Symud i'r prif gynnwys
Cuddio Rhestr Erthyglau

15 erthygl ar y dudalen hon

DEATH FROM LUCIFER MATCHES.

Superphosphates as Manure.

Newyddion
Dyfynnu
Rhannu

Superphosphates as Manure. We extract the following from a lecture given by Mr. Alfred Gibson:— The question now," he says," naturally arises—is it advisable for the farmer to make the superphosphate he requires for his own use ? I should say, except under peculiar circumstances, certainly not, and for the fol- lowing amongst other reasons: because it is impossible that it can be made so well on the small scale, by per- sons unaccustomed to the work, as on a large one: by skilled hands; or with the simple apparatus the farmer is able to provide, or the spot, as with the machinery and appliances found by experience to economise labour and improve the result. Again, in places where bones are to be had cheap, acid will gene- rally be dear; indeed, the carriage of vitrol in small quantities is. so expensive in consequence of the almost prohibitory rates charged by most of the railway com- panies for this article, that it can, seldom be procured by farmers with advantage. At the present time especially, when so many excel- lent manures are to be purchased at reasonable prices, the practice of dissolving bones, formerly very common amongst farmers, has now greatly fallen off. If, how- ever,.any farmer out of curiosity should desire to try his hand at superphosphate making, the following directions may be followed, but it must be understood that I by no means recommend this process to manufacturers for the making of superphosphate generally. For a ton of bones, which should be ground small and boiled to extract as much as possible of the fat, the following quantities of acid and water may be used, viz., 740 lbs. white oil of vitriol, or .«56 lbs. of brown acid; this is about equivalent to 41 gallons of the former and 50 gallons of the latter. 1,000 lbs., or about 100 gallons of water, are divided equally, one part being used to moisten the bones, and the other to dilute the acid. The latter operation should be carefully performed in a large bucket or tub—pouring the acid in a small stream into the water—the latter being "fell stirred meanwhile. The bones should be thoroughly moistened with water from a garden watering can, and j^ft for two or three hours, or longer, to get well soaked. The mixing should be made in a wooden trough or large tub; if a sufficiently^large vessel cannot be lad to receive all the materials at once, it may be done in a smaller one, using successive and proportionate quantities of bones and acid,; or the mixture may be made, but not so well, on the ground (with a hard clay surface if possible), a ring being made with ashes (black or red, about equal in weight to the Water used) to prevent the liquid from flowing away. TIM acid should be gradually added to the bones, the whole being "Well stirred with a wooden rake to insure uniform mix- ture. As soon as the acid is all added, and the mixing completed, the greater part of the ashes may be thrown over the mass, and the whole allowed to stand for some days. The heap may then be opened, and the whole of the ashes well incorporated with it; the mass being then allowed to stand again for a week or so, and if not then Sufficiently dry may be broken up again and re-made into a heap, with thin layers of fresh dry ashes. By this means a superphosphate may be got perfectly dry and manageable—the large addition of ashes being of course no when, as we are supposing, it IS to be consumed on the farm where made. A super- phosphate made in this way, with the first quantity of ashes mentioned, was found to contain 12*27 per cent. of soluble phosphate, and nitrogen equal to 2-07 of am- monia.

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A SAD CASE. I

THE COURT."

POLTTICAT, GOSSIP. --+-,

THE RUSSIAN ARMY.

THE PRINCESS MARIA PIA.

THE LAST ARCTIC EXPEDITION.

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