FIELD AND FARM. (From the Agricuttural Gazette.") SIMPLICITY OF CORN CULTIVATION. The cultivation for wheat and other corn crops (rw.urks Prof. John Wrightson) is simple and inex- pensive in itself, which is probably the cause of so much foreign competition. The true art of cultiva- tion is shown in producing maximum effects from minimum expenditure, which at first sight may appear impossible. In the highly artificial condi- tions of our agriculture one crop greatly depends upon another, and it is well known that one good crop begets another, just as a failure is known to be often perpetrated in a second year's bad result. A failure of clover entails a reduced wheat yield, and a failure of roots is often followed by a partial failure in the succeeding corn crop. That a good crop of clover is often followed by a good crop of wheat is accounted for on scientific grounds, for clover root is the best manure for wheat. Similarly, the longer the sheep are folded on an acre of land the more probability there is of a good crop of oats, if not of barley. The more of recently formed organic matter a soil con- tains, the better will a succeeding crop thrive, and hence the close relationship between a previous and a growing crop. A maximum crop of wheat may, therefore, reward a grower without further direct expenditure. It is not always sound teaching that heavy crops are obtained by proportionately heavy expences, although such would be the case if the crops were increased by direct manuring. It is the indirect effect which produces the crop, and this is the principle upon which high farming should be conducted. Take the case of a strong clover plant. It is grown at comparatively small expense, and its success may be partly dependent upon the season. It may, how- ever, be due to a good crop of roots fed upon the land by sheep receiving cake and corn. The root crop in such a case pays its expenses through the sheep, which is not at all impossible. Sheep have been paying fairly well, and it may easily happen that the farmer is well satisfied with the result. Next follows a good crop of barley or of oats sown down with seeds, and we will suppose for the sake of illustration that the clover takes well, and establishes a good root. If the clover is mown, and the aftermath is folded with sheep and well manured with dung, there are the ele- ments of success in the next crop, which I take to be wheat. It is possible that a full, or what might be called a maximum, crop of wheat may be grown without extra expenditure. The coat of farmyard manure only represents fair management, and yet by reason of the previous cropping and the blessing of a good season a full crop of wheat is obtained. This is as it ought to be. On the other hand, and with the same expenditure, we might see a failure in roots followed by a meagre crop of spring corn and a poor crop of clover, followed by a shabby crop of wheat, the whole being due in the first instance to a bad root crop. It does not, therefore, follow that big crops are the result of heavy expendi- ture neither does it follow that bad crops are always the resuh of bad farming. Our results depend upon circumstances over which we have not full control. As to high farming, the true principle is bound up in stock; and if this is denied by anyone, it will not be so by farmers of light soils, who find their success depending chiefly upon close folding with sheep. The sound principal is that the sheep must pay their own way, and if this be granted, the residual fertility from their presence is obtained free of expense. It is also sound that land kept up in good heart by sheep is better able to stand drought, or untoward seasons. The principle that diminish- ing returns will largely increase the aggregate profits of agriculture is not very easy to understand, and Professor Somerville must have been misquoted, or only partially quoted, when he is reported to have so expressed himself. Diminishing returns need not mean diminishing expenses. Increased returns ought to be the result of judicious expenditure, and if sheep are used to illustrate this position they should at once pay for their food, and leave the land better for their manure. The case of cattle feeding is less clear, for it entails labour in carting off roots and carting on manure and land so treated is more dependent upon outlay. Land which will carry sheep all the year round is, in the present state of arable farming, most desir- able and there is good reason for believing that a much larger proportion of arable land will carry sheep in winter than is popularly imagined. I have recently heard of strong clay land benefiting from sheep folding in winter to a degree that seemed scarcely possible. SOME FEEDING POINTS. In handling live stock there is (observes S.B.H.") no point of greater importance than a knowledge of how to feed, nor is there any on which the capacities of owners are more widely at variance. Some feed with brains and others with the scoop shovel, and there are all grades of feeding ability between these two extremes. Feeding is the point in environment most largely influential in improvement, and is also one on which profit very largely depends. As to the quality of feed employed, it should be the best of its kind. Smutted, rusted, or otherwise diseased grains, mouldy hay or forage, spoiled meals, rank, sour swills, &c., may seem to cause no specific harm at the time, but they always detract from that perfect thrift and healthfulness of the digestive organs which enables an animal to do its best. The feed being good of its kind, the right kind should be used, having in view the purpose for which it is fed. Feed stuffs are broadly divided into those which make fat and those which make muscle or growth. Animals do not change or even compound the foods they consume into needed forms; they merely appropriate or as- similate the elements which the plants on which they feed have appropriated. For example, there can be no bone-making unless the food contains a sufficient quantity of the mineral elements of which the bone is composed; muscle and growth cannot be made unless the food contains the substances which enter into the making of muscle and growth. It is, there- fore, necessary that the kind of food chosen shall be appropriate to the purpose in view. If young, grow- ing animals are fed there must be enough nitrogenous matter to make muscle and growth and enough mineral matter to make frame, and if the foods at hand do not contain them they should be added in the form of nitrogenous by-products, ashes, &c. Even a moulting hen needs a different food frem that given at other seasons, or she cannot make feathers. Pigs lose scale, become fine in bone, and turn to fat if fed on fattening food during the time when they ought to be growing, Milk cows can only produce profitable quantities of milk when they are fed on milk-producing foods. Large losses in the pig crop result from improper feeding during the period of gestation and just before and after farrowing time. It is an old maxim that You Cannot get an oat out of a thistle-diet," and the maxim applies to all kinds of feeding. You cannot have fat, or muscle, or bone, or scale, or milk, or any specific thing desired without feeding appropriate food, because the animal does not create anything, but only assimilates what there is in the food. Quantity is important in feeding. Toproduce results of any desirable kind, feeding should be liberal. So much is required for the maintenance of the animal, and it is only the quantity that is digested and as- similated after this food of maintenance is secured, which produces the owner's share in the proceeds from the feeding. At the same time this idea should ke handled with judgment. A sow that is heavily fed just before and after farrowing will be pretty sure to loose her pigs. Cows thus fed are very likely to have garget. There are no feeding principles that it is not constantly necessary to modify by the use of the feeder's judgment. A great many little ailments, not arising to the dignity of a disease, but neverthe- less interfering seriously with thrift, are due he over- feeding, which is liberal feeding carried to excess. A good rule is to give the animal all it will eat up clean, but even this must be modified by judgment, too. Where animals have been run down, they must be brought up gradually; and in getting animals on full feed they must not be given all they will eat, but must be brought to full feed by steps. Food left over is a hint to reduce the ration. If much is left over it is a further hint that something is wrong, and the animal needs looking after. With food of good quality, of the right kind for the purpose, and sufficient but no more than sufficient in quantity, another important point is variety. The feeder himself does not like to sit down to the table day after day to the same dish. He might not object to beans for fifty or sixty meala in succession, bur, he would not like them as a steady diet. The animal is in just the same condition. It needs variety or food will pall upon it. The food must be properly pre- pared in view of the digestion of the animal. It is hardly worth while to feed millet seed, for instance, without grinding, for the digestion of no animal will reduce it. A yearling lamb gets along very nicely on whole grain, but the aged, broken-toothed ewe will not fatten unless the grain be ground. Steers with hogs to follow may not waste a great deal of whole corn, but when cattle are fed on whole corn under other circumstances the waste is large. To the farrowing sow, both before and after, thin gruels do the sow and litter good, while corn is detrimental to both the sow and pigs. There are other points connected with palatability and succulence, &c., which special circum- stances render of greater or less importance. Wherever animals are to be pushed, palatability counts for a great deal, because it stimulates appetite and increases the consumption of food, which, however, must not be pushed beyond the point of capacity to digest. Finally, aside from the general rules of feeding, every animal has an individuality of its own. So far as possible this should be studied. It cannot be studied in the case of a hundred steers in the feed lot, but it can be studied in the case of a herd of dairy cows.
GARDENING GOSSIP. (From Gardening Illustrated") CONSERVATORY. Very few realise how very easy it is to have Tube- roses in bloom now and onwards through the autumn and winter till Christmas and later. We potted about a thousand bulbs which had been kept back in June and July, and placed on a coal-ash-bed outside, where the greater part remained till the nights were getting cool early in October. They were then placed in a cool-house and moved forward in batches to the conservatory or show-house as they were wanted. A little warmth helps the expanding flowers, but the temperature of the conservatory is sufficient. I may say they were started in 60-sized pots, and when these were filled with roots they were shifted into 48's. When grown cool they are dwarfer in habit than when more heat is given. They make lovely groups mixed with Maidenhair Ferns. Christmas Roses potted up now will be useful at Christmas and later. Large plants in good- sized pots may be kept in pots and plunged in Cocoa-nut-fibre or ashes in summer. The plants can be shifted on into larger pots as they require more room. They are really very effec- tive in large plants, and, if the blooms are not cut, the plants seed freely, and the seeds will grow if sown soon after they are ripe in boxes in a frame. The winter-flowering Epacrises and Choroze- mas are effective in the shape of well-grown specimens. I do not know how others feel about the matter, but I get tired of the Chrysanthemums by the time the latest are over, and such things as those mentioned above, with bulbs, white Azaleas, groups of Cyclamen, Cinerarias, white Marguerites, and Acacia Drum- mondi come as an agreeable change. Well-grown bushes of Genista fragrans are very desirable in the conservatory in winter. They may be pruned so as to assume a pyramidal outline and soon grow to a good size, and are then very effective. Show Pelar- goniums should now be in their flowering pots. Good turfy loam, suitably enriched, and made firm in their pots, will grow them well. Stand them near the glass and give another pinch when established after repotting. Never miss taking any sturdy Chrsanthemum cuttings which appear after this date some growers strike them in quite cold frames or others structures. We strike in frames in a span* roofed house where there is a little warmth, and the result is always satisfactory. They want all the light there is, and the frames are opened for an hour 01 two every morning. EARLY GRAPES. A good deal is now done with pot-Vines. Those who make a speciality of these grow them well, and get them rested and ripened in the open air; at least, the finishing work is done there. They start best with the pots plunged in a bed of leaves, where fer- mentation is going on in a steady, regular way. This gives a gentle reminder to the roots, and though the roots do not respond very freely at first, its influence is felt by the swelling buds, and this reacts afterwards upon the roots. A night temperature of 50deg. need not be exceeded till a little movement is noticed in the buds, then the temperature should be gradually raised to keep pace with the advancing growth, air being given ir small quantities along the ridge of the house when the thermometer reaches 65deg. to 70 deg., closing early and damping down. EARLY PEACHES. The early Peach-house should be closed for work now, or very shortly if early Peaches are required, though something can be done by growing early sorts. Early Rivers' and Cardinal Nectarines come very early when forced, and Nectarines pay just now even better than Peaches. In making the borders try and obtain loam of an adhesive character, and use a few cwt. of bone-meal and a little old plaster, but no other manure. The drainage must be free, and the border not more than two feet deep, if the soil is suitable. Deep borders, heavily dressed with manure, will be a bar to the success of Peach culture, as there will be a difficulty in correcting the gross growth, except by lifting and root-prwoing. EARLY STRAWBERRIES. The plants must have strong, well developed singlt crowns to stand forcing to have fruit early in March, The first batch must soon be put into heat. The best plan is to half plunge the pots in a pit filled with leaves, where there is just a little warmth, air being given freely during the day and a little left on at night. They will not require much water till spikes of lloom appear, and they should be taken to a light, airy house with a night temperature of 55deg. to set. When set, thin off all small fruits and late blossoms, and raise the temperature to 60deg. or 65deg. at night. The syringe should be used, and more water will be required at the roots. OUTDOOR GARDEN. We never remember a better time for planting than the present. The land is now sufficiently moist, and has not yet parted with its summer's warmth. Turf also is going down well. Weedy lawns may be cleared of the weeds, and then top-dressed with a mixture of wood-ashes and basic-slag. Where we have seen this mixture used the result has been good. The improvement will not be seen immediately, but will in the course of the next year and still more the second year. Cover clumps or beds of the Christ- mas Rose with glass in some way. We generally lift some of the best roots and place in large pots and bring them on under glass, replanting them when the flowers fade. White flowers are so much in demand in winter that this plant seldom gets a chance to ripen seeds. But it does ripen seeds well under glass if the flowers are left, and the seeds grow freely and many plants might be raised. Sow the seeds as soon as ripe in a box in a cold-frame, and keep reasonably moist. Box and other edgings may be planted now. Box is not so much planted in suburban gardens as it was. Tiles are more used, and do not harbour insects, and are neat and cheap. Alterations or ex- tensions may Bow be made in the rock garden or fernery. Alpine plants may be grown on banks and mounds without stones. The stones help to keep the earth moist and give a touch of picturesqueness, but are not in all cases indispensable. VEGETABLE GARDEN. Deep culture and liberal applications of manura are essential in a vegetable garden. The deep culture can be given now to all vacant land, but the applica- tion of manure must depend to some extent upon the character of the sc,i,.l. On poor, sandy, porous soil the strength of the manure is soon washed out by the late autumn and winter rains therefore it is better in such soils to give the manure shortly before the crop is put in. In well-managed gardens the ground in the manuring and cultivating operations is made suitable for the intended crop, and a gardener in this respect has to look a long way ahead. No one gives fresh manure to such crops as Carrots or Best, or those which have long, tapering roots which strike deeply into the earth, as manure near the roots in quantity causes them to fork out, and instead of there being one long, straight root, there may be several, and the value of the crop is much reduced. Deep culture and exposure to the atmosphere through the winter so improve 'the land as to enable it to do with less manure without any loss of weight or quality of crop. See that Mushroom-beds in build- ings are reasonably moist. It isafterthe beds have been bearing some time that a soaking of liquid-manuae or weak salt weter is found so beneficial.
W the express train from Constantinople to Berlin reached the end of its journey recently a blind man was found wedged between the axle and springs of one of the carriages. He was half-dead with hunger and fatigue when discovered, but was revived with food. He then stated that he had forced him- self into his precarious position at a siding in Con- itantinople, and had not moved during the whole fifty-r.b.ree hours which the journey to Berlin occu- pied.
A CLOSE SHAVE. Mr. Miss was young. Until he grew a beard in self defence, he looked even younger thjm he was, and nobody felt any confidence in him. But when he gave up shaving people began to take him seri- otJsly-they seemed to regard his beard as the growth of his intellect. Having served as an articled clerk and passed ex. aminations, Mr. Miss became a solicitor. In the moment of triumph he caused a note of this achieve- ment to appear in the local newspaper, and went about vividly conscious that people were pointing him out to each other. Whilst his fame was at its zenith he opened a modest office in the West End of London; bad his name engraved on a brass plate and engaged a boy, whom he kept in a sort of cup- board with Clerks' Office on the door, in case he forgot where he had put him. He was a boy of no discernment; he tacitly assumed that everybody who called was a client, and would bring in unknown names on slips of paper, and when Mr. Miss said, Ask the gentleman to step in," it would generally prove to be a man who wanted to sell lead pencils or collar studs. Consequently, when the boy came in one morning and said a lady wanted to see him, Mr. Miss was on his guard. Why didn't you ask her name?'' he protested, Say, Mr. Miss is busy. Is it particular ?'" The boy came back with a card, and directly he read the name on it Mr. Miss was thrown into a flutter. For he was a young man and very shy. "Show Lady Summers in," he said. She was shown in. He bowed her into a chair and resumed his own, with a nervous sensation of having more hands and feet than he knew what to do with. Mr. Miss ?" she inquired wistfully. At your ladyship's service." She was certainly nice looking: she had the neatest little gloved hand he had ever seen, and her eyes dazzled him and made him feel giddy every time he glanced inbo them. Mr. Miss," she said, with a pensive sweetness, "I am in great trouble." She drew a laced handkerchief from her reticule and wiped her eyes. Mr. Miss coughed sympathetically. "I have met you in society, I think?" she said presently. Your face seems familiar to me." "I meet," Mr. Miss faltered, trying to remember her, a great many persons-" "No doubt," she sighed, "I noticed your name in our local paper the other day, and I have come to you for legal advice. I could not go to my husband's solicitors-in the circumstances," she sobbed, "as you will understand." So far Mr. Miss understood nothing, and only murmured Perfectly out of politeness. You are acquainted with my husband, Sit Rupert ?" Not-er-exactly-I-" You have heard of him of course In public life he is much esteemed, and it is for his sake I have been anxious to avoid this scandal, but-" she overcame her emotion and continued. I have decided to proceed against Sir Rupert for a separation Mr. Miss." Mr. Miss bowed gravely. "I want you to advise me," she went on. I must tell you, then, that almost ever since our marriage, Sir Rupert has been most unkind to me. You may find it hard to believe, but he has struck me-not once, but many times." Mr. Miss was unspeakably shocked. I have borne with it because I shrank so from causing a scandal. But," she choked back a sob, a month age we went to Baden, and there his treatment-oh, I can bear it no longer I" she burst into tears. I have returned home alone. I will never see him again. Tell me, Mr. Miss, do you think I can get a separation ?" I think," said Mr. Miss sagaciously, there is no doubt about it, Lady Summers. There will be certain—er—evidence to be-obtained-" Yes. Prust, the footman, who has seen Sir Rupert strike me-you would like to see him ?" If you please." And there is my maid, too I wonder," said Lady Summers, with a charming diffidence, whether you could allow your managing clerk to go back home with me now and question Prust and the maid for yju ?" With pleasure!" But Mr. Miss was extremely anxious to conceal the limitations of his staff. My managiug clerk is out at present. I will come my- self." Oh, no-really I I cannot put yo, i to so much trouble-" Mr. Miss declared it was no trouble at all. "You are too kind," said Lady Summers. If you are sure it will not inconvenience you." Mr. Miss was quite sure. He escorted Lady Summers downstairs, and a han- som carried them quickly to Sir Rupert's suburban residence in Stafford-square. A large and melancholy footman opened the door to them. Prust, I want you in the drawing-room for a minute, please," said Lady Summers. This is my solicitor, Mr. Miss." She led the way in. I have not spoken to Prust about this." Her ladyship sank into a low armchair, and motioned her lawyer to a seat at the table. Would you mind telling him what you want to know?" Prust stood waiting obsequiously. Mr. Miss opened a sheet of paper and took out his pencil. What is your name ?" he began nervously. John Prust, sir." Tell me, please, have you ever seen-er-Sir Rupert strike or ill-use Lady Summers ?" Prust reflected, and answered with admirable caution. Yes he had seen Sir Rupert strike Lady Summers on two occasions Sir Rupert was hot- tempered and violent; he, Prust, had intervened on one occasion and snatched the walking-stick from.Sir Rupert's grasp.- Here was a genuine man of feeling. Mr. Miss nodded to him approvingly and wrote it all down he could see Lady Summers was crying quietly into her handkerchief, and was sorry for her. Can you remember the dates," he inquired, when these events happened ?" Prust could and Mr. Miss made a note of them. And having obtained various other details he ex- pressed himself well satisfied. If y our maid's evidence confirms this, Lady Summers," be cried, I am certain of success." I am so glad Then that will do, Prust. Send Benson to me." Beg pardon, m'lady," returned Prust, softly deferential, Benson is out. She said your lady- ship gave her permission; and she will not be home until evening." Oh, dear, yes I" Lady Summers melted Mr. Miss with a pathetic little smile. I am TO worried, I forget everything lately." I can perhaps see her to-morrow," said Mr. Miss. That would suit me admirably." So nice of you to say so Thank you so much. That will do, then, Prust-oh, Prust! bring Mr. Miss a glass of wine." He would have declined, but the obedient Prust had vanished before he could find words. I want to ask you, Mr. Miss," said her ladyship, when Prust had brought the wine and withdrawn again, ought I to leave my husband's house before these proceedings commence ?" Certainly. I was going to suggest that." Thank you. I will leave at once—this evening. I may take my personal belongings with me ?" By all means." There are my jewels," she mused audibly-" they are at the bank, and I am afraid when Sir Rupert finds I have taken these steps he will prevent my getting them just to annoy me. They are entirely my own most of them belonged to me before I was married. Perhaps I had better get them away from there, first thing." At once," Mr. Miss agreed emphatically. Thank you. I will do so. I will send she hesitated. I hardly like to send Prust-he is trustworthy, but-I would sooner, if you don't mind, that you sent your clerk for them, and he could bring them on here to me." With pleasure. In fact," he glanced importantly at his watch, I have still nearly an hour to spare- I will go myself." At first Lady Summers would not hear of it; she had given him so much trouble already; but Mr. Miss remaining insistent, she gave way and over- whelmed him with thanks and pretty apologies. I must write an authority for the bank people to hand the jewel case to you." She threw a glance round. There is no ink here. If you will excuse me for a minute I will run and write it in the library." Left alone, Mr. Miss rubbed his hands together and congratulated himself. This was going to be a big case, a society scandal that would bring him profit and glory. He felt that he had got through the preliminaries in a highly creditable style, and was chuckling "inwardly for pride at his own smart- ness, when Lady Summers came in and handed him the authority. < The bank was not far off. Mr. Miss was whirled there and back in a cab, and within half an hour had successfully accomplished his mission and placed the jewel case in her ladyship's hands. Thank you so much You are very kind," she responded fervently. And now I must not detain you another instant, or I shall make you late for your appointment. My maid shall call at your office to-morrow with my new address, and you might question her about her evidence at the same time. I am ashamed to have given you all this trouble. Thank you very, very much." And so, fussily thanking and praising him, she politely hustled him out of the house. Nearly all next day Mr. Miss sat in his office and waited for Lady Summers' maid, but she did not come. He worked on the case all day, filled up all sorts of forms concerning it, and made copious notes of questions he bad omitted to ask yesterday and still that woman did not come. Towards evening his old friend Tomlinson dropped in, and wondered at his preoccupation. What's the matter ?" he asked with a wave of his hand over the littered table. You don't mean to say you have got anything to do ?" Up to the eyes," replied Mr. Miss, with weary dignity. Very big affair-immense sensation I" Tomlinson whistled incredulously, Talk about sensations," he said, have you seen the evening papers ?" "Not yet." Sensation there, if you like!" cried Tomlinson. Great Jewel robbery. Lady Summers' jewels stolen from her bank, my boy!" Whose ?" gasped Mr. Miss. Lady Summers'. She lives your way. Do you know her ?" No-not much." "Seems Sir Rupert and his wife went to Baden about a month ago," yawned Tomlinson, planting himself with his back to the fire. "They left an old housekeeper, the footman and one of the maids in charge of the house. When they arrived home last night, they found the place in darkness, the old house- keeper gagged and bound in bed, and the other two had disappeared." The housekeeper had been lying like that all day. She said the other two fixed her unexpectedly that morning after she'd had breakfast in bed. Well, the others had gone, and various articles of value had gone with them, including, it was discovered this morning, the jewels from the bank. Some fellow called there yesterday with an authority from Lady Summers to receive the case. The authority turns out to be a clever forgery. They think the maid may have done it; she is very pretty, they say, and rather smart. Or it may have been the other man." The other man ?" faltered Mr. Miss. "Yes. There were three of them, including the maid, who, by the way, has gone off in part of her ladyship's wardrobe. The fellow who went to the bank wasn't the footman he's known there. The bank clerk took him for Sir Rupert's secretary. He signed the receipt for Lady Summers and put his initials underneath-A. W., as far as they can make them out. The bank clerk says he would know him again if he saw him. But they have had a day's start, and he'll never have a chance to see him, you bet!" After Tomlinson was gone, Mr. Miss abstracted certain pages from his dairy, and burnt them, with half a quire of other manuscript. He felt he had had an uncommonly close shave, and, for fear that bank clerk should happen to meet him, he called at his barber's on the way home and bad another!
MILITARY TITLES. The Dragoons are so called because they were jriginally furnished with "dragons," a species of jhort musket, which, according to the popular notion, spouted fire like the fabulous monsters of the same name wherefore a representation of a dragon always appeared on the muzzles of these weapons. The Grenadiers were formerly provided with a pouch filled with hand grenades, and the Fusiliers with a fusil or light musket.
IS THE ARMY GOING TO THE DOGS AN UNCOMPROMISING DEFENCE. A military correspondent of the Daily Telegraph writes an almost unqualified defence of the army as it is. We quote some passages from his letter, especially in reference to the Natal campaign, which he went through from beginning to end There seems (he says) to be a widespread feeling in England that our army is going to the dogs but why ? The regrettable incidents which occurred can all be traced to indifferent strategy or bad lead- ing—hardly ever to any other reason-but in an army of 250,000 men there must always be some bad officers, and among many Generals some bad Generals. Had these regrettable incidents," which all occurred in the Orange Free State or in the country between Pretoria and Bloemfontein, been the result of cowardice, treachery, bad rifles or ammunition, or a want of horses, they would have proved object-lessons to reformers; but they occurred through the blundering of people on the spot; and if army reformers think that they can produce brains in their Generals and colonels they are wrong. How petty were these reverses after all I They will occur in every war when one army is acting on the offensive, over immense distances, and its enemy is as brave, clever, and mobile as the Boers of South Africa. LYTTELTON, HILDYARD, AND YOUNG KITCHENER. The correspondent contends that Natal was the scene of the greatest battles of the war, and therefore calls for special attention. After examining the army's doings he turns to the question of improving it. Personally, he says, I know small room for improvement. Having seen the Lvttelton, Hildyard, and Kitchener Brigades again and again advancing to the assault, led in the most clever, gallant way by their officers, I cannot think who can teach these men a lesson. Having had practical experience of our rifle, I consider it the best rifle ever handled by soldiers. H&ving watched a regiment of marksmen for six months, under every circumstance of war, I never saw better shots; certainly they outshot the Boers when the terms were equal. Natal was not a cavalry country, but who will not agree that the per- formances of Dundonald's Brigade, which led every advance for 10 months, and in doing so was not once surprised, nor allowed the army's rest to be disturbed, were good ? I do not think that the cavalry needs a better shooting weapon, and our artillery a longer-ranged, but not a :better-shooting, gun. And I do think that the training of our artillery officers wants some slight alteration, though any change would be bad that destroyed for a moment their glorious courage and discipline. CAMPAIGNING DIFFICULTIES IN NATAL. It is impossible to convey to men who have not fought in South Africa, and fought with their eyes always open for a chance, the nature of the battle- grounds there. I never saw a bit of ground which should have been held by the Boers which they did not hold, nor have I ever once, when Boers were about, made out that it was possible-not altogether from the cleverness of the Dutch, but from the nature of the ground itself-to advance without the greatest precaution. The containing power of the modern rifle, skilfully used, gives immense advan- tage to defensive tactics-yet discipline and valour made it possible to destroy this defence. In the Tugela-despite the clever Yankee, who asked for a way round—there was no way round for an army of less than 100,000 men, and we only had 30,000. It is only troops and men who never know when they are beaten which will win in the end. If we are so fortunate as to fight a conscript army, trained some- thing after the fashion of our men, and tied by certain military rules, which the Boers could afford to despise, we will, I think, prove, without boasting, that nothing in the way of flesh and blood can beat the british officer and soldier.
A HOSPITAL for sick plants has been built in the Faubourg St. Antoine, Paris, in which neighbourhood there are plants growing in pots on nearly every win- dow specially is this the case with the houses in- habited by the poorer people. A philanthropist, has built greenhouses, in which gardeners look after plants that are brought in for temporary treatment. THE artificial stone of M. Meurer and M. Girard, Director of the Municipal Laboratory, Paris, is com- posed of quick-lime, sand, and clay, combined under oressure of steam.
THE LORD RUSSELL MEMORIAL. Since the representative meeting of the friends of the late Lord Russell of Killowen, held in the Library of the House of Lords, at the end of last month, considerable progress has been made with the project of erecting a fitting memorial to the late- lamented Lord Chief Justice of England. Mr. Charles W. Mathews and Mr. James Fox, Temple, the honorary secretaries, have received promises amounting in the aggregate to nearly P.700, in dona- tions which range from one to 100 guineas. It need not be stated that the promises already received for this altogether worthy object are not nearly sufficient for an adequate fulfilment of the object the House of Lords meeting set before itself. The desire is that the memorial should partake as much as possible of a national character.
UNLUCKY THIRTEEN. The superstition that 13 is an unlucky number dates back to the last supper of our Lord, when He sat at table with His 12 disciples and Judas be- trayed Him. There is a story told of a soldier who was condemned to death because he failed to be at his post of duty at a critical time. He avowed that he was there and heard the clock of St. Paul's strike 13, and this was proved by others who heard it to be true; conse- quently, to one person in theiWorld the number 13' nroved to be a lucky one.
MODEL TRUANT BOYS. One portion of the report on reformatory and in- dustrial schools, which has recently been issued, has a. special interest, and indicates what can be done with the roughest material. Glory may be achieved by the boy, from the reformatory and industrial school as by the young officer who graduates at Sandhurst or Woolwich. Some boys who have made a bad start in early life before they were really con- scious of the duties they owed to themselves and society, have lived to win renown in South Africa, and others have died for their country, and found soldiers' graves on the veldt. The inspector de- votes several paragraphs in his report to the army as a career for the young scallywag, who in the opinion of Lord Cbailes Beresford forms a good seaman as experience has shown, he may become an ornament to the army. Mr. J. G. Legge supports the views of the gallant captain of the Condor in the following passage: There is not the slighest doubt that enlistment in the army and navy is to be commended as a means of disposal for the boys in Home Office Schools. These boys are the stuff out of which good sailors and soldiers are made; they are quick-witted, full of courage, reckless even to a fault, and the open-air life and steady discipline are just what suits them. On enlistment they are saved from returning to the surroundings which proved their bane in childhood. Finally, there is a fitness in boys who owe much of their education to the State repaying their debt in service to the State." Proceeding to refer to the splendid part which boys trained in reformatory and industrial schools have played in the campaign in South Africa, the inspector remarks: Nobly have many of them recently discharged their debt to the State. From information furnished at short notice this summer by a large number of schools it appears that 2597 old boys are known to have been at the front. Of these 113 have been killed or have died of disease, 272 have been wounded or invalided, one has been recommended for the Victoria Cross, five for the Distinguished Service Medal, one for a commission, and quite a number have earned promotion. Some of the larger schools have been unable to furnish the information with the speed required, and all the schools will no doubt find as days go by that they have fresh names to add. Thus it may be possible next year to pub- lish revised figures which will largely exceed the above, but, as they stand, the figures are eloquent enough. Of the distinctions gained one was for con- spicuous gallantry at Spion Kop, another for helping to save the guns at Colenso. At Elandslaagte a third hero placed his body between the enemy and his wounded colonel. A fourth hero was the driver referred to in the following extract from the Daily Telegraph: Two of our batteries, the 18th and the 75th, bore the brunt of the battle (at the Modder River), discharging 2000 rounds, the 75th having to retire for want of ammunition. Just before they withdrew a tremendous fire was concentrated on them. Major Lindsay was wounded, two men (a gunner and a driver) were killed, 11 wounded, and 25 horses lost. The gallant driver, though shot through the lung, drove his gun out." "A few other interesting details may be given. The hero of the Victoria Cross was a notable truant in his day. He probably thinks the distinction he has gained worth a hatful of school-attendance medals, and such is the perversity of human nature, most people will probably agree with him. A boy who left a London school in 1891 was in a position to join the C.I.V., and thus gained the freedom of the City of London. An old Redhill boy, owning a farm in one of the colonies, joined a troop of Colonial Volunteers for scouting duty, was wounded and sent to England. He has recovered, and gone off again to the front. His farm all the time had been left by him in charge of a former schoolmate." These striking facts overshadow the more or less dry details of the work carried on in these 228 reformatory, industrial, and truant schools, with their 6156 boys and 1050 girls, at a cost of £ 544,499. The inspector reveals a wide sympathy and an appreciation of the excellent schemes of in- dustrial training.
PROMOTED FROM THE RANKS. Thirteen commissions in line battalions and foul in the Royal Artillery have been conferred, and ara notified in the London Gazette. Most of these pro- m otions from the ranks affect Colonials, who have fought so splendidly and endured hardships so herocially in South Africa. Only one more C.I.V., Private Sydney K. H. Little, is added by Lord Roberts to the list of army officers, and he receives a vacant second lieutenancy in the Connaught Rangers. On the nomination of the Governor of Western Australia similar rank in the Manchester Regiment, on augmentation, is conferred on Corporal Cecil Edwin Northcott and Private Stanley M. Perkins, who have served with that Colony's contingent; while the Governor of Victoria has selected Private Harold E. Elliott, of the Imperial Australian Regi- ment, for a subaltern's vacancy in Princess Char- lotte of Wales's (Royal Berkshire) Regiment. The Governor of Cape Colony has nominated no less than eight members of the Cape Police, the Cape Mounted Rifles, Brabant's Horse, and the Rhodesian, Protectorate Regiment for commissions in the regi- ments stated after the candidates' names: Private Graham Agnew, the Northumberland Fusiliers. Corporal Claude Gibney Davies, the Royal War- wickshire Regiment. Corporal E. H. A. Hodgson, the South Wales Borderers. Trooper John Colloryan Michell, the Worcester- shire Regiment. Trooper Cornwallis Charles Wyndham Maude, the Worcestershire Regiment. Trooper Louis Horsford D'Oyly Moule, the East Lancashire Regiment. Lieutenant John Charles Field Richards, the Hampshire Regiment. Trooper Bertie Harry Waters Taylor, Princess Charlotte of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment). Trooper Aylmer Willoughby Wallace, the King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry). The members of the Victorian Bushman Force, Trooper Alexander T. King and Private Evelyn Ffronch, have also been promoted to be second lieu- tenants in the Royal Artillery, as also has Mr. George M. A. Gregory, a University candidate. Another University officer is Mr. Thomas G. Cun- ningham, who has been serving as a private in the 7th Middlesex Volunteer Rifle Corps, and has now gained a commission in the Royal Garrison Artil- lery.
MME. JEAN roMMEROL. a French authoress and explorer, is about to start on a new expedition into the heart of Africa. Her object is to study the manners and customs of the natives in the Sahara, and embody her experiences in a new book. AN illustration of the great suction power of a train travelling forty miles an hour was furnished I recently in America. A little girl stood too near a. passing train, and was drawn into the last vehicle, being instantly killed. When Murphy, the American cyclist, rode behind a train travelling at the rate of one mile a minute last year he was, of course very greatly assisted in his marvellous rido hv the air suction.
I!;¡SoIr.J"I:'f-<¡;;1_ I **—*—1— II !■<!—iinaiiiliii IHIIUM DREDGING OPERATIONS AT DEVONPORT. A GIGANTIC SCHEME. A vast scheme in connection with the removal of rock formations and rubble banks at the entrance to the Ilamoaze, Devonport, with a view to widening and deepening the mouth of the harbour, and which has occupied many years, has just been brought to a successful completion. Some years ago it, was impossible, except, at full tide—and then not always with safety-to take a ship with the enormous draught of a first-class battleship to the dockyards, but now this has been completely remedied, and ships of the largest size can be navigated in and out of harbour without any of the dangers that formerly existed. At one time the depih at low water over the Vanguard, Cremyll, and Rubble Bank shoals was only a few feet, and in 1894 the Admiralty con- tracted for the removal of these shoals, so as to secure a depth of 30ft. at low water, thus enabling ships of any draught to pass safely over them. The contract was given six years ago to Messrs. Hill and Co., Government contractors, of West- minster, and after constant working day and night they have now completed their labours. In some places as much as 20ft. of rock has been removed, and the quantity of rubbish blasted and taken away and deposited at sea by the dredgers is estimated at 700,000 tons. The removal of the three shoals has necessitated the use of several hundred tons of dynamite, and although the work has given constant employment to hundreds of men during the past six years, and has often been of a dangerous character, there has been a rem rkable absence of accidents.
BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA. ANGLO-rOKTUGUESE BOUNDARY. The delimitation of the boundaries between the .British and Portuguese spheres of influence in Central Africa is rapidly nearing completion. The commission is composed as follows: British com- missioner: Mr. A. J. Swann, F.R.G.S., British Central Africa Protectorate staff; British chief of survey, Mr. Thomas J. Binney, F.R.G.S., British Central Africa Protectorate; Portuguese commis- sioner, Captain Joan Ferraz, R.N., Portuguese secretary, Captain Branco; and astronomical obser- ver, Count du Pong. IMPORTANT POINTS GAINED. The vagueness of the boundaries in Africa, espe- cially round the Nyassalarid country, has frequently led to difficulties between the respective Governments, and it was with the object of preventing such dis- putes in the future, and avoiding the overlapping of commercial interests in this rapidly-developing territory that the British and Portuguese Govern* ments agreed to the appointment of a joint com- mission to map out their boundaries in such a manner that they would be beyond dispute and perfectly inteliigl bIe to the officials in the interior, whose excess of pal has not infrequently led to serious misunderstanding. Beacons now stand along the frontiers, fixing beyond dispute the line of nati.onal responsibility, the commission has com- pleted its work along the eastern boundary, and though the reports to the Foreign Office have not been published, the Press Association is in a posi- tion to state that the important points desired by the British Government have been gained. THE BRITISH BOUNDARY. Without any concession from Portugal, Great Britain has secured an easily recognisable boundary, so that British officials stationed at Chikala, Fort Mangoche, and Fort Maguire need never be in doubt as to the territorial possession of various villages. Mundi Hill and its vicinity, where elephants abound and lions are not uncommon, is secured to Great Britain, and a most fertile valley running behind Ipani Hills towards Fort Mangoche has also fallen to Great Britain, as well as the important town of Namweris, which is the main support of the Fort Mangoche garrison. Fort Mangoche is about 10 miles inside the boundary, and the whole plain behind Fort Maguire is also British, and capable of supporting a large population. POINT OF DIAGREEMENT. With regard to the Portuguese concession on the shore of Lake Nyassa the commissioners failed to agree. The Anglo-Portuguese Convention provided for its location on the south-west shore of the lake, the desired object being to facilitate communica- tion between Port uguese Angoniland and the nearest point of Lake Nyassa. The Portuguese commis- sioner desired to locate the concession on a site at the month of the Shire River, near to Fort Johnston, but the British representative (Mr. Swann) dissented, pointing out that according to the con- vention the concession was intended to be situated somewhere within the south western bay of the lake. The question was eventually referred to the dif- ferent Governments in London and Lisbon, and there is reason to believe that the British representa- tive's contention has been upheld. GAME PLENTIFUL. On the commission proceeding westward from Fort Johnston, by way or Dedza, in connection with the work on the West Angoniland frontier, it was found that the country traversed was well wooded, full of iron ore and good soil, and was well watered. Big and other game appeared plentiful, and, though many old gardens showed that a large population had recently lived near the streams, many tracts of the country were deserted. In most places stockaded villages were found, and though the inhabitants were inclined to run away at the approach of the commissioners, a little tact soon brought them round, and frequently they were util- lised as guides. They all complained of a white man called "Diffey," who had come with Angoni from Mandala and raided their belongings. The whole country round the base of the D'zala Nyama Range of hills is overrun by herds of elephants. Lions, elands, and other game were plentiful. One porter attached to the Commission was killed and partially eaten by a lion in broad daylight not more than 200yd. from the camp of 300 men. The slopes of the hills are exceedingly fertile and picturesque beyond description, the wealth of flowers being unbounded. MUTUAL CONCESSIONS. The C'zala Nyama Range takes a sharp turn to the west, skirting Mount D'zobwi (in Portuguese territory), and this bend forms a complete basin in which rises the Liampi River (Liutipi). From this point the commissioners found it impossible to recognise a workable water- shed. They finally agreed to a straight line be tween Pompi Hill. This was arranged in order to compensate Portugal for loss of territory along the Siuza River, as such compensation could not be permitted further south near the British forts at Dedza and M'lanjeni. One important point revealed by the survey was that Fort M'lanjeni was on the extreme ridge of the watershed which had been followed as the boundary, but that the barracks were in Portuguese territory as well as some of M'lanjeni's villages. This is a very important and valuable district, and the commissioners eventu- ally agreed to an arrangement, by which the M'lan jeni villages remain under Portuguese influent e, while Great Britain secures perennial water for th, « fort, a parade ground, and all of the slope on which the barracks are built. Portugal gets a further con- cession on the south of the fort. SUPPOSED BRITISH ROAD. Another important point disclosed is that the road between Dedza and Fort M'lanjeni, which has hitherto been used by the British for armed mail escorts and soldiers is in Portuguese territory. This road has now been closed to British troops, but the subject of reopening it is engaging the attention of the Govern- ments. An early decision on the matter is essential because of its importance as a quick way of moving troops to the assistance of other British forts in the neighbourhood.
WHEN the Wolseley series of books on war was beginning, the Commander-in-Chief wrote to its editor that an officer who nowadays is ignorant of modern military hisbory, and who has not studied war "as an applied science," is of little use beyond the rank of captain." As, according to Lord Wolseley's letter, every subaltern hopes to be a field- marshal, or to be shot in the attempt,' it is obvious that the subaltern should follow the Chief's advice, and devote several hours a week to the close study of tactics and strategy as dealt with in the best books upon recent wars." One of these best books, written by Colonel Epauchin, of the Russian Staff, and deal- ing with the operations of General Gourko's advance guard in the Busso-Turkish war of 1877, is now translated by Mr. Havelock, and published by Messrs Kegan, Paul, and Co. Good books on the Boer war may perhaps be found to be worth all the others. Gourko's movements and those of the Boers have I demonstrated the enormous value of the mounted, mobile fighter. Judging from the English version of it, Colonel Epnuchin's book is a model of clear ex- position.