CETYWAYO AS A CAPTIVE. The following particulars were furnished to the reporter of the Cape Times by Mr. Longcast. the able Zulu inter- preter, who accompanied Lord Chelmsford's force to Ulundl, and who is now In official attendance upon Cetywayo in the Castle, Cape Town:— At about eleven o'clock on the morning of the 31st of August Cetywayo was marched into Ulundi under the escort of Major Marter'a party. There was no one to receive him with the dignity which even a captured savage monarch could command, for he had rejected the overtures of Sir Garnet Wolseley, M he had those of Lord Chelmsford. It was not M a defeated monarch, but as a fugitive from law and order he was brought into the English camp, and he was treated accordingly. Cetywayo, who ap. preciates nicely the courtesies due to rank-so those who know him tell me-felt this keenly. Sir Garnet Wolseley did not see him at all, and Mr. John Shep- etone only had an interview with him to tell him that he would leave under the charge of Major Poole for -no one knew where. The instructions to the Major were, on leaving Uiundi, to proceed to Pietermaritz- burg, vid Rorke's Drift; but the camp had not been left many miles behind before a messenger to the Major from the General gave Port Dumford as the Eort of eoabarcation. Cetywayo spent less than three ours amid the ruins of Ulundi,^ and when he left them he was not aware of his destination. His hope was that he was going to Pietermaritzburg. He used to say :—' I am no longer a King; let me go and live at Pietermaritz burg like any other poor Zulu.' This he believed was where he was going until he came to Kwagmagwaza, and he said :— 'This is not the way to the l'ugela,' He grew moody after this, and used to moan that it was better to be killed than sent over the sea. That Major Poole nsed all diligence in getting to the sea is certain. Cety- wayo, with his women, travelled in an ambulance drawn by 10 mules; the remainder of his party were in common buck-waggon drawn by 10 mules, and yet on the first day no lesa a distance than 40 miles was accomplished, the halt being made at Fort Victoria; next day Kwagmaewaza (22 miles) was reached; next day, St. Paul's (23 mile.); next day, Fort Inverary and, finally, Port Durnford was arrived at on the 4th -of September, and the whole party was immediately mbatked.
A special reporter of the Cape Times accompanied Cety- wayo on bit voyage to Slmou's Bay, aud he gives an interest- ing account of the trip and his Interviews with the de- tbroned monarch, from which we make the following extracts. He says :— As soon as it was known at Port Darnford that the Natal had been selected to convey Cetywayo from Zululand, great preparations were made for his con- veyance. The wonderful stories of the king's size perhaps aocount for the fact that a bridge was made for the passage from the boat to the ship, and also for the erection of what is known as The Kraal' on the poop. This kraal is a wooden framework covered with heavy tarpaulin, and the atmosphere inside of it, on the arrival of the Natal in Zululand, must have re- minded Cetywayo of the huts of his beloved land. In the surf boat Cetywayo had his first experience of mal de mer, and if he wanted to be shot when caught by Major Marter, it is certain th »t he wished he were dead ten minutes after tmoarkine upon the pleasant waves which break on such thundering lines of surf along the coast of the country over which he once ruled. All the dignity with which Cetywayo had borne his captivity gave way as he saw the sea and realised his fate, whilst the antics of the whole party in the surf boat are said to have been ludicrsus, Nothing j could persuade them to fit down quietly and when they moved they did so crawling on all fours. In the transhipment from the surf-boat to the steamer they were handled notonlywithgentleness, but with a tender consideration which approached homage. This has been considerably developed as thoso in charge of him grew upon terms of intimacy. Cetywayo has been treated very much like a spoiled child, or perhaps rather as a magnificent brute, whose claws having been cut, it is rather fun to pet. Cetywayo ia given to much resting, and of this luxury there was no stint. Every- thing in the way of personal comfort that he asked for has been given to him, and Mr. Interpreter Long- cast has had a pretty lively time of it, for whenever the King rtquireB anything which has to be communi- cated to the Europeans, Mr. Longcast is in request. During the voyage of the Natal there was one rougn night, and the King had a very bad time of it, but he generally kept up his spirits and conveyed in his cheerful moods his impressions of new sights. The first morn- ing when there was no land in view he, after looking round, held up his hands in intense astonishment but, like all natives, he does not permit himself to appear to be much surprised at anything. tie has not given over the assertion of his dignity and in this, I think, he has been much encouraged by the amount of waiting upon which he has received. On Saturday last, after promising to have his photograph taken, be kept photographer and every one else waiting upon his pleasure for some bourf. The photograph will show Cetywayo to be an enor- mous man, of a little under six feet high a hand- some, over-fed specimen of humanity, with nothing repulsive whatever about him. A tape measure round the chest would probably show 60 inches. and each thigh half that number of inches and this should convey what an immense fellow the King is. Yet he is not ungainly in figure, and there is an unmistakable dignity about him, which, togeLher with his fits of sociability, have drawn towards him the good feeling of his escort. He is not unappreciative either of the duties of his rank, and I mention these incidents to indicate in some degree what the Zalu Court was like, and that, barbaric as it was, it niUHt have had a dignity of its own. For instance, on Saturday last the medical officer in charge introduced his superior officer to the King, when the latter reported that the medical at- tendance during the voyage was all that could be desired. The whole party evince a very earnest wiah for clothes, and Cetywayo was in great delight on wear- ing a suit sent him by the Comun d )re, and strutted about quite proudly with a black tile' which be had managed to equet-g-a over his head ring. He has lately developed a wonderful taste for scribbling, and in a few months, under the careful tuition of Major Poole, would probably become a polite letter writer. Indeed, Major Poole has the King, excepting the sulks, which are exceedingly inconvenient, perfectly under control, and the attempts at letter writing are an infinite source of amusement. Thawivesof the King, who are his fellow captives, are four in number, and are tall, lithe, shapely women of about twenty years of age. Tne photographs are not just to them, tor their attractions feeeoi to be in their vivacity aLd their good temper. Like their lord and master, they are anxious ufcout their dress, and at the present rate of petting to w hich they are indulged we may expect before Ion? to hear of their subscribing to the Lad-its' Journal. On Sunday Cety. wayo was taken on a tour of inspection of her Majesty's ship Boadicea, which visit seems to have tiven him a terrible shock such a visit a year ago might have saved England some inilliong of money. The Chief talks very openly about the war. A few words, the result of my conversation on Sunday, may be worth reproducing. Cetywayo asserts that the first intelligence he h..d of the death of the Prince Imperial was conveyed by Lord Che.tasford s demand for the return of the sword of his Imperial Highness. The King at once seat to the district in which the Prince had been killed, aod the swrn was sent to him. It ia difficult, says Mr. Longcast, to get an accurate number of the Zulus who fought at Jsi\ndula, because the Zulu has no idea of numbers. W hen they speak of the strength of an army they say there were so many companies, and inasmuch :1i! the Zulu companies range from 80 to 200, it is impossibly thus to get the exact figures. The conclusion I have arrived R t, after hearing many Btories, from the King downwards, is that were at least 25,000 Zulus under Maveum- mentnwava aud Dululamanzi at Isandula. The tight taking place on the day it d:d vtas an accident. To use a Kaffir metaphor, the moon was dead. Tha following day would have seen a new moon, and ii is a Kaffir's superstition never to do any work or busi- ness on the day before the rew moon. The day is always kept as a holiday. The main body of the army arrived at the range ot the Irqutu, overlooking the valley of Isandula, on the night ot she 21st January, and the stragglers only came U;.>oii the morning of the 22nd January, which was the morning of tbe battle so when we pitched our camp in this valley on the 19th there were no Zulus in Uf neighbournuod. On the morning wf the 22nd the Zulu army was about five miles from the camp, and is was disturbed by the mounted Basutos, who wtre sent out hy Colonel Durdford to draw them on. The Zulu army was sitting in an immense half-circle, retaining its battle array, when the left horn was fired on by the Busnto.. the result being that the Zulus rushed to the fight without any order whatever. The two horiis were composed of four regiments of unmarried men, the chest of the army bei£1! older -men. The two horns rushed away to the attack, bat the married regiments moved steadily up to the right until they out ticked the British position, when they doubled oown r.o the left, actl then the English were completely sufrounded. The Zulus say the battle lasted for a little while, certainly not an hour. They did not lose heavily until the lust, when they got into close quarters, and taey tell with admiration of how sometimes four or five soldiers would g* t back to back, and hold their numerous enemies at bay for ever so long. One square of about o men defied the repeated attacks of 100 of the army, and SO courageona did it become that the men used to beckon the Zulus to come on. At last, by overpowering numbers, or by the exhaustion of i mmunitioD, and through repeated charges, the little square was destroyed. The Zulus say that was the only square they fought that day. Cetywayo estimates his Istmriula losseR at 1,000. It was reported to him that the whole column had been 'o destroyed. and he reckoned that the column was 4,000 strong. His victory at iBandula and his defeat by Colonel Pearson's column were almost reported to him simultaneously. He said, however, We have done very well; there is one column we shall hear of again.' His fighting force he still reckoned at close on 60,000, BO he decided on investing the column at Ekowe, and, by smashing Wood's column, to lay the Transvaal at his feet. Isandula gave him great hope of saving his kingdom, and he only lamented that he had not in his kraals some of the officers who died at Isandula. I mention this to show what the effect of Isandula was upon his mind. The arrangements for the attack upon the camp at Kambula were made with the greatest care, and the King never dreamed of failure. The result of the light settled in the King's mind what the end of the war would be, and when he heard of the arrival of reinforcements he was in earnest in his desire for peace. But his warriors, less sagacious than himself, would not confess that they were beaten, and the young bloods were eager to destroy the small force with which Lord Chelms. ford advanced upon Ulundi. And thus it is that the Zulus cannot understand why Cetywayo has been taken captive. Dabulamallzl may be taken to repre- sent the Zulu nation in his question, as he saw the King carried into captivity.. What has he done that he should be punished ? It is not he whe has been beaten, but his soldiers.' On the other hand, Cetywayo quite recognises the wisdom 'of the policy which takes him away from Zulu- land, and his only surprise now is that a nation so powerful as England has proved herself to be shoald have ever given him so much consi- deration as she has done. He acknowledges the generosity with which his people have been treated, and is slow to understand the leniency shown to them. From what I can gather he is much more concerned at present with his own future than with that of his people and the only bargaining he is now prepared for is that which will advance most his own comfort. It is singular that he has not the least conception of the great distance he is from his native land; and although he has seen travellers, he is not aware of the power of England or the extent of the Continent in which he lives. He was in Natal when he was ten years of age. He is said to be now 54 years old, although he does not look much more than 40, yet he never saw a ship until he waa taken on board of the Natal."
The photographer who "took" Cetywayo gives a very amusing account of the process "On Saturday morning the steamer was rolling too much to be sure of success. We however, were obliged to do the best possible under the circumstance. Having placed everything in readiness, we informed the King, through his interpreter, that we were ready, and received the answer that the King was going to sleep," and did not wish to be disturbed. After a while we could hear him speak, BO we once more informed him that we were waiting for him. He did not seem inclined to appear, and Captain Poole thought it best to give him some induce- ment to do so, which was accomplished by catching a fish. This made him come out at once, and after some palaver the King was persuaded to seat himself near the compass, with his back against the rudder wheel. He appeared to be very nervous, and requested that it might be done at once in order to have it over. He seemed to dread the camera, and did not like the look of the lens. We succeeded, how- ever, in getting our first double negative. He was more at ease when he found that it was done without his being hurt, but, in order to show him what we were doing, Commander Caffyn showed him a photo of Dabulamanzi, at which he seemed pleased, and at once disencumbered himself of his blanket to show his figure, of which he appears to be very proud. We succeeded in taking a second double negative, and then he sternly refused to have any more taken. We were at that time not certain of success, as the ship was rolling, it was raining all the while, and our negatives were finished only partially, in order to obtain as many negatives as possible while the King was in a good mood. After that came the King's wives; they ap- peared eager to be photographed, and after they had been placed in position, wa requested the King to sit in the centre of the group, which he declined to do, saying that he had to undergo it alone, and they would have to do the same. Upon his being told that we wished to have him in the middle, he answered that we could cut the photos, and then place him wherever we liked. He would not sit again, so we contented ourselves with taking two more double negatives of his wives while he was smoking his cigarette, and this finished our day's work, leaving the King on deck trying his hand at fish-catching.
A. S. H." wites to The Timet Sir,-Cannot Cetywayo be brought to England, and, as a prisoner on parole, allowed to estimate the re- sources of the nation by whom he has been beaten? I venture to say such a course would be found the most humane and useful; and th%t he could with safety be after, say, six months' detention sent back to his own country. When Caffre servants return to Natal after a visit in England and relate their experiences they are always disbelieved. Cetywayo, especially if some chiefs would be in. duced or obliged to accompany him here, would have weight with his own people and teach them some- thing. There must be many in England who can testify as to the effect of a visit to this country on the Caffre mind, and I believe if the suggestion were carried out with judicious privacy we should certainly get rid of a troublesome prisoner and might make a useful ally.
AN UNEXPECTED ENEMY. The Cape papers record the fallowing incident attending the blowing up of Cetywayo's powder maga- zine:—"At noon on August 12, General Sir Garnet Wolseley, with Colonel Brackenbury, John Dunu, and an escort of artillery, with two empty ammunition carts and a led spare span of mules, started off to a cave some ten miles away, where large quantities of powder, &c., were known to be, and also, as it was said, an ambulance waggon from Isandula. After going some miles they found that the road was so bad that the carts could not go any further, so they were sent back and the rest went on. They came to the cave, and nearly 100 barrels of powder were got out and arranged with a train, so as to blow up the lot. While, getting out the last two or three, a large black mambs was seen coiled up, when Dann went in and fired at it with his rifle, wounding it in the bick; the snake then came straight at them, being over ten feet long, with its head reared up, when Dunn, taking a shot gun from one of his boys, let fly both barrels at it and killed it. It was a splendid specimen of one of the most dangerous and vicious species. Before leaving, the escort set light to the train, and blew up all the gunpowder. Coming back they passed the kraal where Cetywayo, with his wives and girls, had passed the first night after the battle. There were no traces of many men being with him, so that if he had been followed up immediately after the battle of Ulundi he must have been caught,"
A ZULU ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF ISANDLANA. A Zulu prisoner, taken after Ulundi, has furnished some interesting additional particulars of the affair at Isandlaua, and bears testimony to the valour of our men (writes the Cape Town Correspondent of The Times). He says :— The Zulu army reached the neighbourhood of Lord Chelmsford's camp on the 21st of January. They intended to rest all next day as they had had a long march, and on the 231 to attack the camp; their orders being that if they defeated the English troops they were to sweep through Natal. They had no idea that part of the English forces had left the camp. The attack was brought on prema- turely by their position being discovered by some of our scouts, who reported their presence, when Colonel Durnford sent out some of his mounted men to skirmish. This excited the Zulu regiments they fired at all who advanced against them, and this caused the advance of the whole Zulu army, and brought on a general action, with the sad result we all know. The narrator stated that after the soldiers were driven back into the camp, they fought for some time among the tents, but, being driven from there, a large body formed in a square near some of the wagons, and kept the Zulus at bay until their ammunition was exhausted, when they retreated to the neck; there they were completely surrounded by masses of the enemy and made their last stand, beating off with their bayonets (the officers alone still firing from their revolvers) re- peated attempts to break their ranks, until the Zulus, finding they could not succeed in a hand-to-hand fight, stood around them, just beyond the reach of the bayonets, and threw their assegais into the square until every one of our brave fellows fell. When the fight was over and the butchery con- cluded, the Zulus were under the impression that th*t they bad destroyed the whole of the Eng- lish army. What, then, was the consternation of those who, after following the fugitives to the Buffalo and beyond it, were returning in triumph to the camp to see in the distance Lord Chelmsford's column returning to Isandlana. The alarm at once spread among them. 'Why.' said they, 'we thought we had destroyed the whole English army, but it appears it is only the camp followers and sick we have been fighting with there is the impi intact.' A regular panic ensued, and they hurried away from the field, and had Lord Chelmsford only been aware of this, and followed up the retreating host next morning with his mounted men, they would probably have been utterly routed; but, of course, he did not know how matters stood. The regiments which attacked the post at Rorke's Drift were in the reserve, and not actually engaged in the fight at Isandlana, although pre- seat at it. They aIM believed that the whole English force was destroyed, and when on their way back next morning they saw the cloud of dust caused by Lord Chelmsford's troops, on their return march to Rorke's Drift, and observed the mounted men and the red coats of the soldiers, they believed at first it was the army that had been slain on the pre- vious day come to life again." Cetywayo states that he got information that three British columns were marching into Zaluland from Natal and the Transvaal and that another was coming from Delagoa Bay; and it is probably owing to the latter report that he kept large reserves of his warriors at Ulundi and that Natal was saved from invasion. At first he thought that one column of our troops was entirely destroyed at Isandlana, bnt afterwards ascertained that such was not the case. The engagements at Isandlana, Inyezane, and Ginghilova were not planned beforehand; they were merely accidental. That at Ginghilova was under- taken by the local forces, consisting of the Zulu tribes in that part of the country, who were ordered to surround Pearson's camp at Ekowe. The attack upon Kambula, however, was ordered by himself from his military kraal, Undini, and it was carried out under the direct command of his chief induna or Prime Minister, Umnymana. Umbelini's people at Zlobane sent word their stronghold was going to be attacked, and he sent help to them.
THE REVIVAL OF TRADE IN AMERICA. The Daily Nexos publishes a letter from their corre- spondent at New York, from which we make the following extracts There are many indications that this country is entering upon an era of exceptional prosperity. A revival of trade is reported from all quarters. Mills which have been idle for years are now in full opera- tion. Many of the New England factories, espe- cially those making print cloths, are running night and day, and are making unusually large profits. In the iron districts of Pennsylvania and Ohio there is greater activity than there has been since 1873. All the rolling mills are at work with a full number of hands, and in some cases there is more work than the supply of labourers can attend to. In New York the revival is everywhere apparent. The large warehouses are surrounded with outgoing and incoming cases of goods. and the streets are thronged with drays. Imported goods which have been kept in very light stock for several years, more as samples than in expectation of sales, are now in great demand. Fine silks, trimmings, and laces, sell readily, and there is difficulty in meeting the demand. One of the largest Broadway dealers reports that he imported a most elaborate silk pattern, more for display than anything else, and had hardly placed it on his counter, with a price mark of £ 5 a yard, before it was sold. The same report comes from the cloth dealers, who furnish the tailors with their goods. The demand is for the best goods, which in this case means English goods. From the carpet trade a similar report is made. The pricea are higher, and the deinana for the best goods is steadily Increasing. From the provision dealers comes the same story of a growing export trade. The foreign demands are said to be larger this year than ever before, and some entirely new developments are noticed. For example, the price of butter has been advanced by the great demand for export, which is the largest ever known. One steamer took 6,000 packages to Germany last week. Large shipments are also making to England, Scotland, and Ireland. The dealers in fine groceries report an increased demand for luxuries, including a great variety of imported articles. In no branch of industry has the revival been so marked as in that of iron manufacturing. All the manufacturers report a demand far in excess of the supply, and an advance in price from 25 to 30 per per cent., according to the kind of iron. The industry has been very much depressed during the past five years, and the price of iron had run down to a very low point. The revival has come within the past thirty or forty days, and has taken the manufacturers so com- pletely by surprise that they are not able to meet the demands upon them. This has had a good deal to do with forcing up the price; but it is thought that as soon as the manufacturers have replenished their stock they will have no difficulty in furnishing all the iron required. All the rolling mills are full of orders, and are running to their extreme capacity. The chief demand comes from the railroad companies. They were compelled by the hard times to economise closely for several years, and the consequence wai that many roads became badly out of repair. The prospect of increased traffic has induced them now to repair ^ejr tracks and to add to their rolling stock. This was the beginning of the improvement in the trade. One mill after another became crowded with orders, until it was difficult to get work done at all. As soon as this state of affairs was discovered, the merchants and dealers in iron made a rush to get their stockB replenished before further orders stood in their way. The result is that every rolling mill his more work than it can attend to for the rest of the year. Another element which stimulated the new activity was the building of the elevated railroads in New York, which greatly increased the demand, one con- tract alone calling for 30,000 tons of iron. A natural effect of the general revival in industry has been the lessoning of labour strikes. In the iron business wages have been advanced five per cent., and still further increase ia probaole. There are occasional strikes in the minor branches of trade, but they are of short duration. In all kinds of work the labourer is in demand, and the rule is that he is getting better pay than he has had for a good many year-. A recent strike in one of the iron mills of Pennsylvania i was settled amicably without any increase of wagea. The employers assured the men that they i could not pay any higher wages while they were fill. icg the present low-priced contracts, but that within a lew weeks higher-priced contracts will be taken up, and still higher ones will follow, and that all increase in profits will be shared with the men. Of course promises of this kind are entirely satisfactory to the labourer. In some mills, where work is pushed for- ward day and night, the labourers complain of over- work.
A FORMIDABLE WAR SHIP. The Times of Monday said It has for some time past been asserted without contradiction that a firm of shipbuilders on the Clyde has received an order from the Rugsian Government for the construction of a monster ironclad which is to be practically invulne- rable, and the subject is attracting considerable interest in official circles. It is said that tne vessel is to have an armoured deck in shape something like the back of a tortoise, with sharp e tges all round on which an iron ram may expend its force only to its own injury, or at most cut through a mere fringe into one of numberless watertight compartments. The surfaces above and below the water, being made on the same slope, would offer no mark for an opponent's shot, which would glance off with out doing any serious injury, and only vertical firing, which is always unreliable, or battering from above at close quarters, which the monitor's own heavy guns might repel, could be used against such an antagonist. The old system of boarding might avail, but as the ship is to be 500ft. in length oy 100ft. broad, she would probably carry a great number of men, and boarding might not be so easy. The torpedo alone she would have to fear, and against the torpedo she would have to take her chance with the rest. Her «rm»ment, ac- cording to conjecture, will consist of four or more 100- ton guns, mounted on the disappearing principle. together with appliances for projecting torpedoes, and it is intended to make her, for attack as well as defence, at least the equal of any other ship afloat. It is calculated that a vessel of such a build, though provided with 10,000-horse power engines, cannot be of great speed, but this is regarded as a secondary con- sequence in a ship which is described as unassailable. The circular ironclads which the Russians already possess are regarded as failures, because their perpen- dicular sides offer a ready target to the enemy, and Admiral Popoff, who has designed the new vessel, is understood to have adopted the idea propouuded more than ten years ago by a member of the firm to whom the execution of the work is now intrusted. Thb Poly- phemus, now building for the British Navy, will be some- what similar, in having a sloped deck of iron armour, but she will be small in comparison, and fight only with her ram and torpedoes, being unprovided with guns. In appearance, except in her breadth of beam, it is thought that the proposed ship will much resemble any other, the tortoise-like deck being covered by a temporary or hurricane deck, containing the officers' and men's cabins and other apartments, which would be abandoned when going into action, and might be all shot away without injury to the vital part of the vessel."
The Turkish newspaper, the Vakit, gives some particulars of the Budget drawn up by the forte for the present year. The Civil List of the Sultan Is down for 1,080,000 Turkish pounds, or about a million sterling. The common expenditure amounts to 1,581.852,846 piastres, whereas the revenue does not exceed 1,428,582,000 piastres, which makes a deficiency of 168,175,000 piastres, or shout 40,000,000 francs. The War Budget figures for 510.000,000 piastres, and the Budget ol Public Instruction for a minimum of 12,000,009 piastres. On Monday the Bishop of Manchester consecrated two cemeteries, the one at Tyldesley and the other at Bolton. At the latter place his lordsbip advocated reform in the mode of conducting funerals. The present were not, at any rate, times for any extravagant expenditure. We all had need to practise thrift and providence, but he was sure there was a great deal of unnecessary expenditure continually in- curred in the Interment of the dead. In many cases, this expenditure was Incurred at a time when the family, very often having loot its head, were not able to bear it. He would urge the upper classes of society to set those below them a good example, by abandoning all that could properly be dis. pensed with atftuuraU.
MR. CROSS ON THE POLICY OF THE GOVERNMENT. Mr. Cross was present at a Conservative gathering at Leigh on Saturday, and made two speeches in de- fence of the general policy of the Government, and in answer to the criticisms which had lately been passed upon it. Passing from the causes of the depression in trade and the distress amongst the agricultural interest to the position of affairs of Afghanistan, he said that so far as that country was concerned the Cabinet could make no change. They had no wish to interfere with the internal affairs of Afghanistan, but what they wanted was to secure India, and to take such precautions that, whatever happened, the English Government must rule and dominate so far aa the safety of India is concerned. If the Administration could see Afghanistan strong and friendly and independent, that was all they wanted but it must be all these three that they must have present. It would not simply do to have one of them and not the other--to have Afghanistan strong and not friendly, or strong and not independent, The result of the Zulu War would be bailed with the greatest pleasure by those who have escaped from the tyranny to which they had been subjected, and the iron rule which was held over them during the reign of the Zulu King.
The Home Secretary attended a Conservative meeting on Tuesday evening at Clitheroe, and re- plied for a vote of confidence passed in the Government. He confined his observations principally to a defence of the foreign policy of the Government. The action of the Government was based on the main- tenance of treaties, and he said that the point of divergence between Mr. Gladstone and the Government was that while they were determined to prevent either Russia or any of the signatory Powers to the Treaties of 1856 and 1871 violating the provisions of those treaties unless with the con- sent ef all the other signatory Powers, Mr. Glad- stone would have allowed Russia to break them. Such a course would have destroyed the value 6f treaties altogether. If they had gone to war the end of all war was a treaty; but if treaties were not to be held inviolable, what was their use ? In concluding his address the right hon. gentleman declared that it was useless for the Liberal party to seek the support of the nation when, owing to their divisions, they could not develop any policy.
THE CORN TRADE. Thb course of the past week (says the Mark Lane Eotprees) has been marked by somewhat more favour- able weather, the temperature having been cool and seasonable, and the rainfall inconsiderable. Notwith- standing the exertions of farmers, a large quantity of cereal produce is still unsecured and exposed to the vicissitudes of the weather. Agricultural advices are still couched in most dolefnl terms. The disastrous season of 1879 will long be remembered, and it is devoutly to be hoped that many a year may elapse ere another be found to equal it in cold rain and sunleaB gloom. Supplies at markets in the provinces have somewhat increased, in response to the requirements of farmers for thresh- ing purposes, but the inferiority of the bulk of the offering haa not prevented a further rise of 2s. per quarter in the value of parcels suitable for milling. The average price waa also 8d. per quarter higher last week. Last Monday's Hat showed arrivals of foreign wheat into London of only about 28,000 quarters, chiefly American, and aubsequent imports to Friday were about 61,000 quarters. Prices again favoured eellers to the extent of fully 2s. per quarter. Higher prices may still be expected.
THE POSTAGE OF THE WORLD. Dr. Fischer, an Oberpostrath of the Imperial German Post-office (corresponding to the rank of assistant- secretary with us), has just published an interesting pamphlet showing the comparative postal and tele- graphic statistics. But in some cases the information yet available does not enable him to bring down his work later than 1873. The letter post of the whole world for that year amounted in round numbers to 3,300,000,0; 0 letters, or about 91 millions daily; and the numbers have been increasing daily at an astonishing: rate, Thus in Japan the number of poet-offices in 1872 was 1,159, and in 1876 it had risen to 3,649. The number of separate articles which passed through the Japanese post in 1878 was 47,000,000. of which 25,000,000 were etters, 10.000,000 post-cards, 91 millions newspapers. Post-cards were first brought into use only in 1865, and now they are employed in almost every country of the world. The parcels post has, however, not yet got beyond the first stage of its development. The number of telegraphic despatches sent in 1877 amounted for the whole globe to nearly 130,000,000, or an average of 353,000 daily. More than one third of the total number of telegraphic despatches are private, dealing with purely personal concerns. It is unneces- sary to say that the newspaper press absorbs a large proportion of the telegrams of the world, while the worul of finance and commerce also appropriates a giant's share.
CINCHONA CULTIVATION IN CEYLON. The Ceylon Timte of September 16, in an article on the above subject, says :-It was declared a few days since in the columns of a contemporary, that there are probably as many ar seventeen millions of cinchona plants now growing in the interior of Ceylon. We stated sometime previously that twenty millions would probably be about the number, but we are now assured on the best authority-that of one who has taken the trouble to institute and collect data—that by the end of the year there will have baen planted out thirty millions of seedlings during 1879, and that five years hence there will be fifty millions of growing trees. From this number, however, we must make a liberal allowance for failures, which in some cases amount to 50 per cent. The present consumption of cinchona bark throughout the world is stated to be lO,GOO,OOOlb.; what it may become when the article has declined to one-third its present value it is not easy to determine. But at the same time we must not forget that cinchona cultivation is making rapid strides in Java and various parts of India, and it is quite probable that in these two countries there may be a future production equal to that of Ceylon. Whether cultivation and artificial methods may enable the cinchona grower of the future to fix a large quantity of the alkaloids within the bark, is at pre- sent an open question, and it is no doubt that to obtain an enormously increased production will demand the most careful cultivation, and that the future ability of the market to absorb the entire yield of the world will depend upon the cheapness at which febrifuges can be supplied to the million. Fortunate, indeed, are these proprietors who embarked in this cultivation early in the day, and who now find themselves in possession of considerable tracts of the quinine-yielding tree that can be turned to account while the value of the article ranges at about its present rate, a certain fortune to the grower. Those who follow must be content, how- ever, with a more moderate return.
THE METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS. A South Lincoln Farmer" throws out the following suggestion In The Times Sir,-The farmers are chiefly dependent upon the weather for the sowing of their crops and gathering them in good condition. To be prepared for the changes in our variable climate is therefore most need- ful. The predictions of the Meteorological Depart- ment a few hours previously are generally correct, and greater reliance ought to be placed on their reports, as is done by the shipping intereat. If they were sent by telegraph to each office before the rural postmen start out, and carried by them, at a small cost, to any person in each parish on their route, the greater part might know them within three hours, instead of 37 as now. Please use your powerful influence to induce the Post-office officials to grant this boon to our class, which would be the greatest they can confer.-I am, yours faithfully, A SOUTH LINCOLN FARMER.
PROPOSED MONUMENT TO CAPTAIN COOK. Sir George Elliott, M.P. for North Durham, has signified his intention to dedicate a piece of land on his estate, West Cliff, Whitby, to the public, and erect thereon a monument to Captain Cook, the circum- navigator. Captain Cook spent several years of his early life at the fishing village of Staithes, a few miles to the north of the port of Whitby. In later years he sailed from the harbour of Whitby, and it is an his- torical fact that in undertaking his adventurous voyages round the world he preferred the vessels which were built at Whitby by Whitby men. The site chosen by Sir George Elliot for the erection of a monument to the illustrious circumnavigator is one of the most prominent on the hon. baronet's estate. It commands an uninterrupted view of the German Ocean, of the coast scenery both north and south, of the romantic Abbey ruins on the opposite side ef the harbour, and of the vale of the Esk.
A fifth Russian cruiser has been ordered by the committee ot the Volunteer Fleet. The vessel is to be built at Marseilles, and is to cost Z.MO.OOOfr. The Manchester papers state that after eleven years' seceislon the congregation attending St. Paul's Free Church of England Church at Wheelton, near Chorley, on Sunday last returned to the Established Church, and the building which they erected for themselves at the time of their secession from the parish church of Heapey has been handed over to the vicar.
CO-OPERATION AMONG WORKING MEN. The Bishop of Manchester, who on Saturday distri- bated tne prizes to the successful students in connec* tion with the art and science classes of the Bury JJistrict Co-operative Society, said there was nothing that argued more for the stability and well-being of society in general in England in times so critical as those through which we were passing than the exten- sion of the system of co-operation among the great body of the working men. vi »!erjv^ to the subject of recreation, the Bishop said he aid not think that one could listen to a play of Shakespeare's, such as "King Lear" or "Hamlet," or any good play by great actors, and worthily put upon the stage, without feeling benefited, and if all plays were of that kind he, as a minister, should have no hesitation in recommending the people to go to them. On the question of opening libraries, picture galleries, and the like on Sundays, his sentiment might be in favour of opening such institutions, and yet he could not without fears and apprehensions as a bishop say that he could thoroughly go in for it. He had been asked his opinion upon the proposal to open the Manchester Royal Institution on Sundays, and he had asked if they did open it not to do so during church services. He was glad to find that it had been decided not to open the institution during church hours, so that there would be three hours during which the people could go and see papera and pictures with- out being debarred from the proper observances of the Lord's Day,
NATIONAL THRIFT. At a meeting of the National Thrift Society, held at the London Offices on Saturday, the following resolutions were passed 1. That the coffee palaces, oocoa houses, &o.,eata. blished in London, and in various parts of the king- dom be communicated with for the purpose of establishing penny savings banks in connection there- with. 2. That series of cheques of the value of Id., 2d., 3d., 4d., 6J., and Is. be prepared, to be given instead of "beer money," &c., by those willing to adopt the system; the cheques to be exchanged at the society's penny banks (and elsewhere according to arrange- ment), for deposit books, in which the amount of the cheque shall be duly entered. Accounts can thus be opened and maintained which it is believed will be productive jof much good in the formation of thrifty habits, besides being greatly conducive to temperance and sal f respect. 3. That as requests for the society's work are coming in from all parts of the kingdom, and that as the whole of the funds of the penny banks established by the society go direct into the Government Post Office or Trustee savings banks, the public be earnestly re- quested to support the work of the society as set forth in its prospectus to be obtained at the various branch offices, or from the head office at Oxford. 4. That further centres of the society's work be established at Birmingham, Chester, Durham, Glou- cester, Liverpool, Manchester, Northampton, South- ampton, Glasgow, Inverness, Dublin, and Carnarvon, and that branches be established at other towns not yet represented as applications are received, and funds become available for the purpose. 5. That the Earl of Derby, who recently forwarded a donation to the funds of the society, and expressed an interest in its work, be requested to become a vice president of the society for the year ensuing. 6. That other of the City companies be requeated to follow the example of the Ironmongers' Company in voting a donation to the funds of the society. 7. That the first annual meeting of the society be held in London during the m"nth of December, due notice of the same having previously been made public.
INFORMATION ABOUT TIMBUCTOO. The Oran (Algeria) Geographical Society has been fortunate enough to catch an Israelite Rubbi of Morocco on his way to Paris from Timbuctoo, who has already twice traversed Central Africa. By means of questioning, a Commission of the Society were able to extract some interesting information from the Rabbi as to the present condition of Timbuctoo, about which existing information is vague. Tim- buctoo, the Rabbi told them, is an Arab town in every sense of the term, built absolutely like all those of the interior. The inhabitants are Foulah negroes, and there are no whites. There are, however, some- times Jews from North Africa, who come to trade, but they never settle there. The town is about an hour's distance to the north of the Niger. Its population is about 50,000; it is larger than Oran (about six miles round), but not so large as Marseilles. The town ia, in fact, a mata of villages, extending over a very considerable area. The Niger which passes to the south of the town, flows from the west to the south- east, and is very broad there is abundanoe of fish. Navigation is carried on by means of oared barges and rafts, constructed by pieces of wood bound together by cords. The blacks call the Niger the Nile, or "El Bar" (Arab, "the sea"). The river is subject to regular ioodings, which fertiliza the lands on its banks, the only one which are cultivable; the inundation reaches the walls of the town. The country is very fertile; the crops are sorgho, millet, rice, tomato, onions, turnips, indigo grows wild. There are also many cosoa-nut trees, gum trees, and a tree which produces oil which the natives use for lighting. There are also forests of valuable timber trees. The country is governed by a Marabout, who takes the title of Sultan the present ruler is named Mohamet-el-Bekai. He does not reside at Timbuctoo; his capital is Ahmet-Ellah, a town of more than 100,000 souls, situated about twelve leagues from Timbuctoo. The road connecting the two towns id covered with villages and gardens. The town of Tim- buctoo is under the command of a Caid, who has very great authority, and who has under his orders a tax- collector, also very powerful. The Sultan has no army, but when fighting is necessary everybody is a soldier. They are armed with bows and arrows; only the chiefs have guns, pistols, and sabres. Trade is carried on prin- cipally by barter or by means of cowries. Caravans bring cotton or linen goods, glass trinkets, mirrors, arms, swords, guns, pistols (generally of English manu- facture), knives, needles, &c. Salt is a valuable im- port, a slave often being given for a kilogramme or two. The caravans take back loads of the grain of the country-rice, sorgho, millet, ostrich feathers, gum, ivory, gold dust, lead, copper, &c. Trade in slaves is carried on on a very large scale. To the north of Timbuctoo many camels are reared; to the south the people wander about with herds of sheep and cattle. The Rabbi also gave some interesting in- formation on the Sahara.
A STATUE TO JOSEPH MARIE JACQUARD. The Lyonese are about to erect a statue to Joseph Marie Jacquard, whose name has become a part of the every day language of the weaver, and may be sug- gested by almost every specimen of figured weaving throughout the world. This remarkable man was no mere lucky stumbler over an idea for which he was not looking, but appears to have been an inventor from his childhood. He was born at Lyons in 1752, and when quite a little boy was observed to betray the keenest interest in anything of the nature of mechanics. His father was a weaver, but young Jacquard doe3 not appear to have taken kindly to the business and was always turning his hand to some fresh undertaking. At one time he was engaged in making improvements in type-founding, at another in bookbinding, and at another he devoted a good deal of time and attention to certain processes in manufacturing cutlery. What little he managed to acquire by the versatility of his genius he lost in the French Revolution, and then he and his son entered the army together. The lad was shot down, and Jacquard returned to Lyons in a state of such destitution that he was glad to earn a precarious living by straw plaiting. His inventive powers were, however, yet destined to do him good service. In the first year of the present century-when he was jist upon fifty years of age-he brought before the public the machine known everywhere now as the Jacquard." It represented » simple and beautiful method of producing all the figured patterns with which we are familiar in silks, tableclothes, window curtains, and BO forth, and effected a complete revolution in the art of weaving. The machine brought him under the notice of Napoleon, who gave him an appoiutment in the Con- servatoire des Arts at Paris, and, unlike perhaps the great majority of inventors, Jacquard's lateri ife seems to have been eminently prosperous.-Globe.
LONGEVITY IN EUROPE.—This age of ccience appa- rently omits but little in its grasp, and attention seems turned to the length of life in various countries, Oc- casionally we hear of old men and women whose years extend beyond the century, and often of those who can count ninety and a tew years beyond. Some statistics recently obtained, however, give some ade- quate idea of longevity in Europe, which are culled by the British Medical Journal from the Administra- tive Statistical report of Vienna. From researches, it appears that of _iU^,ool individuals who have ex- ceeded the age of ninety, and whose existence has been ascertained in the last cenBtues in the great European States, there were 60,303 women and 42,528 men. In the case of women longevity is more plainly percep- tible by comparing the number of human beings re- ported in the census aa having reached or even passed the age of one hundred years. In Italy, 241 female centenarians against 141 males were found; in Austria. 229 women against 183 men; in Hungary, 526 women against 524 men. In Austria, the number of sexagenarians ia stated at 1,508,359, 7 5 of the whole population,
INDIAN GRAVES IN AMERICA. An extensive burial-ground of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians has recently been examined by one of the scientific societies of Pennsylvania. The cemetery waa located on the north bank of the his. totical Brandywine Creek, on a prominence over* looking the valley. About twenty graves were opened with the following results The skeletons were stretched at full length with the heads towards the east. The depth of the graves was about three feet. Associated with the bodies were quantities of Venetian beads of various sizes, shapes, and colours, and a number of objects of Indian workmanship, such as arrow heads and bead ornaments of stone. In two of the graves were found several antique clay pipes of considerable interest, with the initials R. T." stamped in the bowls. In the beginning and middle of the 17th cen- tury pipes were made by various makers in the vicinity of Bath, England. Among these was one Richard Tyler, and the initials R. T. in all probability were impressed at his manufactory. An approximate date can, therefore, be assigned to these objects with some degree of certainty. The earlier British pipes, some- times called elfin or fairy pipes, and by some anti- ^U*?es attributed to the Romans, made, however, in the reign of Queen Elizabsth, frequently possessed the initials of the makers' names on the bases of the flat spurs which characterised them. These were gradually superseded by pipes with elongated bowls. in which the spurs or heels were pointed or entirely absent. The more recent English pipes of the last century or thereabouts had the names of their makers stamped on the stems. The examples referred to are of the elongated pattern, minus the heel, with the initials stamped on the bowls. The stems have been broken off about six inches from the bowls, having been originally longer. They were taken to America by the early settlers and traded to the Indians. These graves, while only perhaps a century or so ia age, are particularly valuable to the student of American ethnology as producing skeletons of the tribe inhabiting the valley of the Delaware River at the time of the settlement of the States. Such re* mains have been exceedingly rare in Pennsylvania. and no graves have as yet been opened which did not produce objects of European introduction. At an early day the society will push their re- searches further, when other interesting facts will M* doubtedly be brought to light.
THIRTY PERSONS POISONED. A shocking occurrence is reported from the little town of Gemijesk, in the district of Meditopol, in South Russia, The annual fair was held there on September 22, and as usual, was attended by a multi- tude of peasants. A number of persons dined at aa eating-house, where, among other articles, a species of white fish, salted and prepared like herrings, was served. The consequences of the lMeal soon mani- feated themselves in an appalling fashion. Thirty persons who had eaten some of the fish died within an hour, after suffering excruciating torture. The number of others who were lying ill wae not known, but was believed to be considerable. Eight peasants, three peasant-women, and three chil- dren, who had partaken of the fatal meal before quit. ting the town, were seized on their way home with such atrocious pains that they lay down on the road and died. An official investigation has heen ordered. There is no suspicion of any poisonous drug having been designedly introduced into the food. Either the fish must have been putrid, or soma prisonous ingrGp dient had been mixed with the salt used in curing it.
RAILWAY DISASTER IN AMERICA. A telegram from Philadelphia to The Times (undet date October 10) says :—" J'htt ear Jackson, Michi* gan, at one o'clock in tha morniB*, a Pacific express train on the Michigan Central railroad, going west, behind time, ran int& a locomotive standing on the main line, completely telescoping the baggage wagons of the express and piling the entire tram of eleven coaches, also completely wrecked, on them. Twenty- five persons are known to have been killed and thirty wounded; but the actual loss of life is unknown, all the bo iea not having been extricated from the wreck. A special train with doctors lefc Detroit before day- light with aid.
CUTTINGS FROM AMERICAN PAPERSI Amongst the sentimentals recently published is a ballad, which begins: Who will come above me sighing, When the grass grows over me 2" We can't say positively who, but if in a rural district it may probably be the cow. A Minneapolis painter received an order from a restaurateur topatnta sign wih the word "Oysters 'ta various Jangaa es, so that a mm of any nationality might understand that that was the puee to get bivalves. The painter went to work and made tlie tgji raad, American, Dutch, Norwegian, and French oysters." Oa the wall of a railroad-atation in Indiana is posted this notice Loatlng In this room is strictly forbidden and must be observed. A society for the suppre?ir>n of slang has been formed among the pupils of the (itrls' Higft tic tout ..I San Francisco. Said a reporter to one of its mnnb<r>, "Your objee; Is a praiseworthy one. Do you thiuk it will succeed in eradica- ting conversational slang V 8a:d she, You bet! "Where have yon bpen, Caesar?" "Oh, sab, I've been down to Mr. Pushpulls I" 11 Wb¡;re? There isn't any such name." Why, it's written up on 116 door, cap'n. One side ob de door it says 'Push,' and de oder it says I PAU.I. Ain't dat Pushpull A woman went to a circus in Terre Haute, Indiana, accompanied by eleven children, and when a neighbour asked her where the old man was, she said he was at home taking care of the children. Another neighbour called at the house, and seeing the old mau trying to amuse nine young ones, asked where fha old lady WliS. He said he had let her go to the circus with the children. They were playing Buffixlo ZJÜl at the Denver Opera House One of the tab'.e uxx was the Mountain Meadow massacre, illuminated by glaring coloured llames. Someone surreptitiously mingled a quantity of red pepper with the material for producing tinted dime, and the mixture spat- tered, flashed, splashed, sparkled, hissed, crackled, and flew in fiery, blistering showers, over the hands and faces of the dead, whose vitality was restored in a miraculously natural manner. One of the murdered women, who lay upon her back very dead, revived with a startling suddenness" other corpses wrirhed, rolled, fl lpped, howled, aud groanedl No man can go down into the dangeon of his ex- perience, and hold the torch of truth to all the dark chambers and hidden cavities, and not come up with a Bhudder and a chill as he thinks of the time when he under- took to talk politics with the deaf old father of his first sweetheart, while the girl was present hereelf. A Detroit citizen, who was doing same marketing, had his attention attracted to a boy about twelve years of age, who seemed anxious to get hold of one of the many big water-melons piled up In the market. It seemed like a good chance to sow a seed in the lad's mind, aud the citizen beckoned the boy, and queried, My son, would you like to steal one of those melons?" "Yes, sir," was the prompt reply. You would, eb? I am sorry to hear that. It yotc should steal one of those melons, my boy, do you know what the result might be ? The lad scratched his head, surveyed the pile again, and answered, I 'spect the plaguy thing would be green all the way thronsh t" A Southern nigger, arrested with chickens in hie sack, declared, "De man dat put 'm dar was notrenot mine." A Washington belle is thus pleasantly and enthusi. astically described by an American correspondent "Shols a lovely girl," he says, with satiny hair, very pure com- plexion, sea-shell-tiuted in the cheeks, and enough, of the family nose to give character to her face. There it not a curl or a crimp, nor a sign of an abbreviated look about her, but the bands of her pale, luxuriant hair brushed smoothly m back, and done up in a Greek knot, fastened with a tortoise- shell comb. She moves wi h willow grace and looks and walks the gentle, unmistakable lady, the breath of peace upon her lips, the shine of an undisturbed quiet in her starry eyes." A scene of much patriotic and commercial interest is reported from the locality where the United States gene- ral Is chasing Jhe Indians when it is not the reverse way ol the thing. Ttle came up to a farm where a poot German was crying aq he had been just perusing Goethe's sorrows of Werther, or Dans Breitmim's Party. "WQats the matter, my miu," exclaimed the general. Mr pantaloons, general. II Well. my man, much kicked. eh 1. not a bole In them, I trust?" "No, general, the Indians has a hole twelve pair of my new pants." "Sorry for your loss, my man, but haven't time to talk about « ?Jf ■ ,w.e can catch up with these demons we'll stop tneir devilries for good and all." Yes, I know, general, Know, eagerly whispered the man, hanging desperately*9 T !!i stirrup, "but when you come up with Indians with my new pants on, for kraclous sake, general* tell the soldiers to shoot high 1" An American naturalist, while investigating tbtll causes and%ffect of the poison of a wasp-sting, nobly dele'' mined to make himself a martyr to science, and according^ handed his thumb to an impatient Insect he had caged in J bottle. The wasp entered Into the martyr business wlØ great deal of spirit, and backed up to the thumb with abruptness which took the scientist by surprise. He was deeply absorbed In the study of remedies that he forgoty" make any notes, but his wife wrote a paragraph in his nOW book for the benefit of science, that the primary effect of wasp-sting is abrupt and terrible-and such words
EXTREMES.—Messrs. Carter and Co., HOLBO^ write from High Holborn :—" The following from one of our correspondents in Constantinepj bears a marked contrast to what has been experience^ in England :—' Our season here has been simply j plorable no rain from April till the montn September. I II "uno g A PROMISING YOUNG ASTHICTIC. -Old b0y'31ichag What's your name?"—New boy. Dibuto Is that Angelo Sal vat or Kosa Nupkins 1 ""TtIt boT*. all ? What's your father ? "— jCjan."—Old bojt painter, sculptor, architect, and MuBla" The greatest Crimini I Is he great ? Ter j" And what are 'I Over I that ever lived. "—Old boy. I ø "The same as my you going to Qh my!"—[fticWI