Symud i'r prif gynnwys
Cuddio Rhestr Erthyglau

7 erthygl ar y dudalen hon

Rhestrau Manwl, Canlyniadau a Chanllawiau

<lp'a:ntonj;ura: \SI (, j 1. CONTRIBUTIONS TOWARDS TIIE HIS TOUT OF G TEX r AND JfO OAXr/G. (Continued fun the llyrlia of Dee. lltk) But there was another name of a Bishop confirmed by a different testimony. T!io a, irrefragable proofs that there were British Bishops at the Councils of Ailes, in Gaul, A.D. 314, and at the Council of Sordica, in Illyria, A.D. 347. This als) coiVdems the good faith of the Welsh legends, respecting the ascendancy of Chris- tianity in Britain, and cf t .e Silurian See in particular. The names of those who attended from Britain on the occasions arc given by Usher and Spelman, and one of them was Adelfi, as Bishop of Caerleon—" Urbs Ligionis." This Adelfiu< is identified with Cadfrated, whose name we find in Bonedd Saint Ynys Prydain" of the third century. Therefore also R itisll Bishops at the Council of S irdica, a-il they juiue.l in the con- demnation of Aerius and in the vindication of St. Athanasius. 12 Dubricius, or "Dyfug Beneurog." a very cele- brated saint and Bishop of Llandaff He was conse- crated bish ,p by Sc. Gernianus, A.D. 427. He was promoted to the Archbishopric ofCaerleonin 490, which he held with the Bishopric of Lanlaff until 512, when he resigned the latter In the year 519 he resigned also the Archbishopric, and retired to the Island of Bardsey, where hi died in the Far 522. He was the son of Tibian, and his mother was Eurddyl. He founded a college at Caerleon, which contained :200 philosophers. According to "Welsh legen 's, King Arthur was crowned by this primate. Being worn down with years, he resigned the primacy in favour of St David. He died in the monastery of BarJsey (Ynys Enlli) and was buried therein, where his remains laid undisturbed until the year 1120, when Bishop Urban moved them with great pomp and ceremony to his own cathedral. His death and exhumation are thus recorded in the Liber Landavensis :—" For many years the holy man lived solitarily in the Is'e of Enlli, and there he glo- riously ended his days a hermit, with many holy men who lived by the labour of their hands. The island is surrounded by the sea, and its western coast is plain and fertile, with a s'.veet flowing fountain its sea abounding with dolphins and completely free from serpents and frogs. And we commit to writing how he was removed. It was in the time of Colixus PopeHenry'E.nperor of the Romans Ralph, Archbishop of Canterbury Henry, King of England; Urban, Bishop of Llandaff; thus- On Sunday, the 14th day of November, in the year of our Lord 612, St. Dubricius, Bishop of the Church of Llandaff, migrated to the Lord. (Later chr mologists have fixed the date to be 522.) On Friday, the 7th of May. in the year 1120, he wasremoved from the Isle of Bardsey, by Urbar, bishop ofth. same church, with the consent of Ralph, Metropolitan of the Church of Canterbury, and the assent of David, Bishop of Bangor. and in his pre sence likewise and of Griffhh, King of North "Wales, and with the applause of the whole clergy and peop'e and on Sunday, the 23rd of May, he was received into the church of Llandaff, when there was a procession, and the h'uy cross, with abundance of relics, was car- ried and there was an abundance of rain, after seven weeks of weather without a drop of rain in Glamorgan. On Wednesday, the 2nd of June, Bishop Urban, after fasting and prayer, called together his canons and his deans, and the relics of St Dubricius being laid on the ground, and the dust separated, and they were washed."—Then the account goes on to state that the bones were deposited before the altar, after several miracles having been made for the glory of God, and the wonderment and edification of the saints.—Lib. Land. 331. In the Liber Landavensis the life of Dubricius is given, and a large number of grants made to him and to his see are recorded. The following is given as a speci- men, and on acc unt of its local interest "THE GRANT OP PFS ALUX AXD LLAXDELO-FAVR," "Xul ap Arthur fulfilling the plan of the apostles, who said Give, and it shall be given unto you,' gave for the exehang, of a heavenly kingdom, in the first place, Pen Alan, with its tenitory (the present parish ofPen..Iy,ne.rTenby) without any payment to mal tal man besides to God and Archbishop Dubricius and the church of Llandaff, founded in honour of St. Peter and also Lhndilo-Fawr on the Towy (Llan,ilo n.aur super ripam Tywi) with its two territories (probably the manors of Llandeilo Villa, and Llandeilo Patria, now held by the Right Hon. Earl Cawdor, by leave from the Bishop of St. David) where Teilo the pupil and disciple of St. Dubricius dwelt and also the territory of the Aqu ilen-:ians on the bank of the river Taf (" Aqui- lensians," Llan ddyfyrgiryr) Nol placed his hauds on the four gospels and committed them to the hands of the Archbishop Dubricius for ever, with all their refuge; and liberty in field and woods, and water and pasture and dignity, under a perpetual curse on those who from that day separate the said land from the church of Llandaff. "Amen. Of the laity Nol is only the witness, with all innumerable company of spectators but of the clergy and Archbishop Dubricius, Arirystyl, and ITfelwy." Then the boundaries are given. "We shall give those of Llandeilo. The boundary of the territory of Llandeilo- fawr from Ffynnon ida to the hea l of Glts-bwH in Towy; and to the other head of the Eytir-mtlin from the Hytir-mdin to tie Enyrdil, and along it to hnlais; from Ihdnis to Cuner, from Cu»>r direct to Xo.iithvyd; from Xantlwyd to Cefn Meirch forwards to Cruc Pdilt Beclvxn; from thence to the hawk stone in Dulais bisweiiiawg from Dulais bisweilang to Xant yr Ei'.in from Nant yr Eiiin to Cruc Oust; from Cruc Cust to Cruc Corneam from then e to the source of Isceiviawg, and along forward to the opening direct of Hen Allt; from thence toCil yr adar to the source of theTauern straight to Pistill Dewi, forwards to Gwcith Tincuur (Dinevor tvork-) from Gwcith Tiueuur downwards to Lletuer Cell on the Towy. (Lib. Llan p 321.) Ynys Enlli, according to the ab-Jve life and death of Dubricius, was beginning to become the retreat of saints and bards as early as the sixth century aad thus it continued to be down to the Reformation. An ode of Hywel ap Icuan ap RhJs, a bard of the year 1460, is stil. extant, which he suag to celebrate that classic ground and the 20,00 J saints buried therein. "c shall add a verse or two in "See the rich and fcrti'e meads, T\ here the Friars count their beads; It is a garden God bath made, Which no robber dare invade. All the images behold In its abbey decked with gold As you enter at the door, View the te.3eilated floor And its marble altar spread Thick with offe riugs for the dead Thus survey it- buiying ground Checkered all with gnves around. At the tolling of the b- 11, Each was laid within its cell, See in coffers wrought of stones Relics old and holy bones. Twenty thousand saint3 of yoro Came to lie on Bardsey shore." 13. St. Teilo is the next Bishop of Llandaff. He was consecrated A.D. 512. He was the son of Enllen ap Hj dwn Dwn, ap Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig. In his time the yellow plague—" Y fad felen"—broke out in the reign. of Malgwn Gwynedd, and he emigrated to Armorica to avoid the pestilence and upon his return he was made the Archbishop of Menevia in the room of St. David, who died A. 0. 544. St. Teilo removed the archiepiscopal see to Llandaff, and appointed Isaiael to be his suffragan Bishop at Menevia or St. David. He established also a college at Llandaff, which, after his name was called Bangor Deilo. This saint was distin- guished, with Dewr and Padean, with the appellation of the 6; three holy visitors of Bntam, Tri gwesteion gwvnfydedig Ynys Prydain," because bey went about the round of the country, to preach the faith without fee or reward. St, Teilo died at Llandeilo-fawr, and was buried at Llandaff, A.D. 5G3. O:.e of his aphoris:!ls is preserved in "Englynicn y Clyweit." A glyweist ti chwedl Teiliaw Pan ytoedd yn penytiaw ? A Daw ni 1 da. rndarav. The Liber Landavensis, p. 343, gives the following account of the above pestilence, Y fad felen -It was called the Yellow Pestilence, because those who were attacked by it became yellow and it appeared to men as a column of watery cloud, having one end trailing along the ground, and the other above proceeding in the air, and passing through the whole country like a shower going along the bottoms of valleys. Whatever living creature it touched with its pestiferous blast, either died immediately, or sickened to death. It attacked the phy- sicians who attended the sick persons. Maelgwn, Kino- of North Wales fell. It attacked beasts also and rep- tiles, and so great was the havock that the country was almost deserted." This tgrrible plague is also recorded in one of the Triads. The second pestilence was the Yellow Plague of lihos, which was occasioned by the carcase of the slain." The British poets personified the disease under th form of a woman Taliesin says- A strange creature will come from the Marsh of Rhi- anedd.and will punish the crimes of Mael gywn Gwynedd. Its hair, teeth, and eyes are yellow." E ddaw pryf rhyfedd 0 Forfa Rhianedd, I ddial anwiredd Ar Faelgwn Gwynedd A'i dew a'i ddannedd, A'i lygaid yn auraidd, A hun a wna ddiwedd Ar Faelgwn Gwvnedd." (My f. Vol. 1, p. 31.) Tcilo appointed several suffragan Bishops Bishops in his diocese, whose names and localities are gl yen in Lib. Landavensis a Aidm, a disciple of St. Dubricius he resided at Henllan, on the Wye. His name appears in some grants. b. Er vystl, stationed in Ergyng. t e. Lunapeius, toe same Jumbui, the founder of Llan- dinabio. He was stationed in the district of Ergyng. d. Ariryslle. His name is given as a witness to a grant of Iddon, son of Ynyr, King of Gwent, which was best .wed upon Llangoed, in Brecknockshire, in which district he was probably stationed. e. Ufdwy, a disciple of St. Dubricius he appears to have been a Bishop in Ergyng during the reign of Gwr- fodw, King of that district. Meurig, King of Glamor- gan, is recorded to have given him the church of Llan- sillow, in Herefordshire. By a comparison of the wit- nesses to grants in his time, and that of St. Oudoceus, he appears to have been his contemporary. .f. Comer eg, Bishop in Ergyng, in the time of Athrwys, son of Meurig, King of Gwent, who granted him St. Kinemarks, near Chepstow, with its territory, comprising a large portion of Ergyng. g. G crgw, Bishop in the reign of Tewdwr, son of Rhun, King of Dyfed, who treacherously killed Elgystyl, son of Awst, King of Brecknock, for which he was ex- communicated by G.vrgan. His station was probably Ystrady w. h. Gwyddlon or Gucdhin, said to be son of Glywys Cernnv, founder of Coed Cerniw church, near Newport, Monmouthshire, in which district perhaps he was Bishop. It is probable that Cuchein, son of Glywy, who granted the village of Ispant to Gwyddlon, was his brother. 14. St, Oudoci'us, nephew of St. Teilo, succeeded him at his death. In his time Tewdrig, who had resigned his kingdom, was killed. Meurig son of Tewdrig, and his son Athrwys, and grandson Morgan, were Kings of Glamorgan. Ithael, son of Morgan, is mentioned as king in a grant to Oudoceus, which must have been in the lifetime of his father Morgan, in whose reign Oudo- ceus died, July 2nd. His contemporary Gildas died in 570. Einion, King of G-lewyssig, and Awst, King of Brecknock, reigned in his time. Perhaps we should add that the several Kings of Glamorgan and the adjacent districts mentioned in connection with the list, were but Ileguli or Subreguli. The life of Oudoceus is given in Liber Landavensis. He was a person of eminent sanc- tity, and was the son of Budic, a native of Armorica Budic was married to Arianwedd, the sister of St. Teilo. The King Morgan mentioned In connection with Oudo- ceus, had his palace in Margam, and the Margam dis- trict became for some time a suffragan Bishopric. lolo Morganwg gave a list of eight Bishops of Margam, namely, Morgan, Ystyffan, Cattwg, Iago Cawan, Tyfa- dawg, CyfeLch, and Mabon. They resided at Cynffg. 15. Bertkywyn, whose name appears often in grants of land made to St. Oudoceus, was raised to the see of Llandaffin the reign of Morgan ap Athrwys, King of Gla- morgan, and died in the reign of his son Ithael, contem- porary with this Bishop. Clydri and Idwallon are men- tioned as King of Ergyng Gwaednerth, King of Gwent, and Clydwyn, King of Erras their names being given as witnesses and benefactors. Eerthgwyn was Bishop in the latter part of the sixth century. An observation or two could be added here as we enter into the seventh century. First, that there had been a rage for enriching the Llandaff diocese, and the Church in general, during the previous two centuries. The register of Llandrff or the Liber Landavensis, com- piled from autograph manuscripts of her Bishops down to the beginning of the fifth century, is a record of con- stant grants of landed property to the Bishops and the diocese of LIandaff. Extensive immunities were also invested in the said Bishops. Criminal jurisdiction—a market and a mint—free access for ships to the ports- were some of the privileges granted to the Bishops of Llandaff, anJ these privileges and potver were not consi- dered nugatory as when the) were infringed upon even I by Kings, we find Oudoceus and Berthgwyn treating the.ll and their progeny with excommunication.


....„,... THE WELSH PRESS.

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