In many towns the gas and water supply is the property of the municipality, and in Ger- many, where they are more DIMINISHING enthusiastic municipal traders COAL than we are in this country, SUPPLY. they have a municipal bakery. But municipal trading is be- coming more popular here everyday. One of these days, no doubt, a town council will be promoting a Bill in Parliament for collecting and distributing heat from the sun. That will be when the coal supply of the world has given out, and that time, according to scientists, is within measurable distance, as distances go in these scientific questions. Fiv-e hundred years or so is a mere breath of time, though it seems a rather far outlook to ordinary people. It is probable, said the President of the Institution of Mining Engineers the other day, that in five hundred years the world's supply of coal will be exhausted. Great Britain three hundred years hence may be getting coal from China, or, as the speaker thought more likely, we may be deriving our heat directly from the sun. It is not so long ago since another speaker on this point warned everybody to use coal with economy, but it is probable that nobody has burned any less because of the warning that if we are not careful the people of five hundred years hence will be in the unfortunate position of having no coal to burn. However, it will not do any good to worry, and it is pretty certain that long before the supply of coal gives out a substitute will have been discovered by science.
An examination of the clauses of Mr. Burns's Milk and Dairies Bill, the text of which has just been issued, shows that it is a MILK strong and drastic measure. AND DAIRIES It was expected that it would BILL. be, for Mr. Burns holds strong and drastic views on ques- tions in which the public health is concerned, and the milk supply certainly constitutes one of those questions. The importance of securing a pure supply of milk can scarcely be over- estimated, points the bill may appear to press hardly upon the milkman, there will be general agreement that legislation upon some such lines as those laid down in the measure was urgently needed. The bill provides for the registration-of dairymen, the inspection of dairies and the examination of cows, prohibi- tion of the supply from dairies under suspicion, and the prevention of the sale of tuberculous milk. Not the least important of the provisions of the bill is that for the establishment by local authorities in populous places of depots for the sale of milk specially prepared for infants. The bill pays particular attention to the dairies, the lighting, ventilation, drainage, water supply, the general cleanliness of the place and the vessels and measures used therein. A special note should be made of Clause 7, which reads, "A warranty or invoice shall not be available as a defence to any proceedings under the Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 1875 to 1907, where the article in respect of which the proceedings are taken is milk." Hitherto the production of such a warranty by a milkman summoned for adulteration has been a successful defence to the charge. The milkdsan bad simply to pro- duce such a document from the farmer and prove that he had sold the milk as he received it. This bill, however, changes that and puts the whole of the responsibility on the retailer.
An interesting debate took place in the House of Commons the other night upon the subject of the two-Power standard." THE The words look simple enough, u TwOrPowEE but they seem to be' capable STANDARD." of a great deal of elasticity in definition. The Prime Minis- ter's explanation of this standard, given in December last, was interesting as showing that the Government accepted it as meaning ten per cent, more than a two-Power standard-" a preponderance of 10 per cent. over the combined strengths in capital ships of the two next strongest Powers, whatever those Powers may r be, and wherever they may be situated." Since then a great many speakers and writers have arsued that the two-Power standard really means, or ought to mean, a two-to-one standard, and that we ought to build two ships for every one laid down by Germany. That is, of course, a much larger question. It now appears that, according to Mr. Asquith, though the two- Power standard" has been maintained up to the present, the expression is only a formula, and that what we have to do is to see that our naval strength is such as to give us" complete and absolute command of the sea against any reasonably possible hostile combination of the Powers.' There seems to be plenty of room for speculation as to what hostile combination of Powers is reasonably possible."
It does not appear to be very likely that the House of Commons will see anything more of the Daylight Saving Bill this UP Session. A Select Committee "WITH ITHE is proceeding with it in a LARK. somewhat leisurely manner, meeting once a week, and hearing the views of all and sundry upon the proposals of the measure. At one of the meetings there was quoted the opinion of an enthusiast;for the bill, who said we really ought to follow the example of the poultry in this matter. This, however, is not exactly new advice. To get up with the lark is the counsel which has been given to young people by late- rising parents, probably ever since it was dis- -covered that that energetic bird was in the habit of soaring aloft as soon as morning dawned. Even when the Daylight Saving Bill is part of the law of the land the lark and the poultry will-still score easily off most of us. A remark- able thing about the bill is the way in which its principle has been adopted by many firms in populous centres without waiting for any Act cof Parliament.
At Tottenham Charles Ferryman, fifty-four, a bricklayer, of Leeds-street, Edmonton, was re- manded, charged with the embezzlement of £ 51, received by him as an official of the Edmonton branch of jfcjie Operative Bricklayers' Society.
DRESS OF THE DAY. PRETTY WASHING FROCK FOR A GIRL. The sudden and unexpected spell of hot weather has filled all the West End shop windows with the most fascinating display of washing materials, dainty blouses, and delightfully cool, fresh, washing frocks. The latter are particularly attractive ts year, their variety and cut being far superior to anything of the kind I ever remember before. Moreover, there are cotton gowns for every I figure and every age, from the grandmother of sixty to the toddling youngster of eighteen months. Some of the very prettiest models are specially designed for the school-girl, the maid of from fourteen to eighteen years. Our sketch shows a delightful little frock of this kind, which is quite ideal for warm weather wear in town, country, or by the sea. This frock is carried out in fine, pale blue zephyr of good quality, and has somewhat the effect of a princess dress. The upper part is cut PRETTY WASHING EROCK OP VAJ3& BLUE ZEPHYR, TRIMMED WITH STRIPED BLACK AND WHITE LINEN, out in a round at the neck, and edged with a strapping of striped black and white material. A short distance below this first strapping comes a second, arranged in exactly the same way. Th £ front of the dress is cut in pinafore style, thfe panel effect being right down the skirt to the hem. The edges of the "pinafore" are finished with a strap- ping of the striped material, which, of course, is also of a washable y¡" The re- mainder of the bodiee-, is very slightly full, and is taken into a neat little waistbelt? of the striped fabric: Inside t'he bodice comes a dainty little chemisette composed of bahds of narrow Valenciennes insertion sewn neatly together. The sleeves are oS-m mtich modified gigot type, being slightly full.ait'the shoulder, but fitting closely "below the elbow. Three or four wide- tueks- decorate the upper part of the sleeve, and three crossbands of the striped stuff the loWer. IThe skirt is ,Tg«red» and fits closely over the- Mps, hut has ample width at the bottom. L, A PRETTY BIi £ KUfpi. r Two op the most ^indispensable items in a summer outfit are a pretty muslin or lawn blouse ai}d a smart walking skirt to wear with it. Of tfws'* former,indeed, one" can hardly have too many, in reason, especially for holiday use, for a single damp evening at the seaside will reduce the crispest and freshest of muslin blouses to a limp rag, and if there are in one's ward- robe to replace it one is ErO.t_.ip..averyhappy position. Now, I am giving iyou this week a sketch of a dainty little muslin blouse de- signed on the newest and most approved lines. It is a. simple, excellent pattern, .arid presents no real difficulty =>ito „the home worker. It is carried out in fine, clear white muslin, trimmed -.vjth a-, little Valenciennes insertion and some broderie anglaise, and has a very smart and dressy effect. The upper part of the blouse consists of a round, shaped band of broderie anglaise or white; raised embroidery worked on iii-uf;lin-: to match the blouse, the band being caught down on each shoulder by a round motif Or M medallion of the same pretty. embroidery. A DAINTY AND BECOMING MUSLIN BLOUSE.. Now, this embroidered band or. Kttle round yoke, as it really is, may be cut from the material, stamped with some simple transfer pattern, and worked in ordinary white em- broidery cotton by anyone possessed of deft fingers. Or, that be out of the question,- it may be cut in piece broderie anglaise • or white embroidery, or it may be carried out in Irish crochet, real or imitation, or some other heavy guipure or lace. On to the lower edge of this band, both back arid front, the fulness of the blouse is set in a succession of tucks. These tucks run right down to the waist in the middle of the front, and are alternated by narrow bands of Valenciennes insertion, but at the sides they are released just above the line of the bust. Inside the embroidered band at the top of the blouse comes a dainty little chemisette of Valen- ciennes insertion. This blouse is in four sizes -32, 36,40, and 44 inches bust. Two and one-eighth yards of 42-inch material will be needed. MILLINERY NOTES. A great number of the smartest and most effective Qf the summer hard-wear hats are decorated with raffia trimmings of one kind or another- In some cases the crown of the hat is encircled by a wide band of the raffia, which is folded rcund it, exactly as a broad ribbon would be, and tied in a flat bow at one side. In others the raffia is worked up into an enormous rosette, which is placed on one side of the crown; whilst in the third type of hat the entire .shape, as well as the trimmings, is carried out in, raffia. A favourite mode of the moment is thg- hat of tightly stretched lace with its brim lined with coloured straw. The effect is exceed- ingly good, and the lace hat is thus rendered infiniteJy more becoming to its wearer. Many of these flew lace hats have jan interlining of dull aluminium tissue, which throws up the pattern and delicacy of the lace to perfec- tion. v-
BABY "ANTI-CHRIST. An extraordinary trial will be shortly held at Mohileff, in Russia, says a Reuter telo gram. Forty peasants are charged with the murder of a two-year-old boy, who was pro- claimed as Anti-Christ at a communal meet- ing. One of the oldest peasants first ad- dressed the gathering, and ascribed the chronic bad harvests to the presence of the Anti-Christ in their midst. The child was then denounced, and, with the consent of the father, it was decided to kill it. The mother was the only person to protest against the murder, but her pleading was unheeded, and the child was trampled to death.
SERVIAN BRIDE REBUKED. A Servian parish priest recently refused tc perform the wedding ceremony for a young couple because the bride wore" a hat instead of the traditional veil and wreath. The wed- ding day was a Sunday, and, the shops being closed, there was considerable difficulty in procuring these regulation adjuncts, which were finally improvised from natural flowers and a lace curtain. The priest delivered a homily on the folly of imitating such Western innovations, and said he hoped to see a law passed which would ensure that every bride should wear suitable bridal attire.
ANCIENT CANNON. Seven cannon have been found at Gokul Dass garden, in the jurisdiction of Sonargaon Pargunna. While a cultivator was digging the garden, he accidentally came across a buried cannon. It was taken to Dacca and investigation followed. Sonarga-on was the ancient capital of the Hindu and Mussulman rulers of Bengal, and it is believed these cannon belonged to the Hindu Kings,
A PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS. An unparalleled disaster has overtaken the Steppes of Southern Russia in the shape of a visitation of locusts. Myriads of the insects, forming solid clouds, have swooped down on the districts of Tashkent and Khodshent, and utterly devastated a million acres of land. The damage done is incalculable, and the calamity is all the greater from the fact that the crops this year were in splendid con- dition. Further swarms "of locusts continue to arrive, and the desolation is spreading, every method employed to arrest it having proved vain. Troops have been ordered out, and slaughtered locusts by the million with- out any appreciable effect.
A PHILIPPINO PIRATE. The trouble on our eastern coast is becom- ing considerably worse (says the "Standard" correspondent in British North Borneo). In Jolo the Philippino outlaw and pirate Jikiri has attacked and murdered a trader named Wolfe and his partner—cutting their bodies to pieces. All their native servants were also murdered. Jikiri has a fleet of about a dozen native warboats, and haunts the .innumerable islands of the Southern and Western Philip- pines. For four years Jikiri has evaded the United States, :and must nave icost them thousands of pounds. The crimes of the last few months have caused redoubled efforts to be made to bring the wretch to book, but so fa^, the extra patrols have only succeeded on. driving the pirates towards our borders.
£ 1000 UNCLAIMED. A peculiar case is reported from JNgarua- Wahia, New Zealand, where an aid man named McDonald, familiarly known as old Mac throughout the Waipa, died some time ago, without friends or relatives ;in the country, and, to all appearances without any money or property whatever. The local con- stable while going over the -few effects which the old man left, found some papers, ambngst which was a, ticket for the winner of a recent Melbourne Cup, carrying with it a prize of £ 4.000. Nothing is known of where McDonaldca.me from or whether he had relatives or friends, so that though the money can be secured the 'question is, to whom is it to go'f ..I,
TRAGEDY AFTER HASS. A terrible tragedy has occurred at Bern- kastel, near Trier., in Germany, where lived a wine-grower named Herges, a widower, -with his (daughters, the .elder of .hom was about- to be married. A few days ago Herges 'attended early mass, and prayed un- usually fervently. Then he returned home, and shot both daughters, who were still in their bedroom. There were traces of a desperate struggle. The neighbours has- tened in and prevented Herges' from commit- ting suicide. It appears that bad business had affected the man's min-ii^ In a letter to a friend he said that he intended to di6 He had always prayed to the Virgin Mary, but the devil was more powerfùl than she. >
THREE HEROINES. The Misses Zonfall, Prchal, and Karl, three young Bohemian girls of good family, recently underwent an operation at "Prague from philanthropic motives. A young woman named Fritsch, employed in a Prague fac- tory, had the misfortune to be completely scalped owing to her hair being caught in a machine. To save her life it was necessary to, transplant fresh skin from another per- son to her head. Her employers advertised a reward of £ 20 to any person who would pro- vide the necessary supply, and no fewer than six hundred persons offered themselves at the hospital for the purpose. The doctors chose a -poor widow, who required the' money for the education of her three children. The three young women heard of the case, and informed the doctors that they would each give some of their own skin for nothing on condition that the widow should receive the £ 20. Their offer was accepted, and the three had pieces of skin from the soles of their feet removed and grafted on the factory girl's head. The operation was completely suc- cessful.
A CHILD AND A MATCH. A four-year-old boy set light to a straw rick near the village of Langonnet, near Lorient, France, whilst playing with matches, with the result that the whole of the farm was destroyed, with its argric-ul- tural implements and cattle, and two lives were lost. Mme. Leeloch, the boy's mother, tried to rescue her paralytic mother, and both of the unfortunate women perished in the flames. Their bodies were afterwards found tightly clasped in each other's arms.
ROBBING A TRAIN. Robbers held up a train near Spc-kane, Washington County, the other day. They first uncoupled the locomotive and the mail- car next to it, and ran them several hundred yards along the line. After rifling the con- tents of the mail-bags the robbers delibe- rately turned on steam and sent the engine and carriage racing back over the metals. There were a number of passengers in the other portion of the train, and twelve of them were injured through the resultant col- lision.
TEA TABLE TALK. I The Empress of Japan is a great advocate of the spread of education in her husband's dominions. Turkish women do not come into control of their private fortunes until after marriage. They can then dispose of one-third of it without the husband's consent. Beauty appears to be purely geographical. The ideal of Japanese loveliness is a long, narrow face, with a high, receding forehead. The hair must be plentiful and silky, jet black, and perfectly smooth and straight. If a Japanese lady has curly hair, she devotes as much time and trouble to make it smooth as European ladies, with curling tongs and by other means, to make theirs curly. Princess Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein is devoted to animals. Her "catteries" at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, are noted amongst cat lovers, and said to be quite unique. Here she rears and looks after a whole family of cats. Princess Victoria is, like most members of the Royal Family, very fond of music, and plays extremely well her- self. She is also a clever needlewoman, and devotes much of her time to delicate stitchery. She is clever, too, in many other ways; speaks several languages fluently, and is exceedingly well read., While Mrs, John Craveel, of Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania, was out visiting friends, a grocer to whom she owed money seized her little daughter Violet for debt. He was ar- rested, and his enterprise was rewarded by a fine of five dols. and ail order to return the child forthwith. No fewer than 140 women candidates have j been nominated for the forthcoming elections for the Finnish Diet. In the last Diet twenty-five women members were elected, but it is expected that this time the record will be easily broken. The opponents of the Women promise to introduce a measure limit- ing the electoral privileges of women, who, they assert, are not practical politicians, and do not apply themselves sufficiently to their parliamentary work. '-—' ,Queen Alexandra, who continues to do a good deal of photographing, is said to have once averted a railway accident. Having taken a snapshot at a goods train passing over a railway bridge, her Majesty noticed in the negative that the bridge had a curve. Her first conjecture was that she had not held the kodak properly; Aut a second experi- ment gave the same result, and she there- upon drew the attention of his Majesty to the fault. He set on foot some inquiries.. Engine drivers were found to have com- plained of alarming movements in the struc- ture, and a thorough inspection established the fact that it was in immediate danger of collapsing. Lady Maud Warrender is the fortunate owner of a delightful and well-trained sing- ing voice, which is often exercised for the benefit of charity. Indeed, it has been said by those who have heard her that had cir- cumstances arisen to necessitate her eaining her own livelihood, Lady Maud would have had a splendid career open to her. # In Paris just now the hatpin is no longer treated merely as a necessity to keep the headgear in place, but as a most decided and charming ornament. Often six or eight huge pins are worn at once, and as much care is spent in choosing them as on' all the rest of the c,)stume, As a consequence jewellers and craftsmen are designing hatpins in every shape and form—some most elaborate and costly, some comparatively cheap and simple. II # EL-R.H. Princess Christian-Queen Vic- toria's; eldest surviving daughter-who has just celebrated her sixty-third birthday, takes a very prominent part in public and charitable works. In accordance with her desire to live, as far as possible, the life of a private person, Princess Christian recently joined a ladies' club in the West-end. One of the rules of this particular club is that no "mere, men" are -allowed on the,»premises. Another member who happened to see the Princess going upstairs attended by a gentle- man-in-waiting' complained that "a member had broken the rules by bringing a gentle- j man friend with her j The German Crown Princess is a noted leader of fashion, and. h&s started .'iirany new customs, one of the most novel being her habit of carrying a long, -dainty ^alking- stickwhenevex she goes, out. Her Royal Highness's jewels are some of the finest, in "the world, and she possesses one particularly interesting necklace which is more valued for its associations than for its own, intrinsic lvalue. -.It is a .necklace .composed of ;all the little Easter egg trinkets that she thas re- ,sjnee her .feirthv jYjf '# # „ Cigars sixteen inches in length and fiv'e inches in circumference are the size that the' ladies of the Philippine Islands prefer to smoke; They are intended to last for five or six days, being lighted when required, and put out again when the fair smoker is tired of blowing ring. Of course, the weight of such a cigar is considerable, and to this difficulty the end fahich' is inserted in the mouth is filled with a soft fibre of tobacco, so that when the cigar is-grasped" firmly be- tween the teeth so great an indention is made that for the remainder of the six days' smoke the huge cigar fits naturally to the mouth. Miss Gertrude Kingston, th well-known actress, deprecates the tendency to over-dregs the characters in modern plays. "There is an idea current," she says, "that the femi- nine part of our public want something to look at and copy; yet we should remember that the largest proportion of women amongst the audience have but slender means for their dress." ■» Shall women propose? is a question which does not bother the maiden' of the Hopi Indian tribe, who not only invites her chosen, one to matrimony but, if necessary, drags him to the Hopi substitute of the altar by main force. When a girl has selected the young, brave she wishes to marry, she simply goes to his mother and "talks business." If the old lady lends a willing ear the matter is settled forthwith, and the young man has no course left open excepting ;to bow to the in- evitable. At times violence has to be re- sorted to to bring an, unwilling youth to the marrying point. Once the, matter has been settled to the satisfaction of the women con- cerned, the girl goes to wor kto grind meal for her prospective mother-m-law for a period of thirty days, while the man in the case is set to work to weave his future bride's wedding garments. At the expiration of the thirty-day period the ceremony takes place. # The sort of acquaintance who develops into 0, good friend does not bore us with a whole list of her own personal affairs the first time we meet her. The gushing, rushing, effusive woman may be amusing at first, but most of us in our hearts like the people best who gradually unfold themselves and their kindly natures before us. Miss Elizabeth Robins, the author of "Votes for Women," the play which has been so much praised, made her name first of all as an actress. She appeared in "Judah," nd then with Mr. Alexander in "Dr. Bill." She made her name, however, in the series of Ibsen plays which followed.
GARDEN GOSSIP. Roses.—In light soil it is of advantage to apply a mulching of rich manure to roses in beds but this is sometimes objected to, owing to the_ plants being grown in prominent posi- tions in view of windows. The difficulty can be got over by covering the manure with soil. Lawns.—Lawns need attention for a sprinkling of guano, applied between showers, will vastly improve the turf for the whole season, and any neglect in lawn cut- ting at this time cannot be too strongly con- demned once let the grass grow rank and no after care will cure the damage. Filling Flower Beds.—The work of plant- ing flower beds for the summer display should be pushed on with all speed now. This does not mean that the grower must go on to the ground while it is sodden with rain, but simply that whenever the weather is favour- able the opportunity should be taken to get the plants put out. It ought still to be the rule to plant the different kinds in their order of tenderness, as has been suggested in previous issues, and by the time those of per- feet and partial hardiness are in position it will be quite safe to plant the remainder. In all cases the soil should be made moderately firm, and if it is dry it should be thoroughly watered some hours in advance of planting. Trimming Hedges.—The principal feature of many hundreds of suburban forecourts is the privet or other hedge. Scores of streets are redeemed from almost absolute hideous- ness by the neat hedges, of which the house owners appear to be justifiably proud, and upon whom the plants entail quite an appre- ciable amount of work. The present is an excellent time for cutting, and if the opera- tion is carefully carried out it is not likely that it will have to be done again for some time. It is also good practice to give the plants heavy soakings of water or weak liquid manure during the summer, say about once a fortnight, as the soil is always dry beneath the walls. Staking Plants.—The immense, number of perennials that are now grown in the beds and borders of all gardens make the task of staking an important one, for its neglect means that the plants will lose a substantial part of their beauty, and the garden will have an untidy appearance. Light bamboo sticks are durable, and do not create the un- gainly appearance that is (conveyed when clumsy, thick stakes are utilised. If only one support is used to a plant, the growths should be slung from it, and not tied up in bunches, as is ..too commonly seen this may appear a trivial matter; but it affects the general &s|je'c$of1 th^ gardefi to1' -fe seriOtuSJ ex- tent. Seedling- Gladioli.-Seeclliiig Gladioli sown under glass early in the year if now trans- planted into fertile soil in the garden will form nice corms before winter. The way to treat them is to dibble the seedlings in lines, one every two inches, and the lines wide enough lo admit a Dutch hoe between. "The SEEDLING GLADIOLI AND METHOD :OF PLANTING.. portion showing the incipient corm should be buried about two or three inches in, depth. If covered with a three or four-inch layer of rough leaf soil in December they will safely weather the winter, and the strongest will flower next year. Insect Ejaemifes.—In the uldoor garden there will, .-as a rule, be trouble from many of the insect, ppsts which. :trouble the gardener at this season. The one most jommonly troubling^ the amateur will, be aphis of one kind or another, and this pest. may be Successfully met by quassia and soft soap solutions, or tobacco as a fluid or as a snuff or dust. Those who are-troubled with the gooseberry sawfly ma] make short .work of this pest by dusting the bushes when wet with Hellebore powder. Red spider, in some gardens is troublesome, but should be met by thorough waterings, and, forcible syringings, of clear water. Mildew,—Fruit trees showing signs of I mildew have to be thoroughly dusted with flowers of Sulphur. It is not enough to scatter some on a chance bough here and there, but every tree should be searched over and every affected part treated, or the evil will not be • vanquished. 1.' ■Sowing Salads.—In many suburban gar- dens the congregations of cats render the cultivation of salads an impossibility, but where the felines .are excluded it is pleasant to grow one's own "mustard and cress, as well as lettuces, in some convenient spot. The soil should be loosened to a good depth, and^ if it is poor some manure may be worked into the second spit; then sow the seeds, and in the case of lettuces thin out the. seedlings and transplant the youngsters early. Salads well grown at home are far superior to those that can be purchased in the vast majority of shops. Seeds to Sow.Salsafy, scorzonera, and rampion may now be sown without fear of the plants rushing into flower as they usually do when sown too early. The last-named is a useful salad plant for winter and spring, the seeds of which are so minute that it is sum- cient merely to pat them in to the soil with the back of a spade. The others must have drills drawn for them, and the plants need not be wider apart when thinned than from four to six inches. Beet may still be sown, but a large rooted variety should be chosen. Celery.—Most of the plants are large enough to be transplanted, and should rainy weather occur an.d the soil be at all workable, the opportunity should be taken to transfer the young plants to the prepared beds. It is of much advantage to apply a thin dressing of old mushroom manure and superphos- phate, to be worked in about the roots of the plants, which should be planted much more deeply than is usual for other vegetables. Any extra small plants should be left for a few weeks longer to gain strength, and then planted to be used the latest of all.
EMPLOYMENT IN APRIL. The percentage of unemployed at the end of April among the 416 trade unions making; returns to the Board of Trttde was 8.2, the, same figure as at the end of March. At tha- end of April last year the percentage unem- ployed was 7.1. There was a slight improvement in the engineering trade in April and a seasonable improvement in the building trade, but the shipbuilding and printing trades showed some decline.
INCREASES AND REDUCTIONS. The wage changes taking effect in April affected 85,000 workpeople, of whom 7,000 re- ceived advances, and 78,000 sustained de- creases. Among those whose wages were re- duced were 50,000 coal miners in Northum- berland, Cumberland, Bristol, and Somerset- shire, 7,500 ironstone miners in Cleveland, 6,900 blast-furnacemen in Durham, Cleve- land, and Cumberland, 4,000 ironmoulders in Lancashire, and 2,000 engineers at Dundee. The number whose wages were increased in- cluded 1,250 blast-furnacemen and 5,000 iron and steel workers in South Wales and Mon- mouthshire. The total computed effect of all the changes was a net decrease of nearly X4,100 per week.
TRADE DISPUTES. Twenty-four disputes began, in April, 1909, as compared with 17 in the previous month, and 26 in April, 1908. The total number of workpeople involved in disputes which began or were in progress during April, 1909, was 8,963, or 1,285 more than in March, 1909.1, and 27,823 less than in April, 1908. The aggre- gate duration of all the disputes of the month, new and old, amounted to 106,700 working days, or 5,100 more than in March, 1909, and 659,100 less than in April, 1908. Definite results were reported in the case of 19 disputes, new and old, directly involving 3,899 persons. Of these 19 disputes, five were decided in favour of the workpeople, nine in favour of the employers, and five were compromised. ?
DOMESTIC SERVANTS' PENSIONS. The committee of' the Domestic Servants* Benevolent Institution report that the Old- Age Pension Act considerably affected the in- stitution. The committee had resolved to continue in full the pensions paid to all who wer.e already 70, and "who had no property of the value of £ 50 other than free lodging. *andr present earnings." The cases of pen- sioners under 70" would be recou side red shortly before they reached that age, and dealt with on their merits. The Act, by: lessening the amount payable in certain cases, would enable the institution to spread its benefits over a larger number of mem- bers. Subscriptions from servants them- -solvcs had slightly increased, but fallen off; and very many distressing Caseja could not be relieved for lack of funds.
BENEFITS OF TRADE UNIONISM. Trade, unionism, said Mr. G. N. Barnes* M.P., in a recent speech, not only benefited the working, classes, but the nation, also. In making people more intellectual they made (hem more productive, and where proper organisation resulted that brought not only, higher wages to the workers, but also tc the employer, and 'therefore the whole country. Trade unionism had increased the spending power of the people and the prosperity of the- community.
LABOUR CO-PARTNERSHIP. Mr. Aneurin. Williams in an address upon' Labour Co-Partnership: Its Theory and .Practice, said that to'-talk of labour sharing in the control of industry was calculated to frighten the employing classes. In exactly the same way the governing classes in th State were afraid of the idea of popular franchise, but experience had shown that there was little or nothing to be afraid of, The results had not been disastrous, hut, 9P the whole, beneficial, and tha %ove^n<mg classes, where they had chosen to adapt themselves to the new order of things, held a. position not less, but more distinguished' than it was before. So, he believed, it would be with industry. He did not advocate any sudden change, still less any change forced by Act of Parliament, or any violent Change. On the contrary, he desired to see labour co- partnership established by gradual changes and peaceful means, by saving that which was now wasted through a bad system, by gradually building up capital for the indi- vidual worker, as well as collective funds for' the benefit and assurance of workers.
FEDPR4TED RAILWAY WORKERS. It is stated that negotiations are pending for the amalgamation of five railway trade unions, which will make together 150,000 organised workers in various railway traffic departments. The unions affected are the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, the Associated Society of Locomotive Engine^ men and Firemen, the General Railway; Workers' Union, the Railway Clerks' Associa- tion, and the Signalmen's and Pointmen's Mutual Aid Society. It is proposed that 3, conference should be held for the discussion of terms and conditions. Some time ago the question of federation was considered by five societies, and, while four were favour- able, the A.S.R.S.—the largest organisation —decided against it. FL
WOMEN TRADE UNIONISTS. > According to a Board of Trade return t;li Lei number of separate trade unions in existence in the United Kingdom at the end of 1907 was 1,173, with a total membership of 2,406,746. During the year trad'e unions in- creased in membership by 300,000. There are 201,000' female members of unions:
THE TAILORS' STRIKE: The dispute between the members of the Amalgamated Society of Tailors and Tailor- esses and a large number of the principal ladies' tailors in the West-end, has been settled after a ten .days' strike. As the' result of deliberations between the London Master Tailors' Association and delegates of the men, the latter secured a forty-eicht hours' week, instead of 52! hours. Their 2 demand for payment at the rate of Is. 6d. any hour from 7 to 9.30 p.m. was compromised .by, an agreement on the part of the masters to pay Is. 4d., with 2s. 6d. an hour overtime after that hour. On condition that the men waived a claim for payment for Bank Holi- days, except in such cases where it had previ- ously been paid, the masters agreed1 that no man who worked after 9.30 p.m. should be called upon to do duty again before 9 a.m.
"Plail1 words to the laity might have been the title of Canon Horsley's speech at the < annual meeting of the Curates' -STRAIGHT Augmentation Fund in deal- FROM THE ing with the report of the SHOULDER. 'Fund for the year. The report spoke of the generosity of the public, and the phrase, to uscf Canon Horsley's own words, "gGthis back up." He forthwith proceeded to let the public-that portion of the public, at least, which constitutes the Church laity-know exactly what he thinks of them. He attributed the want of funds to the want of honesty in the laity, who were a. very spongy lot, ready to get all they eould out of their parsons in every possible way:" They will also, it appears, borrow five shillings from the parsons as readily as they will call them knaves behind their backs. Perhaps the laity are neither so dishonest nor such spongers as Canon Her sky seems to think, but a little display of feeling may be pardoned to Mm under the circum- stances, for it is a well-known fact that many curates are in receipt of stipends which are quite insufficient. One of the laity, following Canon Horsley, entered a defence of Ms estate. He believed, he said, that the laity were generous, and would subscribe liberally if the necessity were properly placed before them-. j
THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY. The annual report of the Shipwrights* Association states that for the first time in the history of the association the society has to record a financial loss. The net loss has been < £ 40,258. The outlay has been nearly one-fifth of the total expenditure during the last 27 years. The report says that the new shipbuilding t agreement can be made a very powerful instrument to draw every society into closer connection with the others—a ■'Veteiilt which cannot fa.il to benefit the indi- vidual members of the various unions. The report adds that the contention of the men's representatives that a reduction of wages would neither bring work nor induce ship- owners to build ships which they could not use at a: profit has been proved. Although wages have been. reduced, orders have not come forward, shipowners are still disin- clined to place orders, and men still continue to be unemployed.
BURIED TREASURE. A series of extensive jewellery robberies had puzzled the police at Perth, Western Australia, for several weeks. Then a detec- tive noticed two men digging in an unfre- quented part of the river bank, and arrested them. The police, at the spot the men were digging, unearthed jewellery valued at £ 700,