MTTXMCS THB RECORC-MAKEB^ ) At the Battle of Mukden, it would seem that about 750,000 men-aooordinir to soma Japanese estimates 830,000—went inta the fight. The nearest approach to them stupendous figures, says CaaseiFs "History of the Baaaa-Japanese War," that oocurs previously to the Russo- Japanese War is afforded by the eases of the Battle of Leipsio in 1813, of Kdniggrato ia 1866, and Gravelotto in 1870, ia each of which battles from 400,000 to 430,000 men were engaged. ,At Solferino, in 1850,. the total forces on both sides aggregated nearly 300,000; at Wagram, 1809, they amounted to 280,000; at Borodino, 1812, to 250,000; and at Jena, 1806, to 200,000. According to revised and authoritative Japanese calcula- tions, there may have beea as many as 460,000 in the fighting lino at Liao-yang, and in that at the Battle of the Sha-ho. But from even the last-quoted figures to those given for the Mukden struggle there is a very long jump, and the last-quoted figures to those given for the Mukden struggle there is a very long jump, and when from mere paper statistics we pasa to an attempt to realise mentally the actual size of the forces engaged, the amazing magnitude of the operations soon begins to impress itself upon the dullest imagination. Again, the extraordinaxr duration of the Mukden battle, largely exceed- ing, as it did, that of tven the long and weary fighting at Liao-yang, has a serious significance. At Borodino the oonflict lasted for twelve and a-half hours, at Wag ram for fourteen hours, and at Leipsic for three days. But what is this com- pared with the struggle at Mukden, which com- menced not later than February 24th, and the immediate objective of which was not reached until March 10th, while the pursuit to Tig-ling occupied another five or six daysl
Threatened Mutiny at Sebastopol. Odessa, Friday. News from Sebastopol thi$ morning states that the situation among the men of the Black Sea., fleet is extremely precarious. The men, who number 15,000r threaten a general mutiny. The Admiral in command Jhas- asked for 3,000 additional troops to reinforce the military garrison.
OUR ROYAL VISITOR. I The arrangements for the reception this •week of the King of the Hellenes have been largely governed by precedent, but through the thoughtfulness of King Edward, and the goodwill of his subjects, many things have been added to the regulation welcome, and we may readily accept, in the fullest •ease, the declaration of our Royal visitor that the kindliness of the British people has enabled him to feel very much at home in this country, where the national aspirations of the Greeks have at various times found many sympathisers. Once again we have been reminded this week that during the past few years the welcome which we have extended to foreign visitors has increased in demonstrativeness, not becHuse we are any more glad to see them than we ueed to be, but because we appear to be losing something of our habitual reserve.
THE BEST GUARANTEE OF PEACE. As time goes on the axioms of to-day become the controversies of to-morrow and the exploded theories of the day after. So it may be with the old dictum to which Mr Balfour referred in his speech at the Guild- hall that preparedness for war is the best guarantee of peace. At the present moment there are at least three great European Powers which are, so far as in them lies, prepared for war- But while one is not disposed to place all ones hopes of peace on the spectacle of Europe armed to the teeth, at the same time there is another very sound reason why Britain should keep her powder dry. She has such tre- mendous interests at stake that she cannot afford to take any risks, and so long as other nations arm she must arm too. That is a fact which she cannot afford to ignore, but concurrently it is her duty to take advantage of all those means to which Mr Balfour referred as calculated to maintain peace. Greatly to her honour, Britain has led the way in referring international disputes to arbitration. In past times she has paid heavily for resorting to that en- lightened and civilised method of settling disputes, but Mr Balfour was able to point to sixteen cases in which arbitration has beea resorted to within the last ten years, and to say that the whole of them were brought to a successful issue. That is an eminently gratifying announcement, and while we hold to Mr Balfour's view that Britain is entitled to elaim precedence in this matter, at the same time it is a good sign to find the United States ambassador declaring in courteous terms that he is not prepared to concede that claim. At the present moment we British believe that we hold the first place both with regard to priority and number, but if any other Power is ambitious to furnish a better record we can only say so much the better."
The Cadbury way makes the pureft and strongest essence. GQL is very economical in use, and makes the lightest and most digestible beverage.
ELECTION OF MAYORS. I Plato remarked that the best rulers were those who accepted office unwillingly, and the same may be said of mayors. In some few cases there may be competition for the office, particularly in those towns where the Council makes an annual grant which is supposed in pleasant fiction to be used for expenses, but in some metropolitan boroughs at least, is a thinly disguised salary. But, as every borough has found, the number of ideal mayors is limited, and it is not always easy to find a candidate for the office among those men who would do their best, and who know that to the man who does his best the office of mayor in a city or large town involves a serious tax upon one's energies and a not inconsiderable drain upon one's purse. In these circumstances it is not of much use for the London papers to prepare elaborate lists of mayors ar- ranged according to their political views, there being several reasons why a Conser- vative council may happen to elect a Liberal mayor or vice versa.
What Ie a workman without good Boots 1 WIle $ON DUTY' BOOT Wrm foMaTOtywhoM. Ilk yau Bsclaiktl low than, o* <Mt< im P.O. (port mi tm IJ SEED BROS., I No Risk I Moray task HAIJ»AX. v- ftn't like tb-
ON ARMY MATTERS. An Army Reserve officer has added em- phasis to a suggestion which has been made before, that the deficiency of officers of the army should te supplied by the employment of officers who have been re- tired to the reserve. No doubt the retire- ment of officers at a comparatively early age is a convenient expedient for the ac- celeration of promotion, but it is also an expedient which has been adopted in no other department of our national life. What, for instance, would be said of the methods of a Bank if it drafted out a large propor- tion of its most experienced clerks, and, having awarded to them more or less comfortable pensions, filled their places with new men ? That is the kind of thing that is going on in the army every day, officers being retired, who are still vigorous and keen for service, their places being taken, so far as the supply is available, by youths fresh from Sandhurst, Woolwich, or any other educational institution from which they can be obtained. Perhaps the system could be defended if the results were satisfactory, even though half-pay granted to an officer who is still qualified to serve is a dead loss. But as a fact we know that there is a large deficiency of young officers, and the War Office cannot obtain anything like the num- ber whom it requires, even though it offers to accept them with a maximum of pre- liminary training.
I The Royal Agricultural Show. The Council and members of the Royal Agricultural Society may be congratulated upon the courage with which they have faced an extremely difficult situation. It is now several years since the fact began to assert itself that the annual migratory shows involved a heavy loss to the Society. In 1897, the Council had to meet a deficit on the Manchester exhibition, of 223,479, and when this loss was followed by one of 221,165, at Birmingham, and another of L19,131 at Maidstone, it was felt that the Society, having come very nearly to the end of its resources, must seriously consider the expediency of abandoning the policy of migratory shows, and establish a per- manent show ground. After considering the relative advantages of several sites, the Society decided to purchase that at Park Royal, which was offered on terms as satis- factory as any that the Council were likely to obtain elsewhere. By the time Park Royal was ready, three more exhibitions had been held, viz., at York, Cardiff, and Carlisle, the least unsatisfactory of them, from a financial point of view, involving a loss to the funds of £ 18,258. But these figures do not represent the whole cost of the migratory shows. During the last ten years, subscribers in the various localities visited contributed £ 65,000 towards the expenses, and when that sum is added to the adverse balance of 2184,000, in the Society's accounts, it will be seen that the I EXPENDITURE EXCEEDED THE RECEIPTS from the shows by an average of -225,000 a year. It was hoped that this drain would cease when the new ground was opened. Very likely there were people who had doubts on the point, but there was at any rate no considerable volume of opinion against the new policy. Unhappily, the new departure" proved to be a failure, and after a good deal of anxious considera- tion it was decided that Park Royal must be sold. There was grave doubt as to whether it would be possible to hold an exhibition in 1906, but that question was settled by a handsome offer which the Council received from Mr R. P. Cooper, who promised that if the Society would come to Derby he would guarantee it against loss. Derby had another recommendation, which was referred to by the Duke of Devonshire in his speech on Friday. The Society visited Derby twenty-five years ago, when, owing to the interest which was taken in the event by the people of that county, and the almost unrivalled railway facilities which Derby possessed, the show was an exception to the general rule of financial loss. Sir Walter Gilbey, who has rendered distinguished service to the Royal Agricultural Society, dissents altogether from the resumption of migratory shows, and points out that the old plan was abandoned because the re- sources of the Society could no longer meet the annually recurring expense. That fact is well within the recollection of everybody interested in agriculture, but what Sir Walter Gilbey apparently fails to recognise is that the Society is confronted by a choice of evils and must accept one of them. The final abandonment of the shows would be A NATIONAL CALAMITY I seeing that, in the words of the Duke of Devonshire, the Society has during the past sixty years done great and splendid work for agriculture. Its exhibitions have been the means of introducing marked improve- ments in the breed of horses, cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry, and it has also been instrumental in bringing to the knowledge and attention of practical agriculturists the important improvements which have been effected in agricultural implements and machinery. The abandonment of the annual exhibitions being out the question the Society must either remain at Park Royal or resume the migatory system, and, having effeeted all possible economies in establish- ment expenses, it has been found that to remain at Park Royal is practically impossible. There seems to be some foundation for the comment of Sir W. Gilbey, that the Society is depending upon a hand to mouth policy, but for the time being it is that or nothing. Perhaps the best thing to be done in all the circumstances is to accept the old advice to "take short views of life, and keep the jammy side up," hoping that the Chancellor of the Exchequer may not sit too lightly on the Treasury Chest when application is made for a government grant in aid of the Society's expenses.
T Prince Charles Elected King of Norway. M. Michelsen, the Norwegian Premier, announced in Parliament on Thursday that the people had decided by their plebiscite in favour of a monarchy, adding that Prince Charles of Denmark had been communica- ted with, and had accepted the throne.
The King Injures his Ankle. I The following telegram was sent by Lord Knollys from Windsor Castle, on Thurs- day:- The King slipped in a rabbit-hole to-day when out shooting, and tore a tendon about the ankle. His Majesty is doing well, and is not suffering more pain than was to be ex- pected." It appears that the Royal party were shooting near Old Windsor, and while the last drive but one was in progress the King, when raising his gun to aim, placed his foot in a rabbit-hole hidden by fallen leaves. His Majesty fell forward so heavily that the stock of his gun was broken into several pieces, and he sustained acute pain just above the right ankle. r, While the King remained seated, Mr. Overton, the head gamekeeper, vigorously rubbed the injured part, and subsequently a carriage conveyed him to the Castle. where a nurse was quickly in attendance, and the usual remedies were applied. Before driving away, the King directed the sport to continue, expressing his anxiety that the accident to himself should not be allowed to interfere with the enjoyment of the other sportsmen. He was able to dine with his royal guests in the evening, and afterwards attended a theatrical performance in the Waterloo Gallery.
Queen Alexandra's Fund for the Unemployed, The King has seat the Lord Mayor 2,000 guineas, and the Prince of Wales 1,000 guineas, for the Unemployed Fund. The total amount received up to Thursday evening was f 30,000.
I Count Witte's Appeal. A Renter's telegram from St Petersburg on Thursday, says :— Count Witte has telegraphed the follow- ing appeal t o the men at all factories and workshops:- Ce Brothers Worlkmen Go back to your work, and cease from disorder. Have pity on your wives and children, and turn a deaf ear to mischievous counsels. "The Emperor commands us to devote special attention to the labour question, and to that end has appointed a Ministry of Commerce and Industry, which will es- tablish just relations between masters and men. Give us time, and I will do all that is possible for you. Give heed to the advice of a man who loves you and wishes you well."
Sir Joseph Lawrence, M P., on German Trusts. I Sir Joseph Lawrence, M.P,, in presiding over a meeting of the London Welsh Conservative and Unionist Association on Monday evening, the 13th inst., at Caxton Hall, Westminster, at which a paper was read by Mr J. Agar Baugh on "German Competition," said that in 1902, M. Raffalovitch, the author of the important work on "Trusts, Cartels, and Syndicates," stated, on the authority of the Prussian Minister of Commerce, that there were 450 Syndicates in Germany, mostly connected with the metal industries, mines, chemicals, and textiles. These associations, or cartels, in many cases gave to such of their customers as wished to export a premium equal to the difference between the price they could gat in Germany and the lower price at which they sold to outsiders. Since 1902 he (the speaker) knew of instance* where many of these powerful firms, especially in the Electrical Engineering trades, had again combined amongst themselves. The capital represented by these latest combinations was very formidable, and it was almost impossible for English manufacturers, in such trades as Electrical Engineering, to break through the cast-iron arrangement by which these German Trusts not only kept the command of their own market), but were becoming an almost irresistible power in neutral markets. It was a poor look-out for English Electrical manufacturing firms who bad to combat a three-fold disadvantage—viz.. Customs dues, Patent laws, and Cartels. All the education and skill in the world, said Sir Joseph, could not alone overcome these barriers. Their effect was felt in the lessened opportunities of work for our own workpeople.
Markets. I MOHHOTJTH, CATTLB, Monday.-Fall supply of beef, mostly of medium quality. Trade slow. Mutton in short supply and moderate demand. Veal scarce. Store cattle were represented good milch cows met a good demand, and cows and calves made from £121015 to £ 16 5s, mileh cows up to £14, two-year-old cattle JEll 10s to E14 10s. The pig trade was quiet again, except porkers, which sold quickly-strong pigs made 33s 6d to 39a 6d; no demand for small pigs. Quotations Best beef id to 61d per lb, secondary qualities 41d to 5ïl!; veal, 8d; wether mutton 7!d to std. ewe ditto 5id to 6!d, lamb 8d. The following prices were realised under the hammer of Messrs. Nelmes, Poole, and Atkins, Menmouth and StroudHeifers, £ 13 10. to £ 15; bullocks, 919 to E20 7a 6d; store calves, £1 58 to £ 1 168; ewes, 36s 6d to 42s; lambs, 23s to 2811 6d; bacon pigs, £4 10s to 26 15s. CHEPSTOW, CATTLB, Tuesday.-There was a small supply of beef and mutton at to-day'a market. Nice quality sheep sold very well at from 8id to 9d per lb, heavy ewes about 6d; prime quality beef made from 6fd to 6id, rougher quality about 6d. Store stock at late rates. Pigs not so dear as last market-small porkers fetched from 108 to 108 6d per score, and heavier ditto 9s. NBWPOHT, CORX, Wednesday.—An average volume of business passed at the Cora Market. Wheat was reported to be quiet at unchanged figures. Maize, barley, and oats were also offered at last week's rates, while flour (fines) changed hands at 26s 6d per sack. Moderate attendance. NEWPORT, CATTLB, Wednesday,—There was an abundant supply of all stock on offer, and a large attendance resulted in good business in all branches. Quotations:—Best quality beef sold at 6id per lb, inferior qualities realised 6d, fat cows sold at from 6d to 5id; best wether mutton went at from 8d to 8id, ewe from 6jd to 7d, lamb from 8!d to 9d; and calves from 6d to 7d. Pigs: Porkers realised from 10s 9d to lis per score. NBWPOBT, CHBESE, Wednesday.—Good supplies were on offer but the demand was.only moderate. There was an average attendance. Quotations Caerphillys 48s to 57s, fanoy dairies 58a to 61s, Derbys 588 to 68s, truckles 6615 to 63s, and Cheddars 56s to 68s per cwt.
Many small animals eat their own weight in food in a day. Cigars were introduced into Europe early in the last century. THB bones of all flying birds are hollow and filled with air, thus combining the greatest strength with the least weight. TBAVBLLBSA in Eastern Siberia often carry soups m sacks. The soups are frozen solid, and keep for an indefinite time. Milk also is frozen and sold by the pound. PApim is made out of banana skins, from bean stalks, pea vines, cocoanut fibre, clover and coarse hay, straw, fresh water weeds, seaweeds, and more than 100 different kinds of grass. Leaves make a good strong paper, while the husks and stems of Indian corn have been tried, and almost every kind of moss can be made into paper.
I RTJLBS FOR DAILY Lrviwo. I One of George Washington's early copybooks contains a list of 110 "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversa- tion." Here are a few of them: Speak not evil of the absent, for it is unjust. Let your recreations be manful, not sinful. Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the disparagement of any. Labour to keep alive in your breast that little apark of celestial fire called conscience. Strive not with your superiors in argument, but always submit yous judgment to others with modesty. Think before you speak; pronounce not im- perfectly, nor bring out your words too hastily, but orderly and distinctly. Take all admonitions thankfully, in what time or place soever given; but afterwards, not being culpable, take a time or place convenient to let him know it that gave them. Be not angry at table, whatever happens, and if you have reason to be so, shew it not; put on a cheerful countenance, especially if there be strangers, for good humour makes one dish of meat a feast. They that are in dignity or in eflioe have in all places precedenoy; but whilst tbay are young they ought to respeot thoso that are their equals in birth or other qualities* though they have no public eharge.
4w- I GnOWTH OP A TIMBER TBSR. The growth of a timber tree is described as follows in Casgell's Building Constmetitm: Tim- ber trees are known botanioatty as eeayen* or outward growers, because the new wood is added underneath the bark outside that already formed. The whole section consists of pith in the centre, which dries up and disappear* as the tree matwras; (b) woody fibre or long tapering bundles of vascular tissue forming tiM duramen, or heartwood, arranged ia rings, of wfcteh. eaeh or.e is considered to represent yames growth, and interspersed with (c) medullary rays or transverse septa consisting of flat hard plaiea of cellular tissue known to carpeateca as satver- giain," or felt," or "ffovrov," and shewing most strongly in oak and beech; the heartwood is comparatively dry and hard, front the compres- sion produced by the newer layers; (If) alburnum or sapwood, which is the iaimatur* woody fïbr. recently deposited. In coniferous tree* the sap- wood is only distinguishable by a slight greenish tinge when dry, but whea wet it holds the moisture much longer tttm the heartwood, and can often be detected in that way; (e) th. bark, which is a protecting coat on the outside of the tender sapwood; it receives additions on the in- side during the autumn, which oause it to crack and become very irregular ia old trees. The mode of growth is as follows: In the spring the moisture of the earth is absorbed by the roots, and rises through the stem aa sap to form the leaves. The leaves give off moisture and absorb carbon (in the form of carbonio acid gas), which thickens the sap. In the autumn the sap descends inside the bark, and adds a new layer of wood to the tree.
AN INDIAN LEOEND. An Indian story that has been banded down and is still believed by many Indian tribea is one about the transformation of leaves into birds. Long years ago, when the world was young, the Great Spirit went about the eartl:L mmaking it beautiful. Wherever his feet touched the ground lovely trees and flowers sprang up. All summer the trees wore their short green dresses. The leaves weio very happy, and they sang their sweet song in the breeze as it passed them. One day the wind told them the time would soon come when they would have to fall from the trees and die. This made the leavas feel very bad, but they tried to be bright and do the best they could so as not to make the mother trees unhappy. But at last the time cams, and they let go of the twigs and braachee and fluttered to the ground. They lay perfectly quiet, not able to move except as the wind would lift them. The Great Spirit saw them, and thoagkt they were so lovsly tLat he did not waat to saa them die, but Hto and be beautiful for ore*; so he gava to each bright leaf a pair of wiaga aad powec to fly. Then he called than hie birds." From the red and brown leaTeS 01 the oak oacao the robins, and yellow birds from the yellow willow leaves, and from bright maple leaves he awao the red birds. The brown leaves became wrens, sparrows, and other brown birda. This is why the birds love the trees and always go to them to build their nests and look for food and shade.
A PBCTTLIAB KIHD OF FISH. I Piseit magnun, or "the fish that got away, as it is commonly known, is fouad all over the world. It never fails to take the fisherman's hook, bnt it has never yet been landed, or even clearly seen. It is well known that it is always too large for a man to earry home, and too wily to be caught. On this account many people do not believe that it exists, bnt it is well known to all fishermen. Although all attempts to secure this fish so far have been fruitless, people are still eager in its pursuit, and undoubtedly the natural- history text-books of a few years henca will be able to give an accurate description of this "what-is-it" of the waters. Frequent glimpses of this fish have been secured by fishermen, but these were too brief to allow of a full description. There is one established fact, however, and that is that there are no small ones of this species.
m i DANTOK'S CLOCK. | There is in the vestibule of the French Minis- try of Justice a clock, which besides ita great age has the further interest of having been damaged by Danton in his tantrums. When the apostle of audacity was appointed Minister of Justice in 1792, there stood in his working cabinet a clock, of which the fingersM term £ nated in a flew-de-lepa. In a freak of rage, Da-uton one day broke the large minute fin- ger," which, although repaired, still shows traces of the broke. point. A royalist offioial who wit- nessed the ineident seratehad the following re- cord of it on one of the wheels: I, Jean Blan- chet, on August 22nd, 1700, saw Monsieur Dan- ton profane the emblem of divine royalty by breaking a ftw-de-low which adorned the finger of this dock.' The dock is now in use.
Literature. OHBISTMAS NUMBERS. The Presentation Plate- given with the Christmas number of The Queen n' probably surpasses any work of art given with a newspaper. It consists of a Rembrandt Gravure- reproduction of J. W. West's well-known painting "A long Story," whioh was so much admired in last year's Royal Academy exhibition.
The King Progressing4 No official statement has yet been made at Windsor Castle, but it is understood that His Majesty is progressing quite satisfactorily. LLaterl. It is officially announced that the King passed a good night, and is progressing favourably. Sir Frederick Treves was sum- moned to Windsor last night and examined the injury. It is expected the King will be able to walk about again in a day or two.
-9 Death of the Heir Apparent,-to the Belgian Throne. Brussels, Friday. The Count of Flanders, "the.. King's brother and heir apparent to the Belgian throne, died athis morning of acute pneumonia. — 0
The General Election. The London correspondent of the Dublin Daily Express states 6n reliable authority that the General Election will take place early in next year, and that an official announcement on the subject will be- made almost immediately.
English Boxer Americanised. New York, Friday. Charles Mitchell, the English boxer, is going to become a naturalised American.
Half Vladivostock Destroyed. Half the town of Vladivostock was destroyed by fire during the recent mutiny. 0-
The Weather. Fair, cold weather predioted.
Stocks. Stocks dull. Russians weak.
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THE POSSIBILITIBa OP CANADA. I Sir Gilbert Parker's lecture afforded remarkable evidence concerning the possi- bilities of Canada, especially in the direction of wheat growing. It has often been said that the North West territories will become the granary of the world, and the lecturer adduced evideace which wu entirely confir- matory of that view. Were but one-fourth of the available land cultivated, the terri- tories would be able not only to supply the wants of Canada but to meet those of Britain three times over. But perhaps the most eloquent testimony to the prosperity and the potentialities of Canada is afforded, by the fact that this year's reports shew a total inimigratioa from the United States of nearly 43,000 persons. This exodus of people from the United States to Canada a has been going on for many years, and 65 per cent. of the immigrants have already availed themselves of the liberty to become in three years naturalised subjects of the British Crown.
v V i I "IT IS ABLE TO V SUPPORT LIFE." -La=et. OHE CUP 9 cocm ^BBk\ tST TpS^contairismorenourishment than 10 cups of any ordinary cocoa, and is absolutely free front chemicals. F F wV% In Tins, 9d., f 1 F 1 is. id., & 2s. 6d.
INDIA'S IRRIGATION WORKS. I The Prince of Wales, in his address to the Corporation of Bombay, spoke of the multiplicity of subjects that would engage the interest of himself and the Princess, and of their desire to obtain an increased knowledge of India's wants and problems. One matter which will command their at- tention is that of the Government irrigation works. So far, interest has been centred rather upon the great dams which have been constructed in Egypt during recent years; but India has a system of irrigation which is quite as wonderful, dating back in its inception to ancient times, but greatly increased in value and importance by the British Government. It was a vast problem which Britain undertook to solve when she embarked upon a plan of State irrigation which would not only increase the general prosperity of the native population, but safeguard millions from the danger of famine to which they had been previously exposed. Stimulated especially by the terrible famines of 1876-8, successive Governments have entered very earnestly upon the work of decreasing the area of possible famine, and last year the Irriga- tion Commission were able to report that no fewer than 2Iîmillions of acres were supplied with water by artificial means. These results had been obtained at an expenditure of 31 millions sterling, largely in loans which bear interest. The work is still going on, so that by the time the preaentscheme is completed the capital expenditure will amount to something like forty millions. Whatever loss there may be must be counted as a good investment in the way of insurance against famine, and, regarded as a whole, the irrigation works will confer enormous benefits upon the native population. They afford an elo- quent illustration of the advantages which India derives from British rule, and an answer to those foreign critics who allege that we hold India only by the sword.
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