'T;- IT BUSINESS ADDRESSES. "'v"r- ¥ -rv" "IMPORTANT! If you Want Good Boots, If you Want Cheap Boots, If you Want Strong Boots, I f you Want Light Boots, If you "yyant Summer Boots, I f you "yyant Fashionable Boots, If you Want White Boots, If you Want Bronze Boots, I f you Want Men's Boots, If you vVant Women's Boots, If you Want Boys' Boots, If you Want Girls' Boots, If you Want Children's Boots, If you "yyant Guttapercha Bottomed Boots, If you Want Solid Leather Boots, Jf you vVant Boots that will Wear, If you Want Boots that will give satisfaction, If you Want Boots to keep the Feet dry, I f you "yyant Boots you can recommend, If you Want Boots repaired with Leather; If you "yyant Boots repaired with Guttapercha, If you yy ant Boots repairedNeatly and Cheap, If you Want VALUE FOR YOUR MONEY, GO TO DICK'S, 16, GREAT DARKGATE-STREET, ABERYSTWYTH DICK'S, MAENGWYN-STREET, MACHYNLLETH DICK'S, HIGH-STREET, LAMPETER; DICK'S, CHURCH-STREET, BARMOUTH DICK'S, VICTORIA BUILDINGS, DOLGELLEY. SHOPS IN NEARLY EVERY TOWN OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, IRELAND, AND THE CHANNEL ISLES. SECOND HAND MACHINERY DEPOT. NOTICE To Mine and Quarry Proprietors, Agents, &c. McILQUHAM, MACHINE BROKER, ABERYST- WYTH, HAS always Mine and Quarry Plant and Machinery for sale, and is open at all times either to purchase or sell the ( same on commission. Wanted wrought scrap J iron, condemned hemp and Manilla ropes, metal, &c. Now on sale- Waterwheels, 2, 30ft. x 3ft. breast; price, £70 each, where they stand in Carnarvon- s shire. 1, 00ft. x 3ft. breast; price, £ 150. 1, 18ft. x3ft. breast; quite new, price £ 40, as it stands in Carnarvonshire. A large quan- tity of good second hand India Rubber Strapping. 50 tons new Bridge Kails from 14 up to ::3 lbs, at i:6 10s. per ton, in not less than 2 ton lots, nett cash, in truck at Aber- ystwyth. A quantity of air pipes, steel borers, miners' tools,, &c., ifcc. Several good second hand Steam Engines, Boilers, &c., &c. Draining Machine. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. FURNITURE. AT GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. MR. R. HAMMOND WELL COMMENCE SELLING OUT HIS EXTENSIVE STOCK ON THE 25TH MARCH, 1878, t Preparatory to removing to the new Furniture Emporium wlikii he is building in High-street, Towyn. • THE STOCK comprises an immense variety of all descriptions of Pitch Pine, Mahogany, and Birch HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE. Also, Wooden and Iron Bedsteads (ornamental and plain), Feather and Flock Beds. Mattresses, and almost every other article, both Fancy and Useful, required for complete Fur- nishing. NOTE.—The whole of the Stock must be Sold before the 12th of May next, as these premises are let, and the new ones will not be ready. Towyn, Match 20th, 1878. JUST PUBLISHED. PORTRAITS OF THE LATE MYNYDDOG." CARTES-DE-VISITE 6d. and Is. each. CABINETS 2s. IMPERIALS 4s. „ Free by post for one extra stamp. N.B.—THE TRADE SUPPLIED. J. OWEN, BROAD STREET, NEWTOWN. TO CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS. NOW Landing, an excellent cargo of PITCH r PINE, ex "Glanalvon," from Darien. -Carefully selected June, 1877. A Cargo of FLOOR BOARDS, planed and square- iointed. Very clean and well manufactured. Worthy of inspection.—Juae, 1877. Per "Martha": SQUARE TIMBER, RED DEALS. AND BAT- TENS. Very long lengths: the usual widths, 4, 3, apd 2& inches thick. A choice cargo.—Juiy, 1877. SEVERAL CARGOES EXPECTED TO ARRIVE. WINDOWS, DOORS, all sorts of MOULDINGS, Angle Beads, &c., manufactured on the premises. JONES AND GRIFFITHS, ABERDOVEY, YNYSLAS, AND MACHYNLLETH, 11ff" Orders b be sent to Aberdovey. Saw Mills at Ynyslas. October, 1877. Ipsvnch hmg be described as the birthplace, of Chemical Manures. 1 QUANTITY.1 "I 1 JOSEPH FISON & Co., IPSWICH, MANUFACTURERS OF SULPHURIC ACID AND CHEMICAL MANURES. (One of the Oldest Firms in the Trade.) (J L Messrs. JOSEPH FISON & Co., having established a Depot at Swansea, are now prepared to deliver their Manures free by Railway at any Station in South Wales, and the neighbouring counties. .To Farmt-s These Manures have been found not only to produce a large yield, but also to improve the quality of the crops for wich they are applied, to strengthen the soil, and to benefit succeeding crol S. Full particulars may be obtained Of on application to any of the Agents of the Firm, or to the Head Offices. To Merchants, large Farmers, and others having a connection with Farmers Messrs. Joseph Fison & Co. are prepared to appoint Agents for their Manures in districts in which they are not already represented, and gentlemen of position and influence, who may wish for such agencies, are requested to apply by letter to the Head Offices. Early application is particularly requested, as many agencies have already been fixed in the Principality, and it s likely that the whole district will soon be fully occupied. WORKS: IPSWICH AND BRAMFORD. HEAD OFFICES: EASTERN UNION MILLS, IPSWICH. N.R-NO SUB-Agents are appointed, but all Agents being in direct communication with the Firm, order received throughthern will have the same attention as if handed to theprincipals. ) 2, LITTLE DARK-GATE STREET, ABERYSTWYTH, APRIL 20TH, 1878: HUGH R. PUGHE, BEGS to inform the Nobility, Gentry, and Inhabitants of Aberystwyth and its vicinity, -D that he has opened the above old established premises (lately in the occupation of Mr. J. P. Jones, deceased) with a CHOICE SELECTION OF DRAPERY GOODS, THE LATEST NOVELTIES IN MOONSHINE, RAINBOW, AND SILK TRIMMINGS, FRINGES, RIBBONS, AND EVERY ARTICLE IN THE DRAPERY TRADE. RESPECTFULLY SOLICITING YOUR KIND SUPPORT AND PATRONAGE. ALL GOODS MARKED IN PLAIN FIGURES. I y.——— — IMPORTANT TO HOUSEHOLDERS, HOTEL PROPRIETORS, &c. &c. GREAT SAVING EFFECTED BY OBTAINING FURNITURE, BEDDING, &C., DIRECT FROM THE MANUFACTURERS. SUBSTANTIAL HOME-MADE FURNITURE. HOUSES FURNISHED FROM £10 UPWARDS. '>' ANY of the following SPECIAL LOTS of BEDDING and BEDSTEADS sent CARRIAGE FREE to Railway Stations within Fifty Miles of Oswestry, on receipt of remittance :-A Full-sized Iron French Bed- stead, Straw Palliasses, and Wool Mattress, or Bed and Bolster, for 32s. the lot; better qualities at prices in propor- ;ion. Iron Folding Bedstead and Wool Mattress, or Bed and Bolster, in stripe tick eover, for lis. 9d. Iron Folding Jhair Bedstead, with cushions complete, from 15s. 6d. Upholstered Spring Mattress, covered in fancy check or stripe ;ick, with Wool Top Mattress, in cover to match, complete for 42s. better qualities at prices in proportion. Full- size Straw Palliasses, and Wool Mattress, or Bed and Bolster, 20s. Full-size Iron Bedsteads, 12s. 6d. each. Household Furniture of Every Description at equally Low Prices. A Trial Order respectfully solicited. JAMES VAUGHAN, CABINET, FURNITURE AND BEDDING MANUFACTURER, OSWESTRY. "ABSOLUTELY PURE." SEE ANALYSESSent Post Free on Application. ELLIS'S CRYSTAL SPRINGS. Soda, Potass, Seltzer, 54, 0 I- RYAM BYTtl REGISTERED. RUTHIN Lemonade, also water f without Alkali. For GOUT, Lithia Water, and Lithia and Potass Water. WATERS. CORKS BRANDED 'R- ELLIS 4 SON, RUTHIN,' and every label bears their Trade Mark. Soi l everywhere, and wholesale of R. ELLIS & SON, RUTHIN, NORTH WALES. CROSSE & BLACKWELL'S MALT VINEGAR, PURE PICKLES, SAUCES, POTTED MEAT AND FISH, PREPARED SOUPS, CALVES' FEET JELLY, JAMS AND ORANGE MARMALADE, ALWAYS BEAR THEIR NAMES AND ADDRESS ON THE LABELS, And may he obtained of Grocers and Italian Warehousemen throughout the WorlJ. CROSSETBLACKWELL, PURVEYORS TO THE QUEEN. eOHO SQUABE, T-i (:) I"T ID The most popular and widely circulated of Welsh Guides. == beyond comparison the B&sit Tourists' Handbook to Wales. "-Chestei, Chronicle. GOSSIPING GUIDE TO WALES, TWENTY-FOURTH AND SUCCEEDING THOUSANDS. Crown Edition, 5/ Half-crown Edition, 2/6; Popular Edition, 1/6. Published by HODDER and STOUGHTON, London; and WOODALL and VENABLES, Oswegtry. THE sale of the Gossiping Guide in England and Wales last season -L was far larger than the very large circulation which it had before obtained, and the Publishers are now about to issue the Twenty-fourth and succeeding thousands. Two London Houses last year took over Two Thousand Copies between them, and a bookseller in a Welsh watering place, Five Hundred Copies. As the Guide has to be circulated in the English towns, to be sold to intending tourists, before the season commences, Advertisements for the 1878 Edition should be sent AT ONCE to ensure classification. Seventy Hotels, including most of the principal inns in North Wales and the Borders, were advertised in last year's Edition. An index to them and the other advertisements is given, The fact that last year's Edition contained about sixty pages of advertise- ments of various kinds shows that advertisers recognize the admirable medium supplied by the Gossiping Guide for announcement* of hotels in Wales and the English towns, travelling requisites, and all advertisements which it is desired to bring before a large and important portion of the public. Advertisements, which are inserted in all the tin ee < diiions atone charge- should be sent by May 4, at latest, to WOOPALL AND VENAIJLES, Caxton Works, Oswe»try. ohould be Indispensable to every Tourist (ft Wiles.Fiyaro, PUBLIC NOTICES -r- LLANBRYNMAIR. TO BUILDERS AND CONTRACTORS. rnENDERS are invited for the Erection of a Villa X at Brynaera, the property of Mr. Francis, near Llan- brynmair, where plans and specifications may be seen. Tenders to be sent in on or before Wednesday, the 1st of May. The lowest or any other tender will not necessarily be accepted. Tenders to be addressed to DAVID OWEN, Architect. Machynlleth, April 16th, 1878. Machynlleth. Pursuant to a judgment of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice made in the matter of the Estate ot .0aniel Williams, Deceased, and in an action, John Jones, against Her Majesty's Attorney General, 1877, W., 230. THE Creditors of DANIEL WILLIAMS, late of Pwllhobi, in the parish of Llanbadarnfawr, in the county of Cardigan, a retired Bookseller, Deceased, who died in or about the month of January, 1877, are, on'or be- r fore the 20th day of May, 1878, to send by post, prepaid, to Mr. Arthur Johnson Hughes (of the firm of Hugh Hughes and Sons), of Aberystwyth, in the County of Cardigan, the Solicitors of the plaintiff, their Christian and Surnames, addresses and descriptions the full particulars of their Claims; a statement of their Accounts and the nature of the Securities (if any) held by them or in default thereof they will be peremptorily excluded from the benefit of the said Judgment. Every Creditor holding any security is to produce the same before the Vice-Chancellor, Sir Richard Malins, at his Chambers, situated No. 3, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, Middlesex, on Monday, the 3rd day of June, 1878, at 12 o'clock at noon, being the time appointed for adjudi- cating on the Claims. 11 Dated this-Eleventh day of April, 1878. A EDWARD SHEARME, Chief Clerk. CROSSE SONS AND RILEY, 7, Lancaster Place, Strand, Agents for HUGH HUGHES & SONS, Aberystwyth, Plaintiff's Solicitors. TO CONTRACTORS AND BUILDERS. THE Trustees of the New Welsh Wesleyan Chapel, Aberystwyth, are prepared to receive Tenders for the erection of their new Chapel in Church-street. The Plans, Detail Drawings, and Specification, can be seen with Mr. Richard Evans, 18, Great Dark Gate-street, Aberystwyth, on and after Monday, the 29th April inst. Tenders, endorsed" New Welsh Wesleyan Chapel," to be sent to the Rev. David Evans, 38, North Parade, Aberystwyth, not later than Saturday, the 11th of May. The Trustees do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or any Tender. WALTER W. THOMAS, Architect and Surveyor, 53, Foxhill-street, Liverpool. GREAT FIRE AT THE SPRING MILLS, LLANIDLOES. SALVAGE STOCK, £ 5,000. THOMAS AND JONES BEG respectfully to inform the Public at large that they have purchased by Private Contract, at a Great Discount, the whole of the above SALVAGE STOCK from Messrs. THOMAS JONES & Co., and shall be prepared to OFFER THE SAME FOR SALE AT THE PUBLIC ROOMS, LLANIDLOES, ON SATURDAY, APRIL 27, AND THURSDAY AND SATURDAY, MAY 2 AXD 11, 1878 (The first and last being Fair Days at Llanidloes), And on the Intermediate Days. THE STOCK CONSISTS OF 2,550 yds. Real Welsh Woollen Cloths, Plain and Fancy Suitings. 16,059 yds. do. White Flannels, low, medium, and Super 2,093 yds. do. Coloured ditto, Scarlet, Pink, and Blue 14,431 yds. do. Fancy Shirtings in Great Variety and Patterns 5,766 yds. do. South Wales Shirtings well known for their Durability 1,935 yds. do. Home-made or Caerphilly, well known for their Durability 2,018 Real Welsh Ready-made Shirts, in various Qualities 867 yds. do. Aproning, in various widths 1,858 yds. do. Grey Flannel (Charity Flannel) 514 yds. do. Webbs and Serges, in various qualities 759 yds. do. Blanketing, in Single and Double Widths 163 Pairs Real Welsh Stockings, Plain and Ribbed. 673 lbs. do. Stocking Yarns in various shades and qualities. 129 do. White Severn Valley Shawls. '< 207 do. Coloured do. 514 do. Fancy do. 89 do. do. Shawlets. 1,775 do. 5-4 handkerchiefs in various designs. 1 l 4,850 do. 4-4 do. do. (great variety). 527 yds.do. Remnants, plain and fancy Flannels. We have every confidence in recommending the above stock to the notice of the public, as the goods manufac- tured by Messrs. Thos. Jones and Co. are celebrated throughout Wales for quality and durability. ThÙ; Stock is not in any way damaged by fire, and only a small portion of it is slightly soiled. We therefore anticipate a speedy clearance owing to the extraordinary and unprecedented low prices at which we shall offer the goods. All goods marked in plain figures. Parties unable to attend the sale may have samples post-free on application. TERMS CASH ONLY. NO SYSTEM OF CREDIT RECOGNISED. SUMMER NOVELTIES.—Our Mr. Jones has, within the last few days, visited the London Market, where we have made extensive purchases of the leading novelties of the season in all the different departments, which we shall be prepared to submit for the inspection of the public at our premises in Long Bridge-street, Llanidloes. NOTE.—On the above dates (intermediate days ex- cepted) the Cambrian Railways Co. will issue cheap tickets from Machynlleth, Oswestry, and intermediate stations to Llanidloes by ordinary trains available to re- turn on day of issue by ordinary trains, and by a special leaving Moat Lane for Machynlleth and intermediate stations at 8'15 p.m. in connection with the 7'35 ordinary train. Midwales Railway Cheap tickets from Brecon and stations between to Llanidloes. May 2, single fare. THOMAS & JONES, Wholesale and Retail Drapers, LLANIDLOES.. FESTINIOG SCHOOL BOARD. WANTED, an Ex-Pupil Teacher (Art. 78) as an ASSISTANT MASTER for the Festiniog Board School. Apply, stating salary required, with testimonials, on or before the 30th April, 1878, to JNO. CADWALADR, Clerk to the Board. Four Crosses, Festiniog. HISTORY OF THE GWYDIR FAMILY, with LJL numerous valuable Notes from the Brogyntyn, Wynnstay, and Peuiarth MSS., never before published. The work will be printed in 4to, on very thick hand-made paper, and readable type—for which see specimen—and will be issued to subscribers at 12s. 6d. per copy. Follow- ing the precedent of the editor of 1827, the names and addresses of subscribers will be published at the com- mencement of the volume. A very few copies over and above those supplied to subscribers, will be offered for sale the price of which will be 16s. Subscribers' names received by Mr. ASKEW ROBERTS, Croeswylan, Oswestry.
AGRICULTURE. (No. 2.) WELSH farmers are not less willing than Scotch and English farmers to make money, but they appear to be far less able to learn those lessons of thrift for which, at any rate, agriculturists in the more Northern portion of the Kingdom are favourably known. The Welsh farmer is not extravagant in eating, drinking, or clothing his daughters, who still wear homely stuffs, have not learnt boarding school accomplishments," which give them notions above the farm yard, nor have his sons set up hunters, or taken to canes and eye-glasses. Sir THOMAS PHILLIPS, thirty or forty years ago, gave a description of the Welsh farmer, which, in many respects, still holds good. Brown bread of any sort is now scarce, and barley bread is unknown, but how truly the following extract describes many parts of Wales those know best who are intimately acquainted with the country :— The Welsh farmer presents a stronger contrast than even the Welsh labourer to the same class in England. He occupies a small farm, employs an inconsiderable amount of capital, and is but little removed either in his mode of li: hi", 1 laborious occupation, his dwelling, or his habits, from the day labourers by whom he is sur- rounded feeding on brown bread, often made of barley, and partaking but seldom of animal food. The agricultural and pastoral population, is for the most part scattered in lone dwellings, or found in small hamlets, in passes amongst the hills, or on the sides of lofty mountains, or by the margin of a rugged sea-coast, or on lofty moors or table land, and oftentimes this population can only be approached along sheep tracks or bridle paths, by which these mountain solitudes are traversed." Railways and improved roads, have done a good deal towards breaking in upon this isolation, but many faults and deficiencies that still survive to vex the soul of the scientific cultivator are the remains of an old condition of things which is only slowly passing away, and which education will eventually kill. Agriculture in the Principality is hindered far more than is generally thought by superstitions and traditions which manifest sur- prizing vitality. For instance, a field is said to have been cursed, and any attempt to drain and cultivate it is therefore not only deemed to be a going in the face of Providence, but is, of course, sure to end in loss and failure. There is scarcely a farm where there is notatleastone "cursed" piece of land respecting which stories are told of disasters that will attend attempts at cultivation. With reference to bog lands there is a firmly-rooted notion that if they were drained the surface would dry into powder and be blown away. Another notion respecting bogs is that cultivation is im- possible unless the peat is cut or burned off, and as it is believed to be forty or sixty feet thick, this task is simply impossible-and, happily, unnecessary. This may be seen on the cultivated land round the edges of any undrained bog. Of course, if a few inches of turf can be ploughed into the clay, or if the surface peat can be turned into ashes, the processes of cultivation are greatly accelerated, but a bog only needs drains, jime and cultivation to bring it into a fair state of tilth. In addition to the notion that the cultivation of bogs is impossible there is another held by those who admit the possibility, that the labour cannot be remunerative. Once break up the skin of the turbary, they say, and another will never form. Experience shows that when a bog has been drained the best course to adopt in order to kill the water growths and to create earth growths is to plough the land fre- quently, and by this means expose it freely to the action of the atmosphere. That special places cannot be influenced by ordinary processes is commonly believed by numbers of men who would strongly repudiate an insinuation that they are superstitious. Not long ago we heard of a field which has the strange power of killing sheep if they are left on it more than a year This pecu- liar field is also said to have an unbroken pan" which defies the best plough, however strongly horsed. It is not difficult to see that a field with a subsoil so stiff that it cannot be ploughed will be sour, and will need draining. Farmers of the more thriftless kind, who are always most super- stitious, delight in nothing so much as in showing fruitful portions of their farms, which they say have received less liberal treatment than other portions where the crops scarcely pay for seed and labour. A suggestion that the barren land has nnly been recently brought under cultivation, or that it has been exhausted by a ruinous system of crop- ping, is received with pitying smiles and assur- ances that the barren and fertile lands are of the same kind, and have been dealt with in the same way for several generations. Sometimes the superiority of one portion of a farm over another can be accounted for to the satisfaction of everybody except those who are best pleased when they imagine they have found a supernatural, or, at least, very mysterious condition of things. In discussions about the fertility of land nothing is oftener heard in the Principality than that on this hill side, or on that sheep walk, sheep and cattle will fatten moie quickly than on other lands, which, as far as can be judged, are of the same soil. Not only does one farm in Wales differ from another, but unenclosed and uncultivated land on the same farm varies greatly in its power to produce nutritious grasses. The farmer, ignorant of the past condition of the country, asks how this difference is to be accounted for, and is so sure no answer can be given that he does net wait for a reply. Let us see if there is no answer. Apart from the indications given along the sea shore, and in bogs, that Wales in ancient times was covered with forests, there are laws, compara- tively modern, which show that down to a very recent date the hills of Wales were covered with timber. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries laws were passed to enable all the king's sub- jects and friends on horseback or on foot to pass freely through all or any of the forests of Wales." The forests of Wales four or five hundred years ago were dreaded by the Saxons who were compelled to travel through them, and the foresters of Wales were evidently a suffi- ciently numerous body to be legislated against. Without entering into the interesting question how it happened that the forests of the Princi- pality were destroyed, it is clear that those moun- tain sides which for a century or two were thickly covered with timber, would after the fel ing of) the trees grow richer herbage than hill sidet which had never been planted, or which, lsere cleared two or three centuries earlier. Just as it is necessary to go back a century and a quarter, to the time when Montgomery land- owners imported sires, in order to understand how it happens that the horses of that county are better than Cardigan horses, so it is necessary to go back still further to account for the supe- riorpasture on one hill side over another. Where the land has been long under wood, it is, of course, richer than where it has been always naked. For the last century or two, however, there has been no timber growing, and the question natur- ally rises whether districts thickly planted in the time of Henry VIII. would still manifest indica- tions of superiority over districts which at that time, and ever since, were bare mountain land. To say nothing of the protection from heavy rains afforded to the soil by timber, the yearly accretions of vegetation, and ultimately the decaying roots of the trees would be sufficient to give the sites of old plantations great advan- tage over open pieces of ground in the same locality. It will thus be seen that the supe- riority of one piece of land over another in Wales is not due to some awful and mysterious super- natural influence over which man can exercise no control, but to the very common-place fact that for a century or two the land was planted with trees, and was fed by the decaying vegetation of two centuries, and was at last left in possession of thousands of roots, which after loosening the earth were left to rot into manure. This is a common-place and very prosaic explanation of a difference in the productiveness of soil, and difference in the productiveness of soil, and those who feel desirous of clinging to more poetic but less reasonable explanations are at liberty to do so. If Welsh farmers could once be persuaded that the soil may be deepened and permanently enriched by cultivation, and that agriculture is an honourable and may be made a profitable business, the Principality would not be long in taking a position more in accord with the 0 boasted superiority of Welshmen over every other nationality.
THE PAYMENT OF GUARDIANS. THE existence of no corrupt practice is more generally known perhaps than that of paying Guardians of the poor out of the rates for their attendance nt the fortnightly Board meetings, j 11 These payments used to be charged more or less 0 openly until auditors declined to pass the accounts which contained them, and then, instead of dis- continuing them, iliey were lumped with the assistant overseers' accounts. The common plan is to give- assistant overseers two or three pounds a year which they put down as salary, but which is, in fact, handed over to the Guardians of the parish. Not only is the law avoided in this way, but Boards are demoralized and public life is lowered and degraded to an extent that cannot easily be measured. In the first place the guardian does an illegal act which utterly pre- vents him from ever calling in question the illegal or extravagant acts of the officials who o hand over to him his corrupt wages. In the second place the officials themselves, knowing the dishonesty of the guardians, are tempted to manipulate public money for their own personal advantage as well as for that of the Guardians. The difficulty of proving cases in which Guar- dians are paid is of course necessarily great; but there can be no question that Mr. Jomf JONES of Tre'rddol was right at the last meeting of the Aberystwyth Board of Guardians in the remarks he made respecting the payment of Guardians. Aberystwyth Union is far from being alone in this matter; and it is very doubtful, indeed, whether the practice can be altogether stopped except by the widespread cultivation of a ion more independent and honourable feeling among those who sit as Guardians. It is some consola- tion to think that nothing like as many Guardians are paid now as were paid ten years ago, and every time the custom is publicly attacked its hold is loosened. The payments probably were first made, and are doubtless in many instances still continued, because in certain parishes a seat on the Board, so far from being appreciated s ;m honour, is deemed a disagreeable duty which 0 y nobody will undertake unless his expenses are paid. This may appear strange, but the manage- ment of some Boards in Cardiganshire and Merionethshire is not yet calculated to impress the average Guardian with the fact that he is part of a system that for good or ill exercises peat power in the country. Probably all he knows or cares about the Board is that applica- tions from his parish for additional out-relief must be supported by him, and that as a good friend and neighbour he may also support appli- cations from neighbouring parishes. That he has a right to question and discuss the general policy of the Board perhaps has never entered his P J 13 f Tm+uer,°f the Assessment Committee he naturally thinks of his own farm first and then of his own parish, but beyond that rarely troubles himself. A man of this kind is not a common labourer merely by accident, and no more feels humiliated or degraded by accept- ing money he is not entitled to than he feels honoured by being chosen to represent his parish at the Board. A good deal might be done to bring about a better state of things if ex-officio Guardians attended Board meetings more regularly. Some ex-officio Guar- dians, it is true, at first might be in favour of out- relief, but they would soon diseover how neces- sary it is to give as little out-relief as possible, and to assist the poor in every other possible way to live without having recourse to parish assis- tance. An occasional reference, similar fA f),at. I -t. ,,11..1 ,U(..II' made on Monday last by Mr. JONES, Tre'rddol, to the practice of paying Guardians, tends gradually to bring about a healthier state of things by creating public spirit and teaching men who have few opportunities of serving their fellows that to take money for that service is to rob themselves of that which money cannot purchase—the sense of having voluntarily sacrificed something for the good of other people. If the otner people do not recognise the sacrifice, then all the greater is the sense of satisfaction tn having been able to make it. He is a poor citizen who does not now and then work without fee or reward in order to promote some movement intended to benefit those about him who have no legal claims upon his services. The Guardians who are paid for attend- ing Board meetings suffer far greater loss by re- ceiving the money than is inflicted upon those who pay it.
THE SUMMER SEASON. EASTER is generally recognized as the becrinning of the holiday season, but in Wales visitors do not begin to arrive until considerably after Whit- suntide. Every year lodging-house keepers complain that the season is short, but no attempt is made on their part to lengthen it. From no* until the end of May is frequently the pleasantest part of the year on the Coast, and is areatly enjoyed by the few visitors who happen to have discovered those beauties and advantages which it ought to be the business of the inhabitants to make widely known. In London, Wolver- hampton, Birmingham, Liverpool, and Man- chester persistent efforts should be made to secure for the towns between Pwilheli and AberaeroO that constant publicity without which they are sure to be forgotten iu the keen competition for support ever going on among the more accessible watering places of Lancashire an-I Yorkshire. It is often said that nothing can be done until the local railways have passed into the hands of the great companies. Certainly there is much that can only be done with great difficulty as long its the interest of the great companies clearly lies 1? promoting the success of summer resorts on their own lines but still it is far from true thftt nothing can be done. In the towns themselves b by making them bright and clean by a strict 'en- forcement of sanitary regulations by procuring abundant supplies of pure water; by providing at- tractions in the shape of music, entertainments an<* excursions, much can be done to enhance prost perity by inducing visitors to extend and to repellt their visits, and to report favourably to their friends and acquaintances. The Aberystwyth medic officer's excellent report on the good health 0 the district during the past twelve months ought to be circulated by tens of thousands all over the county. The best thing Barmouth could do woul¡l be to circulate views of its scenery, make kuotf11 the rapidity of its growth, and show how favor- ably it is situated. on the railway. What J" wanted, first of all, is to bring the people into the district, and ihen each town might compete iot its share of them. The Local Boards, Parocbi^ Committees^ and Town Councils in district might do something if unit^ unofficially to consider this question, wbicb is of far more importance than is generally sup' posed. To make the name of Barmouth or Abet' ystwyth, Towyn or C'riccieth, well known in Li"et. pool, Manchester, Birmingham, or London is tI work that will cost a large sum of money and ell' tail a good deal of hard, obscure labour. After t'1'1 money and labour have been expended the restllt." are of such a nature that they cannot be d nitely measured. This is probably the chief re^0" why nothing is done on a scale large enough make itself felt. There are in our distrl tradesmen who spend a larger sum every year I advertising their private business than is spell ( in making known the beauties and the watering places in this neighbourhood' The large railway companies promote excltI" sions to Scarborough, ^outhport, Blackpool,Mo1*j cambe, but they do not trouble themselves agr^' bI,t1 deal about the towns Wbldt can only be reac¡ "It' 11" over the Catubiian and Manchester and Mitf(U\ linc. Barmouth, to some extent, is assisted :;1 the Great Western, bat Aberystwyth h inju^1, by that company. London excursionist wisbi1^ to visit Aberystwyth arc tf.ken round bv Kuab^1'*