. Ponseca said lie was a medical practitioner at Ebbw Vale, and did the work partially of two other doctor beside his own. He had numerous other duties. He found it necessary to purchase a car and did so under a priority certificate of the Ministry of Munitions. The car was a 10 h.p. Singer and he had it at Ebbw Vale on the 8th March, when he knew nothing about driving it. He got Mr Rudd, of the Ebbw Vale Co., to teach him. He had three lessons sitting by him while he drove. On two Saturdays and the Sunday in question lie drove with Mr. Rudd by his side. It was extremely difficult for him to get away from his duties except on an occasional Saturday or Sunday afternoon. It was on Rudd's advice I he came into that district on the three occasions he drove under his tuition. He mentioned the matter to Inspector Richards, of Ebbw Vale, on each of the three occasions, and he knew he was learning and his object in going out of Ebbw Vale—otherwise he would not have used the car except for. the purposes of his profession.—The case was dismissed on payment of co§ts.
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GRAIG POLICE COURT. Saturday.—Before Sir Henry Mather-Jackson, Bart. (chairman), Mr. W. II. S. Whitney, and Mr C. Lipscomb. Disobeying a Ploughing Order Liantilio- Farmer Heavily Fined. David Williams, Trewailod Farm, Llantilio Crossenny, farmer, was summoned by the Mon- mouthshire Executive Agricultural War Com- mittee for not complying with a notice served on the 13th November last to plough one-third of 36 acres of additional land by December 25, 1917, and the remaining 22 acres by the 25th of March last. Mr. Horace Lyne, Newport', prosecuted, and from his opening statement it appeared that defendant occupied a farm of about 200 acres. He had disobeyed the notices calling upon him to cultivate the required land, and he had only ploughed about a quarter of an acre of the usual i land cultivated by him and not touched the jj additional land covered by the order at all. I They had, in consequence, to take possession of the land and put a tractor at work, but which had broken down, so that from the,22nd March to the 1St April they had only ploughed three acres of land. The weather was good, so that but for this accident the work ought to have been duly completed. From November to the 25th March defendant should have cultivated the land. Three witnesses were called for the prosecution. Defendant had never called for any assistance at all. j Defendant said that the land was so poor and wet that weather conditions had entirely pre- vented him from carrying out the work. The Bench imposed a fine of £ 25, and in default of distress, three months.. Defendant said he would rather go to gaol than pay the fine. »
LLANTHEWY RHYDDERCH. y EASTER DAY.—The church was beautifully decorated on Easter Day, the pulpit by Mrs. > Benbougli and Miss Rogers, the lectern by Miss Katie Davis and friends, tLe font by Miss Wooton and friend, the nave and chancel by Mrs. Jones (The Hall) and Miss Ethel Jones (Upper Farm). Altar flowers were given by Mrs. Powell Rees, Cae Derwen. For the s; ke of the wounded soldiers at MaindiS Hospital, an old custom of collecting Easter eggs was revived, and altoge ther 313 were received. VESTRY.A,t the annual Vestry held on Monday evening, at 7.30, Mr. Rogers, J.P., Monachty, and Mr. Teague were respectively re- elected vicar and people's wardens. Mr. Price, Quarella, was added to the list of sidesmen. At a parochial church meeting the same evening Mr. Davis, Court Morgan, was re-elected parochial lay representative.
Tractor Ploughmen Local Successes. With the view of encouraging ploughing in the county, presentations were made on Satur- day to tractor ploughmen in the four areas into which the county is liivided, for the greatest number of acres ploughed, as well as a champion- ship flag to the ploughman with the largest acreage in the county. The presentation of the championship flag was made by Alderman S. X. Jones (chairman of the Monmouthshire War Agricultural Committee), and of theothers by Mr. T. Morris Prosser (Government tractor representative for the county). The presentations (for the four weeks ended March gth) were as follows :— Abergavenny.— John Phillips (tractor) "and Richard Powell (ploughman), who, with 67^ acres, were also awarded the championship flag for the county. Usk and Mo.-iiiioutli.-T. Herbert' (tractor) and S. E. Williams (ploughman), 60 acres. Chepstow.—W. G. Morgan (tractor) and Pte. J. Cooper (ploughman), 541 acres. Newport.—Pte S T Baxter (tractor-) a Gunner F. White (ploughman), 35J acres. For Abcrgavenny the engineer contractor is Mr. David Wilks Preswylfa," Abergavenny, and the supervisor Mr. J. E. Woolley, I ontypool. For Usk and Monmouth the engineer contractor is Mr. W. R. Kenelrick and the supervisor Mr. R. Rowland. For Chepstow the engineer con- tractor is Mr. A. J. Proctor, and the supervisor Mr. F. Hammond and for Newport the engineer contractor is Mr. H. R. Wellstead and the super- visor Mr. Godfrey F. Price.
GROSIVIONT. LOCAI, WEDDING.—The marriage of Mr. John Ferneyhough, of The I,awns, Grosmont," and Miss Ethel Jennings, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frank Jennings, Ewyas Harold, took place on Wednesday, April 3rd, by licence. Both bride and bridegroom being old residents and well known, much interest was taken in the event, and a large congregation assembled at St. Michael's and All Angels, Ewyús Plarold, where the wedding took place, the Vicar, the Rev. Howells, officiating. The bells were rung at Grosmont Church in honour of the occasion. The bride anel bridegroom were recipients of many useful and handsome wedding presents. The honeymoon was spent at Llanekindod Wells. EASTER VESTRY.-At the annual Vestry meeting, held in Grosmcnt Church Vestrv on April 1st, the churchwardens, Messrs. H. Par- tridge and Watkins (Alma) were unanimously reappointed for the ensuing year. The following sidesmen were appointed Dr. Hampton, Messrs. Vinson, Garnet Bevan, John Bryan, H. R. Gbdwyn, Hallct, Baker, Dupper. Conrad Bevan, and Fred Pritcliard. The collections for the year amounted to £ 75 i?s. 3d., and expenses £ 75 16s. iod., showing a balance in hand of 5d. Votes of thanks were accorded to Mr. R. Hudson- Evans and Mr. Garnet Bevan for auditing the charity and church accounts, also to the church- wardens and sidesmen for their help a?d interest during the past year. Mr. Partridge proposed and Mr. Watkins seconded a vote of thanks to the Rector, the Rev. Gomer Davies, for presidium" The collections from the spedd E, ster services held in the Parish Church, which were given to the Rector, amounted to ^5 4s. 4 }d.
Notice to Advertisers and Correspondents.— The Publishers of the Abergavenny ("ronide" wish to inform all advertisers and correspondents that all advertisements and other ILatter for insertion in their current issue must reach them not later than Thursday mid-dav IBh¥ it MosmuiF- ? cures coids by .<n3c!.),,? tltUTkv^mUfi t•"k'Xy 7 tliem at then source. 11 kt?l,), the a,,d ?. t <-?s?n)ccts th<. ))<?tr))s; anl'i CLTI e, soothes the nas.t! membrane MSiiT!S.U ? ? Hi ? ? preien t, ?, ? ,?.?. It i. easy and pIe, sant to use that cold 5"ld by ?"? ?c. ywhere. Pftceta or nost free 1 5 direct, from HABOLD E. MATTHEWS & CO., Clifton, Bristol. Instant Relief Guaranteed. Ss* jfpiflpjj tllis Trad.MarX fiftMt??f??T????r?.??.??gj,? ■■«iimiini Sold by H. Sh»ckleton, Chemist, 9 Cross St., hergayenny Printed and Pnhlished by Morgan Co. (>T Morgan and E. C. St, ab cir), at 2fl, Frc.gmore Street, Aher- venny, in the County cf Moumoiuh FRIDAY. APRIL HI, 1018.