FIELD AND FARM. 1 NOVEMBER IN THE COUNTRY. I November is not (remarks Prof. John Wrightson in the "Agricultural Gazette") a bad month in the country. On the contrary, it is one of the most agreeable. Fox-hunting -begins, and covert shooting only becomes possible when the leaves fall. Country houses and hotels fill, and there is much keen interest as to "where they meet to-morrow" and "what they did yes- terday and no one troubles much as to who they are, because it is thoroughly understood that "they" always means the hounds in the country. The interest is not confined to the limit, but spreads to all classes, down to the labourers, who can generally tell you which way they went. The hunt must be friends with the landlords and the farmers, or there would be a deadlock, but when the sport goes on harmoni- ously and popularly with all, it forms a link of friendship between the various classes, end a point of interest far beyond its own intrinsic value totalled up as "varmint" hunting. To many men, farmers included, the country would not be worth living in without the hounds, but with them the town pales in comparison. No- vember is pleasantly soft and moist. The land has long ceased to tread like hot liae, as it does in summer the drops hang on the bushes and the red berries glow on the holly. The faatares are still full of grass and look about their best, full of clover and herbage. Cattle enjoy the mild, humid air, and their coats are brightened with dew and clean from long sojourn in the open air. As to the autumn tints, they go with- out saying, and add to the general mellowness of the scene. Those who are afraid of the damp may not share in the ardent love of the country in November, but, actually, the damp is one of its charms. No burnt-up grass, no intolerable heat, no wiping of the forehead, no rush for the shade. The damp is on the grass, but not on the skin, and this in itself is a comfort. For myself, I had rather see Nature damp than feel damp, and this pleasant relief we experience in November. Besides, November is often bright and sunny in the country. The traveller leaves his little country station in Devon or Dorset on a beauti- ful morning, and enjoys the prospect until he begins to notice a gradual darkening of the mellow sunlight. He is within ten miles of London, and his train is rushing into darkness. At Vauxhall he is startled by fog signals, and his train is held up outside the great terminus waiting for orders. London shops and offices are lighted with gas or electricity, and he sees his fellow-creatures yellow and big through the mist. And yet thsre are people who prefer London with all its fog and smoke, so thoroughly and well mixed, to the pure country with its rising mists, a dream, and its dewdrops hanging from every bush, but brightened to gems by the rosy sunlight. CALF REARING. I The value of store stock exported to Great Britain can (as is pointed out by a leaflet recently issued by the Board of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland) be enormously enhanced by the exercise of increased care and attention in the rearing of calves. Fortunately, calf-rear- ing is not incompatible with Ireland's great but- ter-making industry; but the farmer who sells butter during the calf-rearing season must give infinitely more attention to the rearing of his calves than if he fed them with whole n. ilk- Whole milk is the natural food of the calf, and no improvement on it for this purpose can be hoped for. It forms the standard at which we should aim when seeking for a substitute. Before dealing with milk substitutes it is de- sirable to point out that of the four substances other than water, cf which milk may be said to be composed, one, and one only, can provide the materials for the building up of muscle, blood, skin, hair, hoof and horn, and that substance is not fat but albuminoids. On account of the im- portant functions performed by albuminoids in the animal body they are often spoken of as the flesh-formers of milk. Sugar and fat are mainly concerned in the production of heat and energy, while the minerals supply one of the chief con- stituents of bone. Separated milk, which differs from whole milk in being deficient in fat, is not the poor substance it is often represented to be. The constituents mainly concerned in the produc- tion of flesh, blood, and bone, are not removed by the separator, but remain in the separated milk. Fat is the one substance removed. But fat is by no means the most important food constituent, though it chances to have the highest commercial value as an addition to the human dietary. Fat is fortunately one of the most easily re- placed ingredients of milk. Fortunately, also, it is entirely devoid of manurial properties, and when sold in the form of butter it does not rob the soil of any of these substances which make land fertile- Fat, however, is an essential food for the young calf, or it would not have formed a constituent of milk. No good argument, there- fore, can be adduced for withholding it from calves, and those who follow the disastrous and utterly indefensible practice of giving only separated milk to calves after they are two weeks old are indeed penny wise and pound foolish. Considering the price obtained for milk in Ireland no farmer is studying his own interest who does not feed his calves on their mothers' milk, unskimmed and undiluted, until the animals are at least four weeks old. If a more deplor- able practice can be imagined than that of feed- ing only separated milk to calves two or three weeks old, it is that of suddenly changing young calves from their mothers' milk to separated milk. Untold loss accrues from a desire to save the price of a few gallons of new milk at this critical stage of the calf's existence. The development of the organs of the animal is checked, and calves so treated become a prey to disease which, if contracted, cannot be thrown off, and death toe often is the result. At the best the existence of such calves for the first season is a constant struggle, and their very appearance in the fair as yearlings repels the most desirable customers and gives the stock of the district a bad name. If calves are to escape disease, if they are to develope into good year- lings, if the heifer? are to grow into good milch cows, and if the district is to attract the best class of customers, calves must get their mothers' milk until they are at least four weeks old, and the change from whole milk to separated milk must be a gradual one. When calves are six weeks old. they may safely be fed on separated milk, provided some substitute is supplied to re- place the fat removed in the cream. What substitutes are available for this purpose! It is self-evident that while the calf is young any substitute for cream must be pure, rich in fat, and readily digestible. The substances com- ifionlv used, and which may be recommended un- til the Department's calf-feeding experiments suggest something better, are one of the follow- ing, viz.—(1) pure flax seed (2) a mixture com- posed oi equal parts of flax seed, fine, oatmeal, and fine ground pure maize; (3) pure linseed cake (4) cod-liver oil; (5) one part of whole milk added to five parts of separated milk. The last is, perhaps, the best and cheapest, and it certainly is the safest and most easily prepared. Numbers 1, 2, and 3 should be steeped in boiling water and made into gruel, which may then be fed along with the separated milk, the quantity heing gradually increased so long as the bowels remain normal.' No. 4, viz., codliver oil, is fed by simpl- pouring it into the bucket containing the separated milk and thoroughly stirring imme- diately before feeding. Not more than one ounce per day^ should be given at first, and the amount gradually increased to about two ounces. THE BEST CROP TO SOW WITH TARES. I It is a common and a good practice to mix with seed tares something that will grow upright, and keep the tares as much as possible from hugging the ground, where the crop is to be cut green as food for horses or other stock. Otherwise, there is an immense amount of waste, as the bottom growth, lying prone on the ground and covered with a mass of upper herbage, becomes useless, and even harmful for food. The question is, then, which is the best seed to sow with tares! Rye is too early, as it will develop its ears fully long before the tares are finished, and in that stage it is dangerous food for horses. Winter beans hold tares up remarkably well, but horses do not care to eat green beans when they can get plenty of tares, and they, therefore, wastÆ them. Winter barley is better, but is open, in less degree, to the objection urged against rye, I'I. the ears get too forward before the twee are finished, and the beard, though not as bad as that of rye, is objectionable. To winter oats, however, there is no objection whatever. They stand better than barlCT, and it does not matter how forward they get, 4s they are excellent food for all animals with a greater bulk of tares. This crop, then, may be regarded as the best one to grow with the tare crop.
GARDENING GOSSIP. Salvias.—Salvia splendens in moderate-sized pots will bloom and associate well with Chrysan- themums. Keep the plants moist, feeding with a little weak sustaining liquid. Filling Flower Beds.—All the plants for spring blooming should be placed in position as soon as possible. Well prepared plants will lift with balls of soil. Wallflowers, Primroses, Pelyanthuses, Forget-me-nots, Violas, and Pansies plant readily now, forming an attrac- tive display in spring. Bulbs, including Tulips, Hyacinths, and Narcissi, produce beautiful beds. Geraniums for Winter Blooming.—The plants prepared for winter will commence to bloom freely in a temperature of 50deg., with plenty of air and light, on a shelf near the glass. Affjrd the necessary moisture. Roses.—Beds and borders for new plants should now be thoroughly prepared. Deep digging is essential. Prune the roots oefc re planting Roses, and partially shorten extra long shoots. Standards mufct be staked and tied at once. A Useful Table Plant.—A greenhouse tem- perature suits Anthericum variegatum through the winter, and in summer it will grow i,rd flourish in a cold frame and, indeed, if gradnallv hardened, in an open bed. Keep plants growing in a rich, light compost, and the leaves become variegated and grow in a pendulous, graceful manner. The plant is a good companion to that old favourite, the Aspidistra. Persons who arc fond of Dracaenas for table decoration, lH. t, can- not have them because they do not possess a house with a stove temperature, may use these plants instead. Young slips can be rooted in sandy soil without the aid of glass coverings. Late Grapes.—Give attention frequently to late bunches of Grapes hanging on Vines. Many berries are liable to decay, and as soon aa detected they should be cut out. In order to counteract the evil keep the structure as dry as possible, employing slight fire heat and free ventilation. Cucumbers under Glass. The winter Cucumbers will grow with considerable freedom if they have ample heat-65deg.-and the ordinary humidity of a stove temperature. Secure them sufficient moisture at the roots, and all the light now available. Beauty on the Vine Borders.—It happens some- times, where the garden is small, that the vinery border is much in evidence. Now, it is the ambition of many, even if they have but a small greenhouse, to grow their own Grapes. A Vine is planted generally at the expense of an unsightly border outside. This, of course, must not be occupied by deep rooting plants, or any heavy crop whatever. But I know (F. M. Wells, writing in "The Gardener," says) an old country garden having such a border where the difficulty is delightfully overcome. The border in question is m a line with the house, and therefore in sight of the carriage drive itself. I do not think better Grapes could be grown than are produced from this ancient Vine, and it seems to make little or ne. difference to it that the border above its roots is in summer a glowing, shimmering mass of Foruulaca. This plant is among the most beau- tiful dwarf annuals that we can grow. It is but four or five inches in height. It is tender, and therefore should not be sown until late in the spring. It is shallow rooted, and not sufficiently dense in habit to keep the warm rays of the sun from penetrating the border. The spot being very sunny, and the Portulaca a brilliantly coloured flower, and of great diversity of tcmes- crearn> yellow, and crimson—this is one of the gayest bits of planting that the garden cm show. I may add that there is both a double and single form of this annual, and one is as desirable as the other. Though the double form makes a denser mass of colour, it does not so easily allow for what is one of the greatest charms that this flower -possesses-i.e. the translucent, half- transparent look of the petals when the sun shines through them. The seeds of these uaSx are ,sown every spring in pans in aught heat, unless by chance they happen to K' t!ien 11 *alIs out that the seeds are sown broadcast on the border itself a few weeks later than if they had been sown under glass, say, at the middle of May, if the weather is favourable. It does not seem to matter how dry Inds^?A1S' i°r hmT *r.eat the sim heat, August imds this border a glowing mass of colour. A Pretty Floral Carpeter—There is alwavs (says S. R. Nott) a demand for those miniature plants which creep closely en the surface of the ground and cover it with a carpet of green, em- broidered with the prettiest works of Flora in the shape of exquisite little blooms. The Alnine lover is ever on the search for these plants, Pa.nd he who cherishes the taller plants of the border finds that he has also need at times of dwarf plants to carpet some bare space. In Veronica repens both of these can have their desires gratT fied. It is a charming little flower for the rock garden, and it is a capital carpet for early spring bulbs m the border, or for Lilies or Gladioli com- ing later in the year, and which look all the better ior some green carpet through which to spear. It simply creeps over the surface of the soil, un- less it becomes a little drawn up by taller vegeta- tion, or by the height of the stones beside it on the rock garden. It produces tiny green leaves, crowded close together, all spangled over with milk white blooms, faintly pencilled with blue, MThich is only distinguishable when the flowers are examined carefully. This little creeping veronica is perfectly hardy, but is one of the plants which ought to have its wants gratified by having a rather moist, sandy soil in a half- shady exposure, and should have a good water- ing with pure water in continued dry weather, ■to as to keep it fresh and green and to prolong the bloom, which appears in May or June! Veronica, repens may be increased by division, arT a grown from seeds, though these are not offered by many seedsmen. Hyacinths without Soil.—Hyacinths in glasses (remarks M. Hawthorn) are delightful to watch growing. Soft water and a little charcoal should be used, and the bulb placed just to touch the water. 'Of course, the glass must often be filled up again with rain water. They should stand in a dark but airy place until roots are well formed, then may emerge to ordinary light, and finally be placed along the window ledge, where they can get plenty of sunshine. The bulbs should not be put into the glasses until November. No manure water should be given. It is wise to occasionally sprinkle the young foliage, as this removes dust and helps the plant to develop; but the flower spikes must never be moistened. Hyacinths can be grown in bowls of cocoanut fibre and charcoal, if this is always kept moist. The failures that occur in this style of culture are usually due to the roots being allowed to getdry. Some varieties of Hyacinths are more suitable than others for glass cultivation, so the methods to be adopted should always be stated when bulbs are ordered and the choice is left to the florist. It is stated by a reliable authority that the following are the best twelve for glasses Alba maxima, pure white; Gertrude, deep pink; Grand Lilas, porcelain lilac; Grand Maitre, blue King of the Blues, dark blue Lady Derby, rose; La Franchise, white Lord Percy, distinct rose Lothair, blue shaded; Madame -TAn der Hoop, pure white-, Robert Steiger, crimson rose and Von Schiller, red. If Hyacinths in glasses are to grow straight they must be daily turned round when placed in the window, so that all sides of the plant receive sunshine equally. It is best to use the supporters which are sold for use with the glasses.
Tom: "You say the evening wore on. What did it wear?" Jack: "Why, the close of the day, of course." I "Sour father doesn't seem to regard me very favourably," remarked Cholly. "Does he, think I'm too dashing?" "No," wearily replied the girl, who was already in her third Reason. He thinks vou are too slo* i
OUR SHORT STORY. j A RUNAWAY WEDDING. I Miss Hannah was mending a stocking, quite by herself, near the drawing-room window, when the shadow of a man came between her gentle brown eyes and the sunlit little lawn outside. Her sister A-ramirita had gone to a meeting in the town. Pardon me 1" exclaimed the man, with a smile in which impudence blended moderately well with familiarity. His hat was in his hand. He was red-faced and jrather red-haired, though his full beard was brown. But at the alarming sight Miss Hannah sprang from her chair as if she had been stabbed, screamed and ran from the room. "Kate Kate!" she cried in the hall. Go and fetch a-a policeman this instant. Please be quick. You'll find one at the corner. And afterwards run for Miss Winter. Run. please. There's a—a man on the premises." It did not occur to her to wonder why Kate Stiles was so conveniently in sight instead of being in her kitchen. No, nor yet why the girl's pretty face wore such a bright look-as of mischievous expectation. But, Miss Hannah Do not delay one moment, Kate. Why, he may be in the house. I shall lock myself in the bedroom." Miss Hannah gathered up her skirts, and. with something like a faint shriek, fled up the stairs. The girl's words did not reach her, and only when she had turned the key in the door did she feel that she had the right even to breathe. She gasped at the open window and wished for once that the house fronted a public thoroughfare in- stead of a trim little shubbery which gave them a privacy that at times she rejoiced in. "Such a strong brutal-looking person!" she said to herself, trembling. A. knock on the door set her really shrieking briefly, until she understood that it was only Kate. If you please, miss, I must speak to you," said the girl. There's nothing to be afraid of. He's WRiting on the lawn." 0 Miss Hannah nervously unlocked the door. Why don't you do as I tell you ?" she asked iin- ploringly. But he knows you, miss. His name is Mr. Smith—Ezra Smith, I think he said. He wouldn't I let me take his card to you. He said he'd sur- prise you, miss, especially as Miss Araminta wasn't at home." Kate folded her hands and smiled. Shall I ask him to take a seat, miss?" she continued. She enjoyed Miss Hannah's confusion immensely. Ezra- -Smith!" Miss Hannah had whispered the words, and suddenly became suffused with blushes. ) Shall I, miss ?" Yes, Kate. I will see him," said Miss Hannah. Say I will be down directly. Invite him to take a glass of sherry. He uBed to he fond and apologise for my hasty withdrawal. I did not know him." Alone again, the little Dresden-china spinster of six-and-thirty clasped her hands and gave way to her emotions. Only briefly, however. Then she put on a new lace collar, rearranged her hair, and bravely went to her fate. Fourteen years ago Ezra Smith had asked her to marry him, and Araminta had driven him away as only a strong and proud woman like Araminta could have done. "Y Qu'll see me again," he had said, "when I've made my pile. I'll get a better reception before I've done with you." And now he had returned. The hearty laugh and cordial handshake with which he greeted her told even Miss Hannah that he had come back a man of means. Bearded, and brown, and big, he was impressive from the first. Not shy, either, about his early love. I've kept my word, you see," he said. Miss Hannah could not, for the life of her, talk save in monosyllables. But her blushes and little fidgetting movements were as eloquent as speech. She longed to be courageous enough to bring the I word Kzta to hex lips, yet oould mot 4o it. I've forty thousand pounds," said Mr. Smith, zirid I want to know what your sister will say to me now." Then Miss Hannah did find her tongue. I do not think Araminta or myself," she said, with much more stiffness than she was aware of, value mere money at the ordinary mundane esti- mate of it. I feel sure you understand me." But Mr. Smith didn't quite seem to. He opened his eyes wido upen Mias Hannah. Why, what do you mean?" he said. Miss Hannah tried to speak, but modesty re- strained her. How could she tell him that with experience she had leslrned how much better than cash was a faithful and true heart like his. She smiled and blushed, and her lips quivered, and- Actually, she was glad when Araminta trod heavily into the room and broke her dilemma. Miss Winter was fifty, spectacled, ringletted, stal- wart, and used to public speaking. Then, indeed, Miss Hannah was able to enjoy herself in her own retiring way. To her immense surprise, her sister was not shocked by Mr. Smith's blunt introduction of himself, and equally blunt declaration of his wealth and purposes. She beamed on him, per- suaded him to agree that she had been prudent in her earlier opposition to his courtship-in short, worked him round her finger. I suppose you are about forty now, Mr. Smith," she said, at one time, meditatively. "That is, in my opinion, a man's most rational epoch, even as we women can hardly be said to attain our full mental development before the age of about thirty- five." This with a pleasant, even proud, glance at Miss Hannah. Miss Hannah could have done without that glance. Somehow, it seemed indelicately pointed. But she smiled faintly in acknowledg- ment of it, and tried to nod when Mr. Smith mur- mured, Quite so!" slowly as he also contemplated her. Where are you staying, Mr. Smith ?" asked Miss Winter. The Queen's Hotel, ma'am." You could be more comfortable nowhere in the fewn. To-night, Mr. Smith, you will dine with us, and remember that my-our-house is quite at your disposal. "As very old friends, we may, I trust, take that liberty with you ?" Mr. Smith's acceptance of these civilities was somewhat calm. He could not dine at Corner Cottage that evening, but .he would certainly call again-soon. Miss Winter held his hand for quite thirty seconds when he said Good-bye"; so that it was perhaps natural that he should turn with some eagerness to Miss Hannah. I'm truly glad to see you looking so well," he said to 'her. Then the bell was rung, and Kate escorted him to the door. My dear child, I congratulate you with all my heart," said Miss Winter to her sister when they were alone. It is marvellous how events get roughly liewn to our own profit if only we are not unduly impatient." She gave quite a little lecture on the subject, pausing to wonder why Kate had shut the front door so long only after Mr. Smith's departure. And she wound up with a rapid kiss. But Miss Hannah did not feel so sure of things. Ezra Smith's expression was not what it had been when, fourteen years ago, he tore himself from her, with language unsuitable maybe for her ears to hear, but not unbecoming in the circumstances. Mr. Smith called at Corner Cottage every day for a week, but dine he could not on any day. I've a lot of friends-men friends," he ex- plained to Miss Winter, and—I guess it's a foolish thing to say-but I feel rather rough for sitting down alone with a couple of ladies like you." Miss Winter did not agree with him that his con- fession was a foolish one. It shall be completely as you please, dear Mr. Smith," she said. Indeed, it is so refreshing to me to be met so candidly by a man of your- subbtance that, if possible, you have risen in my esteem." Their intimacy, then, rested onthis footing. Miss Winter did her utmost to persuade her sister to crush the shyness which, strange to say, increased the more she saw of this welcome visitor. She could not understand it. For the matter of that, neither could Miss Hannah. I do try, dear," Miss Hannah declared but I suppose the habits of a lifetime-" Habits of a fiddlestick, child Talking like that at thirty-six I" Miss Winter became almost angry with her sister. And yet, on further reflection, it seemed to her at least likely that just this maidenly back- wardness in her little Hannah might eventually prove her most seducing charm—to a man like Mr. Smith. They had got as far as sitting together on the lawn under the lilac bush. This, too, in spite of Miss Hannah's modest protest that they Vrere quite in view of Kate's kitchen window. Kate's a woman like yourself, Miss Hannah," Mr. Smith had said to this, and knows what suits a man." But he probably repented seriously these audaci- ous words, for throughout the rest of the hour that Jollowed them Miss Hannah seemed quite overcome by her feelings. He himself grew a little tired of talking, too. For five minutes the silence between them was absolute. It was a mysterious courtship. Even Hannah, who had scarcely expected violent attacks of kissing, felt that Ezra might, with advantage, at least call her by her Christian name without the courtesy Miss." And yet she did not feel certain that she could bear with equanimity, still less with pure pleasure, the whispered words, Hannah darling which might, for all she knew, burst forth upon her at any moment. But suddenly the bold nature of the man seemed to declare itself. There was a ring at the door on the eighth evening, about five minutes after Kate had men- tioned the fact, somewhat perkily, that she wished to run to the milliner's. A boy offered Miss Winter an unaddressed envelope, saying, It's from Mr. Smith." Miss Winter's smile broke slowly. It is perfectly right," she said; and the boy fled before her nod. Open it, child," she commanded, as she set it before her sister. Miss Hannah obeyed, but her hand fled to her heart ere she had read two lines, and her eyes turned so excitably upon Miss Winter that the latter took the note from her. And this is what she read: Be at the station to-night, certain, for the 10.30 train, if you love me as I about guess you do. Just a few things in a hand-bag will do. You can get the others sent on after our marriage to-mor- row. I'm expecting you for certain, so don't be shy about it. EZRA." The ensuing half-hour was the most masterly of all the hardworking half-hours of Miss Winter's lifetime. She persuaded her sister to accede to Mr. Smith's monstrously unconventional, yet quite characteristic wish. Of course, she, Araminta, would accompany her, if only to be present at the wedding the next day. And then, my dear child," she said, "you will begin to acknowledge that my guiding hand has been a blessing to you!" These words settled it. Miss Hannah was alternately miserable and quietly hysterical, but she was resigned. When Kate came in to prayers she said nervously. "Please, mum, was there a letter from Mr. Smith ? I met him just now and he said-" But Miss Winter Bridled severely. You will mind your own business and-kneel down," she said. Afterwards, with quite a don't care look on her face, the girl murmured her usual Good-night, Miss Winter. Good night, Miss Hannah," and re- tired. That young woman has another new pair of boots!" remarked Miss Winter, alluding to their creakiness. She meant to be stimulating to her sister in being thus matter-of-fact. Then they prepared for the great step, Hannah's tears, and dumbness were almost annoying, but she was a lamb for obedience. she was a lamb for obedience. Fully apparelled they stole to the front door. This was actually unbolted, so that Miss Winter was fain to go upstairs to upbraid Kate for her negligence, in spite of the tremendous impending event. But Kate's own door was fast locked, and silence proclaimed the occupant of the room to be deep in slumber. So to the station, furtively; Miss Hannah in a fever of agitation, her sister with rigidly composed brows. But on the threshold of the booking-office they both paused, aghast, for there was Mr. Smith, taking a ticket, and Kate, in a new' hat, holding his arm, and rosy with triumph They simultaneously stepped back into the cor- ridor. Here, after a paralysing moment or two, Miss Hannah first found her tongue. Araminta darling," she whispered, I am so relieved. Let us go home." Miss Winter's instincts were briefly combative, but she repressed them. Wretch!" she said hoarsely. And that abominable girl! It must have been pre-arranged and-yes, we will go home." An executioner could not have been more grim than Miss Winter in this final utterance.
THE INCREASING COST OF THE POOR. The half-yearly return of the Local Govern- ment Board on poor relief in England and Wales for the half-year ended- Lady Day, 1902, just issued, gives some instructive information as to the increase in the cost of maintaining paupers. It explains that a comparison of the amounts expended on relief and of the population in 1893 and 1902 shows that while the population has increased nearly 11 per cent., the expenditure on in-ma.intenance has increased nearly 44 per cent., and that on outdoor relief nearly 20 per cent. As regards the increase in the cost of iintenance in the ten half-years of that period it is pointed out that the number of paupers receiving indoor relief had risen from 206,727 on January 1, 1893, to 239,824" on the same day in 1902, an increase of 16 per cent., and that the numbers, included in the figures quoted, of the class of infirm and aged poor, for whom in many cases special treatment is necessary, had risen from 96,197 to 116,624, a rise of 21 per cent. A table is given showing the comparative cost of relief for the several half-years ended Lady Day, 1893, to 1902, in London and in the rest of England and Wales separately. Comparing the figures for the half-years ended Lady Day, 1893 and 1902, it appears that the cost of in- maintenance has in London and the rest of England and Wales respectively increased nearly 42 per cent., and 45 per cent., but while the cost of outdoor relief has in London increased 36 per cent. since 1893, the cost in the rest of England and Wales has only increased 19 per cent. The population has in London increased 6 per cent. and in the rest of England and Wales nearly 12 per cent. since 1893. The total cost of relief per head of population had in London increased during tne aecacte in question from 2s 5Jd. to 3s. 3d. In one half-year (1900-01) it was 3s. Sid. In the rest of England and Wales it had increased from Is. 5d. to Is. 7 £ d. With regard to the cost per head of population of indoor and outdoor relief considered separately the figures for London, as compared with those for the rest of England and Wales, show a marked divergence. While the cost of outdoor relief in London has not exceeded 6fd. per head of population, the cost of in-maintenance has increased from 2s. OJd. in 1892-3 to 2s. Std. for the half-year ended Lady Day, 1902. In 1900-01 it was 2s. 9d. In the rest of England and Wales, however, the cost per head of outdoor relief was in every year greater than that of in-maintenance.
A fifteen-storey building at Cincinnati will be about 20ft. high, and the walls will be of concrete and steel. The building inspector deputed to examine the work appears to have felt his respon- sibility in approving of the experiment, an an in- quiry was held by him on the subject. It was explained that the concrete construction proposed was stronger and more rigid than steel, and will stand the vibrations and strains due to wind pres- sure better and in a more perfect way. The strength of the structure does not depend on riveted joints, but on the monolithic character of the concrete, which becomes in effect one solid mass of stona, intersected by twisted steel rods, which impart to it an elasticity equivalent to that of a steel building.
EPITOME OF NEWS. I A now school at Helensburgh, N.B., is pro- posed to be built at a cost of about £ 10,000. Over 500 women in Great Britain have obtained the degree of M.D. Irish farmers send about 640,000,000 eggs an- nually to England. A new United Methodist Free Church at Waterside, Bacup, has been built at a cost of £ 5,000. For the erection of a new Board school at Dudley, the tender of Mr. M. Round, amounting to £ 11,760, has been accepted. A suspected case of plague has occurred on board thq Michigan, with the Manchester Regi- ment, from South Africa.. Cholera is committing terrible ravages in the Philippines, 1,000 cases occurring daily in some towns. The New York municipal authorities have granted the Salvation Army in that city £ 1,000. The use of the garotte has been discontinued at Manila. The gallows will take its place. The towns of Kioto and Nagoya are fighting as to which is to possess the fragments of the bones of Buddha presented to Japan three years ago by Ceylon. Mrs. Samuel Lewis has forwarded £ 2,500, the third quarterly instalment of her annual subscrip- tion of £10,000, to King Edward's Hospital Fund for London. The King has consented to become the patron of the Cancer Research Fund, under the direc- tion of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Sur- geons. The Prince of Wales is President of this Fund. Lord Dunraven has left Adare Manor to make preparation for a cruise in the Mediterranean. It is understood that he will sail early next week, going direct to Malta. An American inventor has a device for captur- ing reckless automobilists by closing the road in front of them with a steel cable hurled from a spring gun under the control of the police. Experiments in wireless telephony are reported to have been successfully conducted recently over a distance of 105 miles, between Sassnitz and Kolberg, Germany. A hundred and forty head of sheep strayed on to the railway line near Burlington, South Dakota. An express train ran into them, and dead sheep were strewn along the track for a quarter of a mile. The Empress of Japan has informed the Japanese War Office of her intention to get re- pairs done to the artificial legs and eyes that she gave to soldiers wounded in the China-Japan war. Roy Hastings, of Waukon, Iowa, had a jibbing horse. To make it go he lit a fire under it. The horse was so badly burned that it had to be killed, and Hastings was sent to gaol for ten days for cruelty. Mr. Justice Kennedy has appointed Mr. J. Gerard Laing, of the Middle Temple, Associate on the South-Eastern Circuit in succession to the late Mr. Collisson. The Rev. Cresswell Strange, vicar of Edgbas- ton, Birmingham, has b<v appointed to the vacant canonry in Worcester Cathedral in suc- cession to the Rev. David Melville, D.D., canon and sub-dean, who resigned his stall last August owing to his advanced age. As a mark of the town's appreciation of their services at the war, the members of the active service companies of the rifle volunteers at Scar- borough have received silver watches. His Majesty has been graciously pleased to accept a copy of "The Coronation Book of Edward VII." which has recently been published by Messrs. Cassell and Company, which con- tains a description of the Coronation of his Majesty, and a fully illustrated account of the preparations made for the June Coronation, and of the King's illness. A mint with foreign plant has been smarted at Changoa, the capital of Hunan, China* It is turning out bronze cents, or ten-cas"- pieces. They are a curiosity owing to the fact that in the world "Hunan," the "u" is upside down. The Rev. Canon Beeching will continue to hold the office of chaplain of Lincoln's Inn. The Benchers have authorised him to depute to the Rev. H. P. G. Latham, Warden of the Inns of Court Mission, such duties of the chaplaincy as he cannot personally discharge. A whip for carpets and clothes is put on the market by an American firm; it consists merely of three rattan reeds, tin. in diameter, and appar- ently 2ft. or 3ft. long, fixed at one end in a small block of wood shaped to form a handle. It could be very easily made by the home-worker. Girls inhabiting the Island of Himla, near Rhodes, are not allowed to marry until they have brought up a specified number of sponges, each taken from a certain depth. The people of the island earn their living by the sponge fishery. A year ago a burglar broke into the house of Mrs. Charles Murray at Sioux City, Iowa, cut off the lovely hair of her sixteen-year-old daughter, and decamped also with a valuable hair brooch. The brooch has just been returned by post as good as when it was taken. The rumour of the betrothal of the Grand Duke of Hesse to the Princess Xenia of Mon- tenegro is denied. It is stated that the rumour arose from a long visit paid by Princess Xenia to her sister, Princess Francois Joseph of Bat- tenberg at Darmstadt. In a case recently tried in St. Petersburg, it appeared that a prominent Jewish merchant de- manded a large sum for his offices in securing a divorce for a co-religionist. When the money was paid it transpired that the wife had been long dead! 8 On the London and North-Western Railway alone there are 17,000 signals lighted every night, and an engine-driver working from Crewe to London and back for his day's work is controlled by no fewer than 570 signals, to say nothing of those coming under his observation which do not affect the working of his train. Whilst a number of men were engaged in breaking up the liner Alaska at Preston the cylinder in the engine-room collapsed and fell on a workman named Joseph Davison, causing instantaneous death. Another man named Ambler was seriously injured. The King of Roumania can claim the distinc- tion of having used at his coronation, in 1881, a crown of quite unique material, for it was made of steel from a Turkish gun captured at Plevna. In putting it on King Charles said: "I assume with pride this crown, wrought from a cannon sprinkled with the blood of our heroes." After several unsuccessful attempts and three years' labour the unparalleled feat of cutting a ring out of a single diamond has been accom- plished by the patience and skill of Mr. Antoine, one of the best known lapidaries of Antwerp. The ring is about three-quarters of an inch in diameter. Princess Christian has given her patronage to a concert which the Stock Exchange Orchestral and Choral Society have for the fourth time con- sented to give in December, at the People's Palace, for the benefit of the Bethnal Green Free Library, which is supported by voluntary aid. The Countess Gleichen is to sing. The restoration of the London Church of St. Giles, ripplegate, where Cromwell was married and Milton is buried, will be completed in the course of a few weeks. The work was commenced forty years ago, when the memorial shrine to Milton was erected in the south aisle, forming a fitting canopy for the fine marble bust of the poet, which formerly stood on a bracket on one of the columns of the nave. The interior having been beautified in many ways, several shops and houses, forming part of the old Guest House, which at present shut out the view of the church' are about to be demolished. Then the whole fabric will come into public view, neither money nor pains having been spared in adorning the fine old church. His Majesty the King has graciously accepted a copy of the first part of the new series of "The Magazine of Art," which h, ius* been i ub- ,P lished. Sgg The Duke of Westminster has been elected president of the Imperial South African Associa- tion, in succession to Lord Windsor. It is proposed to carry letter-boxes on the Sun- derland tramway-cars. Six hundred and forty white whales were cap- tured by the whaler Balaena, which has just, returned to Dundee from the Arctic. For the purposes of taxation by the Univer- sity the incomes of the Cambridge colleges have just been assessed at £ 222,779. The Crown Prince of Prussia will visit the- Danish Court before the end of the year. Two German police officials are coming to England to study the working of provincial watch committees. Three-quarters of a million lead pencils are purchased annually by H.M. Stationery Office. A memorial, in the form of a drinking foun- tain, is to be erected within the precincts of Guy's Hospital to the memory of those Guy's men whose lives were lost during the late war. Twenty-three thousand pounds has been raised by the Salvation Army harvest festival services throughout the country. There has been a decrease of 1.5 per cent. in the population of the Isle of Man since 1891. Corporal punishment has been abolished in ther disciplinary battalions of the French Army. The men on strike at St. Etienne have voted a, resolution begging their representatives to up- hold the claims of the Commentry Congress. Madame Melba has withdrawn her appeal to England and America on behalf of the sufferers under the drought in Australia, local subscrip- tions rendering outside contributions unneces- sary. It is estimated that half a million persons are employed in 23,000 factories iu London. The Countess of Cardigan, Nho is at Brudenell House, Melton Mowbray, is returning at tha end of the month to Deene Park for her shooting and house parties until after Christmas. Mr. George Armitstead has given £ 1,000 to the King's Hospital Fund, in addition to £ 500 contributed earlier in the year. Brigadier-General Sir Arthur R. F. Dorward, K.C.B., D.S.O., who did useful work in the command of troops in North China two years ago, leaves for the East in the Britannia from Marseilles on November 21. A cattle ranch with an area of 5000 square miles, or over 3,300,000 acres, may easily be believed to hold the record for such estates. It is situated in the extreme north-western cornev or Texas, at an altitude varying from 4700 ft. in the north to 2300 ft. in the south, the distance between the two points being 200 miles, and the average width about twenty-five miles. It is- enclosed by no less than 15,000 miles of wire fence. The extensions to the Rawson-place Market at, Bradford, the foundation stone of which has just been laid, will comprise ten shops and a large hotel. The block will be built of stone and in: the Italian Renaissence style. At each and of the Northgate elevation will be a domed tower,, and a third dome, hexagonal in shape, will be placed immediately over the- main entrance. The central hall will have an area of 92 ft. by 57 ft., and will be covered by a single-span roof of glass and iron. Entrances will be provided 011 each of the three frontages, and there will be a waggon entrance from James-street and a coversct way communicating with the present market. The basement under the market will be fitted up for cold storage. German laws and regulations are nothing if not thorough. Their "precision" has just received an amusingly forcible illustration at Bayreuth. The circumstances, as related by the "Ham- burger Nachrichten are that at the recent legis- lative election for the Forcheim-Kulmbach cir- cumscription, a landowner "purchased" the vote of a farmer, the "price" being a pint of beer. Somehow the transaction got wind, and both "buyer" and "seller" were prosecuted, with the result that each was sentenced to one month's imprisonment, the minimum allowed by law. It is about twelve months since the boring' operations in the Simplon Tunnel let loose tha unsuspected reservoirs of water which have been flowing ever since in a deluge that almost defies imagination. According to the "Tribune ds Geneve," the stream has been ceaseless ever since, pouring through the tunnel at the rata of about 200 gallons a second, day and night. That is to say., every week for the last year has seen the absolute wastage of 120,000,000 gallons, of water. Side-slip when cycling can be avoided to » large extent by attention to the following eight rules offered by a contributor to the "Bazaar." 1. Avoid stretches of smooth, slippery road. 2. Adopt a perfectly upright attitude. 3. Turn corners with wide curves, using the steering wheel, instead of leaning the body over so as to give a natural curve to the machine. 4. Moderate the pace, specially at corners. 5. Avoid unnecessary deflections of the steering-wheeL, 6. Avoid the sloping sides of curved roads. 7", Use small tyres. 8. In bad weather pump hard and often. Lord Monkswell, as is well known, is much,1 interested in cremation. He once ir traduced III small Bill on the subject in the House of Lords. Its title was a little awkward, but it served afe least one happy purpose it revealed Lord Salis- bury to the world as a humorist. When Lord Monkswell sat down after introducing the Burial Authorities (Cremation) Bill, Lord Salisbury; rose and quietly asked which burial authorities Lord Monkswell proposed to cremate. The nameL of the Bill was quickly changed. The new Pavilion Palace of Varieties 86 Glasgow will be in the Late French Rena-issance style, and will be executed in salmon pink teira- cotta. Massive towers at the angles will be sur- mounted by electric arcs, and another larger; arc will be upheld by the princioal figure in a group of statuary in the centre of the Renfield- street front. The grand entrance hall is in the. Renfield-street elevation, and will 1 i ve massive doors of mahogany, marble mosaic floor, marble dado, and panelled walls, and froni n stairwaYIJ of polished marble mosaic will le-Fo- and circle. The auditorium will have a w idth of 76fL, On the first tier, the grand circle has eight rows of seating, for 340 people, with promenades separated from the seats by marble balustrading. The United States Consular Agent at Barce- lona, Venezuela, who complained of having been subjected to a forced loan, is not an Americaa citizen. The case is further complicated by the relations existing between the Agent and Vene- zuela. ° A Bill will be introduced next session to con., struct an electric tramway from Chester to Bir- kenhead, a distance of about thirteen miles. The town of Altman, in the Cripple Creek district of Colorado, has had its streets paved with the "dump" of the Pharmacist mine, and recently a piece of pavement which was assayed yielded gold to the amount of 20 dols. (more than E4) a ton. Immediately ofter the announcement of the assay was made, people began carting off the surface of the streets until the police were obliged to intervene and stop them. The Incorporated Soldiers and Sailors Help society have recently received subscriptions of rlnn th^ Highness the Maharajah Scindia £ 500, the result of collections in churches on jnnn0 # 8ent through Lord Roberts; and fro°1 Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. G. Windsor Clive. In a large blasting operation at Bangour Quarry, near Bathgate, thirteen holes were pre- pared, varying in depth from 15ft. 9in. to 6ft., and the quantity of blasting gelatine used was a little more than 1001b., displacing a whinstone rock 1 estimated to weigh 2,500 tons. I An incandescent lamp for use in boiler clean- ing has its base fixed to an electro-magnet, which holds it against the ironwork in any required place. Barry-road Board School, Northampton, which has been built by Councillor A. P. Hawtin from designs by Messrs. Law and Harris, occupies a site of which the area is 76,914 sq. ft., and the total cast, including the site, has been £ 24,396, £ 3,500 of which was for a swimming bath, and- £ 399 for a caretaker's house.